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International Journal of Hydrology Research

June 2020, Volume 5, 1, pp 32-45

Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda

Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo

,

Sankaranarayanan Muthiah

,

Ruzigamanzi Eric

,

Habineza Eliezel

,

Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine

,

Rukangantambara Hamoud

Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo 1 ,

Sankaranarayanan Muthiah 1 

Ruzigamanzi Eric 3 Habineza Eliezel 4
Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine 3 Rukangantambara Hamoud 6

  1. University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, School of Agriculture Engineering, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Nyagatare Campus, Rwanda. 1

  2. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Resources Economics, Kigali campus, Rwanda. 3

  3. Graduate School, Department of International Development and cooperation, Major Smart Agricultural Engineering, Hankyong National University, Anseong city, South Korea. 4

  4. University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Senior Lecturer, Busogo campus, Rwanda. 6

Pages: 32-45

DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.32.45

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Article History:

Received: 03 August, 2020
Revised: 07 September, 2020
Accepted: 25 September, 2020
Published: 13 October, 2020


Abstract:

Agricultural swamps are among the major fruitful and exposed to heavy metals deposition and contributes to ecological concerns. Heavy metals are mainly pollutants to deteriorate water quality and affect plant health through leaching and seepage process from industrial services, anthropogenic activities, erosion and mining activities. The study aimed to assess heavy metals, water quality and their effect on plant growth along Kanzenze Swamp of the Akagera Upper Catchment. The total of Sixteen chemical parameters of water including Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Magnesium hazards, Kelly Index and Soluble Sodium Percent were analyzed and observed values were thereafter compared with international standards values recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Photometric methods and Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer machines were used to detect the heavy metals while analytical. Descriptive analysis and Principal Components Analysis techniques were used to correlate water quality parameters for similarities and dissimilarities through cluster analysis. All statistical analysis were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Science version 22.0. The study findings shows that most water use for irrigation is polluted by heavy metals with maximum values compared to Rwanda national and international permissible standards for irrigation. The heavy metals with highest content included Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Copper, Manganese, Cadmium and Chromium. Hence farmers relaying on this water may be disposed to health hazards issues and other environmental concerns. Therefore some effective measures like water treatments are compulsory vital needed to boost the quality of water for irrigation purpose.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated heavy metals variability and their effect on plant growth in Kanzenze river of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda for water quality improvement in irrigation purposes.

Keywords:

Catchment, Factor analysis, Heavy metals, Kelly Index, Principal component analysis, Standard guidelines.

Reference:


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Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

The authors would like to thank the Government of Rwanda through the Ministry of Education and Higher Education Council (HEC) for the scholarship granted to the researcher. Special thanks go Rwanda Standard Board (RSB) in partnership with International Trade Centre (ITC) to introduce the new window of improved quality through Market Access Upgrade Programme (MARKUP) which is a regional development initiative that aims to contribute to the economic growth of the East African Community (EAC).

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