Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi

I.M. Eljalii

,

W.M. EL-Deeb

,

T.A. Fouda

,

A.M. Almujalli

,

S.M. El-Bahr

I.M. Eljalii 1 W.M. EL-Deeb 1 T.A. Fouda 1 A.M. Almujalli 1 S.M. El-Bahr 5

  1. Department of Clinical studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia 1

  2. Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Biochemistry), College of Veterinary Medicine and animal Resources, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria Univers 5

Pages: 46-53

DOI: 10.18488/journal.110/2015.1.2/110.2.46.53

Share :


Abstract:

Additional Biomarkers are required for estimation of the oxidative stress status in camel trypanosomiasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi and trypanosome free camels (control). The clinical examinations reveled that all the infected camels showed signs of loss of appetite, diarrhea and loss of weight with poor body condition. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease  (P=0.022-0.031) in the values of total erythrocytic count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed cell volume (PCV) in trypansoma infected camels (5.0 ± 0.5 ×1012/L; 5.7 ± 0.5 g/dl; 21.8 ± 1.0%) compared to control group (9.6 ± 0.6 ×1012/L; 10.3 ± 0.5 g/dl; 29.1 ± 1.5%). However, the values of total leucocytic counts (TLC) and differential counts were comparable to the control values except for Eosinophils value which were significantly (P=0.023) increased in trypanosome infected camel (6.0 ± 1.9%) compare to the control (1.8 ± 0.8%). Biochemical analysis indicated that, lipid peroxidation level was significantly (P=0.021) increased in trypansoma infected camels as reflected on higher values of malonaldhyde (MDA; 6.3 ± 0.3µM) as compare to the control (0.07 ± 0.01µM). The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly (P=0.025) increased in trypansoma infected camels (1.3 ± 0.01nmol/ml) compare to the control (0.8 ± 0.2nmol/ml) whereas, the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged (P=0.072) in trypansoma infected camels compare to the control healthy animal. The present findings concluded that Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels was associated with lipids peroxidation and oxidative stress. In addition, the present study suggests that glutathione reductase may use as oxidative stress biomarker in Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

Keywords:


Video:

Reference:

  1. E. M. Hamad, E. A. Abdel-Rahim, and E. A. Romeih, "Beneficial effect of camel milk on liver and kidneys function in diabetic sprague-dawley rats," Int. J. Dairy Sci., vol. 6, pp. 190-197, 2011.
  2. G. M. Meiloud, I. N. Ould Bouraya, A. Samb, and A. Houmeida, "Composition of mauritanian camel milk: Results of first study," Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 13, pp. 145–147, 2011.
  3. B. Brun, H. Hecker, and Z. R. Lun, "Trypanosoma evansi and T. Equiperdum: Distribution, biology, treatment and phylogenetic relationship (A Review)," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 79, pp. 95–107, 1998.
  4. F. N. C. Enwezor and A. K. B. Sackey, "Camel trypanosomosis—A review," Vet. Arch., vol. 75, pp. 439–452, 2005.
  5. M. S. Al-Khalifa, H. S. Hussein, F. M. Diab, and G. M. Khalil, "Blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in Saudi Arabia," Saudi J. Biol. Sci., vol. 16, pp. 63–67, 2009.
  6. C. Gutierrez, J. A. Corbera, M. C. Juste, F. Doreste, and I. Morales, "An outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 130, pp. 163–168, 2005.
  7. P. R. Jatkar and M. S. Purohit, "Pathogenesis of anaemia in trypanosoma evansi infection," Ind. Vet. J., vol. 48, pp. 239-244, 1971.
  8. V. O. Anosa, "Haematological and biochemical changes in human and animal trytpanosomiasis. Part. 1," Revue Elev. Med. Vet. Pays. Trop., vol. 41, pp. 65–78, 1988.
  9. K. Taylor and E. M. L. Authie, Pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis. In: I. Maudlin, P.H. Holmes and M.A Miles (Eds). The trypanosomiases. Cambridge, USA: CABI Publishing, 2004.
  10. Z. I. Chaudhary and J. Iqbal, "Incidence, biochemical and haematological alterations induced by natural trypanosomosis in racing dromedary camels," Acta Trop., vol. 77, pp. 209–213, 2000.
  11. A. A. Al–Qarawi, H. Abdel–Rahman, and S. A. ElMougy, "Impairment in the pituitary–thyroid axis of the camelus dromedarius infected with trypanosoma evansi," Deut. Tierarztl. Wochenschr, vol. 108, pp. 172–174, 2001.
  12. M. A. Saleh, "Erythrocytic oxidative damage in crossbred cattle naturally infected with babesia bigemina," Res. Vet. Sci., vol. 86, pp. 43–48, 2009.
  13. M. A. Saleh, M. B. Al-Salahy, and S. A. Sanousi, "Oxidative stress in blood of camels (Camelus Dromedaries) naturally infected with trypanosoma evansi," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 162, pp. 192–199, 2009.
  14. T. Lu, X. L. Piao, and Q. Zhang, "A protective effects of forsythia suspensa extract against oxidative stress induced by diquat in rats," Food and Chemical Toxicol, vol. 48, pp. 764–770, 2010.
  15. A. Mujahid, Y. Yoshiki, Y. Akiba, and M. Toyomizu, "Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress," Poult. Sci., vol. 84, pp. 307-314, 2005.
  16. E. Cadenas and K. J. A. Davies, "Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 29, pp. 222–230, 2000.
  17. H. Kühn and A. Borchert, "Regulation of enzymatic lipid peroxidation: The interplay of peroxidizing and peroxide reducing enzymes," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 33, pp. 154–172, 2002.
  18. O. Sehirli, A. Tozan, G. Omurtag, S. Cetinel, G. Contuk, N. Gedik, and G. Sener, "Protective effect of resveratrol against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in mice," Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 71, pp. 301–308, 2008.
  19. H. Sies, Oxidative stress: Introduction. In: H. Sies (Eds).Oxidative stress: Oxidants and antioxidants. San Diego: Academic Press Inc, 1991.
  20. H. P. Misra and I. Fridovich, "The role of superoxide anion in the auto oxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase," J. Biol. Chem., vol. 274, pp. 3170–3174, 1972.
  21. M. Arias and W. B. Jakoby, Glutathione: Metabolism and function. New York, USA: Raven Press, 1976.
  22. Z. A. Placer, L. L. Cushman, and B. C. Johnson, "Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (Malonyldialdehyde) in biochemical systems," Anal. Biochem., vol. 16, pp. 359–364, 1966.
  23. SAS, Statistical analysis system. User's guide. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc, 2002.
  24. J. M. C. Gutteridge, "Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage," Clin. Chem., vol. 41, pp. 1819–1828, 1995.
  25. I. O. Igbokwe, K. A. N. Esievo, D. I. Saror, and O. K. Obagaiye, "Increased susceptibility of erythrocytes to in vitro peroxidation in acute trypanosoma brucei infection of mice," Vet. Parasitol, vol. 55, pp. 279–286, 1994.
  26. B. Chandrasekar, P. C. Melby, D. A. Troyer, and G. L. Freeman, "Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in experimental acute chagasic cardiomyopathy," Exp. Immunol., vol. 121, pp. 112–119, 2000.
  27. A. D. Malvezi, R. Cecchini, F. De Souza, C. E. Tadokora, L. V. Rizzo, and P. Pinge-Filho, "Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha in the oxidative stress associated with anemia in experimental trypanosoma cruzi infection," FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., vol. 41, pp. 69–77, 2004.
  28. J. Wen, G. Vyatkina, and N. Garg, "Oxidative damage during chagasic cardiomyopathy development: Role of mitochondrial oxidant release and inefficient antioxidant defense," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 37, pp. 1821–1833, 2004.
  29. B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, "The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases," Mol. Aspects Med., vol. 8, pp. 89–193, 1985.
  30. U. Bandyopadhyay, D. Das, and R. K. Banerjee, "Reactive oxygen species: Oxidative damage and pathogenesis," Current Science, vol. 77, pp. 658-666, 1999.
  31. M. Kurata, M. Suzuki, and N. S. Agar, "Antioxidant systems and erythrocyte life-span in mammals," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B., vol. 106, pp. 477–487, 1993.
  32. I. N. Zelko, T. J. Mariani, and R. J. Folz, "Superoxide dismutase multigene family. A comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression," Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 33, pp. 337–349, 2002.
  33. R. Masella, R. Di Benedetto, R. Var?, C. Filesi, and C. Giovannini, "Novel mechanisms of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems: Involvement of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes," J. Nutr. Biochem., vol. 16, pp. 577–586, 2005.
  34. O. H. Omer, H. M. Mousa, and N. Al-Wabel, "Study on the antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi," Vet. Parasitol., vol. 145, pp. 142–145, 2007.
  35. E. R. Jaffe, "Methaemoglobinaemia," Clin. Haematol, vol. 10, pp. 99-122, 1981.
  36. J. W. Harvey, The erythrocyte: Physiology, metabolism and biochemical disorders. In: J.J. Kaneko and J.W. Harvey, M.L. Bruss (Eds). Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th ed. London: Academic Press, 1997.
  37. B. O. Ikede, M. Lule, and R. J. Terry, "Anaemia in trypanosomiasis: Mechanisms of erythrocyte destruction in mice infected with trypanosoma congolense or T. brucei," Acta Trop., vol. 34, pp. 53–60, 1977.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

Competing Interests:

Acknowledgement:


Related Article

( 1 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 2 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 3 ) Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows
( 5 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 8 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 9 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 10 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 11 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 12 ) Adoption Impact of Improved Cowpea Variety in Selected Areas of Chattogram District of Bangladesh
( 13 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 14 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 15 ) Carbon Sequestration Assessment of Selected Campus Champion Trees
( 16 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 17 ) Ovitrap Surveillance of the Dengue Vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Selected Endemic Areas in Sandakan, Sabah
( 18 ) Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 19 ) Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)
( 22 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 23 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 24 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 25 ) Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices
( 30 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 32 ) Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs
( 33 ) Dietary Inclusion of Palm Oil in Bangladeshi Dietensures Better Nutrition with Minimal Cost: An Overview
( 34 ) Flaxseed Nutritied Meat Balls With High Antioxidant Potential
( 35 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 36 ) Mechanisms of the Decline in Reproductive Fitness with Age in the Moth Spodoptera Litura
( 37 ) Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites
( 40 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 41 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 42 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 43 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 44 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir