The aquaculture industry has made a great contribution towards economic development of Malaysia. However, the large volume of water consumption and the wastewater discharged into the water source caused a significant environmental problem that must be controlled properly. For instance, aquaculture waste may decrease dissolved oxygen level and load high nutrient and inorganic contaminants which subsequently would cause water deterioration. Thus, to ensure the effectiveness of aquaculture practices, the suitable wastewater management approach should be acquainted. Phytoremediation, which are the application of plant-based technologies, are beginning to be accepted to examine the problems and provide sustainable solutions for this issue. Therefore, this research aims to explore ecological approach by developing phytoremediation model system in order to remediate inorganic pollutants produced by aquaculture pond. In this paper, the efficiency of potential aquatic plants which are Glossostigma elatinoides and Hemianthus callitrichoides to sequester cadmium and copper were investigated. To achieve this, phytoremediation model system was developed using two selected species for three different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). This model system was run over three different periods of time, which are week 1, week 2, and week 3. The findings of this research suggested that the capability to sequester different concentration of heavy metals for certain periods of time were varied between different species. The results indicated that Glossostigma elatinoides was a good phytoremediator for Cd whereas Hemianthus callitrichoides was a good phytoremediator for Cu. The expected outcome of this research is to introduce cost- effective and eco-friendly technology to cater environmental pollution. Hence, having the thorough study on the effectiveness of this technology might contribute towards sustainable aquaculture practices in terms of ecological, economical, and social benefits.
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the capability of plant to sequester various concentrations of heavy metals for certain periods of time was varied between different species. Thus, having the thorough study on the effectiveness of phytoremediation might contribute towards sustainable aquaculture practices in terms of ecological, economical, and social benefits.
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