Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

International Journal of Management and Sustainability

October 2012, Volume 1, 1, pp 23-30

Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

Muhammad Asim

,

Shahid Mahmood

,

Malik Muhammad Sohail

,

Farkhanda Anjum

,

Farhat Nazir

Muhammad Asim 1
Shahid Mahmood 2
Malik Muhammad Sohail 3
Farkhanda Anjum 4
Farhat Nazir 5

  1. M. Phil Scholar, Department of Sociology, G. C University Faisalabad, Pakistan 1

  2. Assistant Professor Department of Food Science, G.C University Faisalabad, Pakistan 2

  3. M. Phil Scholar, Department of Sociology, G.C University Faisalabad, Pakistan 3

  4. Institute of Agri. Extension and Rural Development, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan 4

  5. Lecturer Sociology, Government College for Women Chiniot, Pakistan 5


Abstract:

Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Beneficial effects of breast feeding both for the mother and child are well-known. However, there is evidence that breast feeding is on the decline in many developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to explore the different socio-cultural issues which were associated with breast feeding practices. The universe of the present study was Faisalabad District, Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was applied for the selection of the respondents. At first stage two towns were selected by using simple random sampling technique. At the second stage, four colonies were selected randomly. Convenient sampling was done to select the households. A sample of 120 married women was interviewed who have at least one breast feeding baby from each household. Data show that majority of the mother were in the opinion that breastfeeding is essential for their baby for their physical and mental growth. The researchers also found the main hurdles in the completion period of breastfeeding were poor socio-economic condition of mothers, lack of appropriate gap in birth space, lack of knowledge and awareness among mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding, poor health of mothers, maternal employment and cultural norms of the society. It is suggested that mothers should give proper knowledge and awareness about the benefits of breastfeeding for their child???s future survival.

Contribution/ Originality

Keywords:

Breast Feeding, Social Issues, Cultural and Economic Issues, Mother and child Health

Reference:

  1. Agmpodi, S.B. (2006).Utilization of private sector for immunization of children in Colombo municipal council area. MSc. Dissertation. Post Graduate institute of Medicine, University of Colombo;.Lucas, A., and T.J. Cole. 1990. Breast milk and neonatal necrotizing enter colitis. Lancet Vol.336, pp.1519-1522.
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics work group on breast feeding.  (1997). Breast feeding and the use of human milk. J. Pediatrics. Vol.100, pp.1035-139.
  3. Agnew, T., Gilmore, J. and Sullivan, P. (1997). A Multicultural Perspective of Breastfeeding in Canada. Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Canada.
  4. Ashraf, R. N. F., J. Khan. (1990). Pakistan V. Feeding Pattern. Acta Pediatr, Vol.390, pp.47-61.
  5. Bhat, I.A., G.N. Shah, G.M. Dhar, S. Mehnaz. (1992). A study on the impact of maternal knowledge and practice on the nutritional status of infants. Ind. J. Matern Child Hth3: 12–15.Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries, Structured Abstract. http:// www. ahrq. gov/ clinic/ tp/brfouttp.htm.
  6. Brown, K. H., Black, R. E., de Romana, G. L., de Kanashiro, H. C. (1989). Infant-feeding practices and their relationship with diarrheal and other diseases in Huascar (Lima), Peru. Pediatrics Vol.83, No.1, pp.31-40.
  7. Campbell, K., Waters, E.  O’Meara. and Summerbell,  C.  (2001). Interventions for Preventing Obesity in Childhood. A Systematic Review Observation. Vol.2, pp.149-157.
  8. Carter, P. (1996). Breastfeeding and the social construction of heterosexuality, or ‘what breasts are really for’. In Holland, J. and Adkins, L. (eds) Sex, Sensibility and the Gendered Body. Macmillan Press, London, pp. 99–119.
  9. Cox, D. N.; Anderson A., Reyholds S., Mela D. J, Lean M. E. J., (1997). Measuring Fruit and Vegetable  Intake:  Is  Five  Times  a  Day  Enough?  European.  Journal  of  Clinical  Nutrition.  Vol.51, pp.177-180.
  10. Crawford, M. A. (1993). The role of essential fatty acids in neurodevelopment: implications for prenatal nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.57, pp.7035–7105.
  11. Dennison, BA.; Rockwell, HL.; Nichols, MJ.; (2001). Use of Low-Fat Milk by Children in the New York State. WIC varies with parental characteristics. JAM Diet Assoc., Vol. 464-6
  12. Dykes, F. and Griffiths, H. (1998). Societal influences upon initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, Vol.6, pp.76–80.
  13. Earle, S. (2000). Why some women do not breastfeed: formula feeding and fathers’ role. Midwifery, Vol.16, pp.323–330.
  14. Freed, G. L. and Fraley, J. K. (1993). Effect of expectant mothers’ feeding plan on prediction of fathers’ attitudes regarding breast-feeding. American Journal of Perinatology, Vol.10, pp.300–303.
  15. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  16. Howie, P. W., Forsyth, J. S. and Ogston, S. A. et al. (1990). Protective effect of breastfeeding against infection. British Medical Journal, Vol.300, pp.11–16.
  17. Infant Feeding Survey.  (2000). Equality  and  Inequalities  in Health  and Social  Care  in  Northern  Ireland:  A  Statistical  Overview  (DHSSPS, 2004:106).
  18. Chung, M., Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J.  (2007). Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes in Developed Countries. Rockville, M. D. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 153.
  19. Lawrence, R. (1995). The clinician’s role in teaching proper infant feeding techniques. The Journal of Pediatrics, 126 (Suppl. 1), pp.112–117.
  20. Lewis, C. (1986). Becoming a Father. Open University Press, Milton Keynes.
  21. Matusiak, M. M. (2005). A Cultural Perspective of the Feeding Habits. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness.
  22. Melissa, K.N. (2009). About.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by the Medical Review Board.  http://breastfeeding.about.com/od/breastfeedingbasics/a/momcare.htm.
  23. Newcomb, P. A., Storer, B. E., Longnecker, M. P. et al. (1994). Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.330, pp.81–87.
  24. Park, P. (1992). Cows’ milk linked to juvenile diabetes. New Scientist, Vol.22, pp.1835–1839.
  25. Rosenblatt, K. A. (1993). Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.22, pp.192–197.
  26. Rosenblatt, K. A. & Thomas, D. B. (1995). Prolonged Lactation and Endometrial Cancer: WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.24, No.3, pp.499-503.
  27. Shaw, R., Wallace, L.M. & Bansal, M. (2003). “Is Breast Best? Perception of infant feeding”.  Community Practitioner, Vol.76, No.8, pp299-303.
  28. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), (2001). Breastfeeding: Background Paper. Washington, DC. December.
  29. Wickes, I.G. (1953). A brief history of infant feeding, Part 1, primitive people’s Ancient works Renaissance Writers. Arch Dis. Child. Vol.28, pp.151-158.
  30. World Health Organization. (2007). AIDS epidemic update. December 2006. Available at: http://data.unaids.org/pub/EpiReport/2006/2006_EpiUpdate_en.pdf (accessed October 2007).

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

Competing Interests:

Acknowledgement:


Related Article

( 1 ) Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)
( 3 ) FDI in Indian Retail Sector: Strategic Issues and Implications
( 4 ) Equity Implications of the Universal Primary Education Funding Mechanisms in Uganda
( 8 ) A Comparison of Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Poverty and Rural Poverty in the North-West China
( 9 ) Ecological Treatment of Urban Organic Waste in the Context of Climate Change- A Chinese Perspective
( 11 ) Comparative Profitability Analysis of Watermelon and Pepper Production in Danko-Wasagu Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 12 ) Igbu-Efi: Indigenous Practice and Politics of After-Death in Igbo Culture Area
( 15 ) Asset System Design Based on Accrual To Improvement Quality of Financial Information (A Case Study in the City of Pacitan)
( 16 ) The Potential of Scientific Research Support and Its Role in Enhancing the Competitiveness of Universities “Zarqa University as Case Study”2001-2013
( 18 ) The Role of the Gestalt Theory in Understanding Persian Architectural Masterpieces, Case Study: Fin-Garden of Kashan
( 19 ) The Different Types of Delinquent Behavior in the Hospitality Industry. Case Study from Greece
( 20 ) Analysis of Workplace Stress and Organizational Performance in Human Resource Management: A Case Study of Air Traffic Controllers of Pakistan
( 21 ) Pedagogy Design in Responsible Tourism Vis-À-Vis Challenges of Sustainable Development- A Qualitative Study On Reports and Cases of Research and Advocacy Organisations
( 23 ) Tourism and Hospitality Management Students’ Perceptions Towards Foreign Languages at State Universities in Zimbabwe: Case of Midlands State University
( 24 ) The Creation of Financial Performance Based on the Economic Value Added Perspective: A Case of Indonesian Estate Firms
( 25 ) QSPM Usage in SWOT Analysis as a Tool for Strategic Management of Caspian Sea Coasts (Case Study: Tourism Development in Caspian Eastern Coast at Gilan Province)
( 26 ) To Check the Effect of Advertising, Personal Selling and Public Relations on Consumer Preferences, A Case of Telecommunication Sector in Faisalabad
( 27 ) The Effect of Proactive Market Orientation on Company Performance: The Case of Medium and Large Manufacturing Companies in Ethiopia
( 28 ) Residents Perception of Impacts toward Tourism Development: The Case of Bandung City, Indonesia
( 29 ) The Effects of Promotion and Site Attraction on Satisfaction and Subsequent Impact on Loyalty: A Case Study in Gunung Sewu Unesco Global Geopark, Indonesia
( 31 ) Users’ Attitudes towards Institutional Repository in Jadavpur University: A Critical Study