Solar energy in Malaysia was first introduced as one of the five fuels in electricity generation through the Fifth Fuel Policy in 2001. However, the current real harnessing of available solar sources is still below its actual potential. This study examined the non-technical barriers towards solar energy implementation in Sabah located on the Borneo Island on eastern part of Malaysia. Following the theoretical framework, the proposed non-technical barriers are agreement, knowledge, technological, economic, social and political. The results of the study showed that awareness and economics are among the two significant barriers in solar energy implementation in Sabah. This necessitates more appropriate energy and financial policies to help public acceptance of solar energy sources for electricity generation in the region.
Ahmad, S., M.Z. Kadir and S. Shafie, 2011. Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(2): 897-904.
Ali, R., I. Daut and S. Taib, 2012. A review on existing and future energy sources for electrical power generation in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6): 4047-4055.
Brown, M.A., 2001. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Energy Policy, 29(14): 1197-1207.
Cabraal, A., M. Cosgrove-Davies and L. Schaeffer, 1996. Best practices for photovoltaic household electrification programs. In Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1996; Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE. IEEE. pp: 1357-1362.
Chua, S.C. and T.H. Oh, 2010. Review on Malaysia’s national energy developments: Key policies, agencies, programmes and international involvements. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9): 2916–2925.
Chua, S.C., T.H. Oh and W.W. Goh, 2011. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1): 705–712.
Dagher, L. and I. Ruble, 2011. Modeling Lebanon’s electricity sector: Alternative scenarios and their implications. Energy, 36(7): 4315-4326.
Haw, L., K. Sopian and Y. Sulaiman, 2009. Public response to residential building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) in Kuala Lumpur urban area. In Proc. of the 4th IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Energy & Environment, Cambridge (UK). pp: 212-219.
Jaafar, Z.M., W.H. Kheng and N. Kamaruddin, 2002. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: Issues and challenges for Malaysia. Energy Policy, 31(11): 1061-1072.
Koh, S.L. and Y.S. Lim, 2010. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment—A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives. Energy Policy, 38(8): 4719-4728.
Ling, K.A., M. Ashmore and R. Macrory, 2000. The use of word-based models to describe the development of UK acid rain policy in the 1980s. Environmental Science & Policy, 3(5): 249-262.
MBIPV, P., 2010. MBIPV project executive summary. Available from http://www.mbipv.net.my.
Muhammad-Sukki, F., A.B. Munir, R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S.H. Abu-Bakar, S.H. Mohd Yasin, S.G. McMeekin and B.G. Stewart, 2012. Solar photovoltaic in Malaysia: The way forward. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7): 5232-5244.
Muhammad-Sukki, F., R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S.H. Abu-Bakar, S.G. McMeekin and B.G. Stewart, 2011. An evaluation of the installation of solar photovoltaic in residential houses in Malaysia: Past, present and future. Energy Policy, 39(12): 7975–7987.
Oh, T.H., S.Y. Pang and S.C. Chua, 2010. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4): 1241–1252.
Oliver, M. and T. Jackson, 1999. The market for solar photovoltaics. Energy Policy, 27: 371–385.
Owen, A.D., 2006. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers. Energy Policy, 34(5): 632-642.
Painuly, J.P., 2001. Barriers to renewable energy penetration; a framework for analysis. Renewable Energy, 24(1): 73-89.
Richards, G., B. Noble and K. Belcher, 2011. Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada. Energy Policy, 42: 691-698.
Rösch, C. and M. Kaltschmitt, 1999. Energy from biomass—do non-technical barriers prevent an increased use? Biomass and Bioenergy, 16(5): 347-356.
Trudgill, S.T., 1990. Barriers to a better environment. What stops us solving environmental problems? London: Belhaven Press. pp: 151.
Yuan, X., J. Zuo and C. Ma, 2011. Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China—End users’ perspective. Energy Policy, 39(3): 1031-1036.