This article provides hydraulic and thermal properties of soils and rocks. The impact of groundwater flow on the estimation of soil/rock thermal conductivity from test data was also examined. The purpose of this study, however, is to examine the means of reduction of energy consumption in buildings, identify GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector, promote using GSHPs applications as an optimum means of heating and cooling, and to present typical applications and recent advances of the DX GSHPs.
Renewable energy technologies, Sustainable development, Earth heat energy, Built environment.
Abramowitz, M. and I.A. Stegun, 1972. Handbook of mathematical functions. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
Austin, W.A., C. Yavuzturk and J.D. Spitler, 2000. Development of an in situ system and analysis procedure for measuring ground thermal properties. ASHRAE Transactions, 106(1).
Carslaw, H.S. and J.C. Jaeger, 1959. Conduction of heat in solids. 2nd Edn., Oxford.
Darcy, H.P., 1856. Les fountains de la Ville de Dijon. Paris.
Eggen, G., 1990. Ground temperature measurements. Oslo.
Fetter, C.W., 1980. Applied hydrogeology, Charles E. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Publishing Co. pp:488.
Fetter, C.W., 1981. Determination of the direction of ground-water flow. Ground Water Monitoring Review, 3(1): 28-31.
Fournier, R.O. and R.W. Potter, 1979. Magnesium correction t o the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer, geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 43(3): 1543-1550.
Fournier, R.O. and J.J. Rowe, 1966. Estimation of underground temperatures from the silica content of water from hot springs and steam wells. Am. J. Sci, 264: 685-697.
Fournier, R.O. and A.H. Truesdell, 1973. An empirical Na-K-Ca geothermometer for natural waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 37: 1255-1275.
Freeze, R.A. and A. Cherry, 1989. Guest editorial — what has gone wrong? Ground s Water, 27(4).
Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Ground water. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Freeze, R.A. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1967. Theoretical analysis of groundwater flow: 2. Effect of water-table configuration and subsurface permeability variation. Water Resources Research, 3: 623-634.
Isiorho, S.A. and J.H. Meyer, 1999. The effects of bag type and metre size on seepage metre measurements. Grounds Water, 37(3): 411-413.
Kluitenberg, G.J., J.M. Ham and K.L. Bristow, Error analysis of the heat pulse method for measuring soil volumetric heat capacity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 57: 1444-1451.
Marqardt, D.W., 1963. An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters. J. Soc. Industrial Application Math, 11: 431-441.
Rybach and Sanner, 2000. Ground-source heat pumps installed in Europe in 1998.