Citations


Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062
USA

Conference List

International Journal of Hydrology Research

June 2020, Volume 5, 1, pp 1-16

Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth

Salihu A. C.

,

Abdulkadir A

,

Nsofor G. N.

,

Otache, M. Y.

Salihu A. C. 1 ,

Abdulkadir A 1 Nsofor G. N. 1 Otache, M. Y. 4

  1. Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Agricultural and Bio Resources Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 4

Pages: 1-16

DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.1.16

Share :

Article History:

Received: 05 February, 2020
Revised: 09 March, 2020
Accepted: 17 April, 2020
Published: 14 May, 2020


Abstract:

Climate change and population growth are seen to be the major factors that will shape the pattern of per capita water up to the end of 21st century. The study aimed to project water stress condition in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria under the impacts of climate change and population growth. Firstly, annual water yield was generated using KNMI climate explorer for (2019-2048), (2049-2078) and (2079-2100) under three CO2 emission trajectories. Secondly, population was projected using the Nigeria’s average growth rate of 2.6%. Thirdly, the per capita water was analysed based on water stress index. Mann-Kendal statistical test was used to analyses trends in water stress at 0.05 significant levels. Result demonstrated that the Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria will experience significant positive trend in water stress with respect to climate change impact for mid and long-term periods whereas no significant trend under the short-term projection. However, regional trend analysis under the influence of population growth at constant climate observed that there were significant positive trends in water stress for the three projected periods. More so, the same positive trends were obtained under the combined impacts of climate change and population growth in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria. This implies that future water scarcity is imminent and will primarily cause by population growth and secondarily by climate change in the area. The results can act as guidelines for strategic planning for adaptive and mitigation measures to water stress as envisaged by the projection.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated regional impacts of climate change and population growth on water stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria.

Keywords:

Climate change, Population growth, Impacts, Water stress, Ecological zones, Nigeria.

Video:

Reference:

[1]          H. Florence, J. Boé, M. Déqué, A. Ducharne, S. Gascoin, A. Hachour, E. Martin, C. Pagé, E. Sauquet, and L. Terray, "Impact of climate change on the hydrogeology of two basins in northern France," Climatic Change, vol. 121, pp. 771-785, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0934-x.

[2]          Z. W. Felix, G. T. Yengoh, and A. Tom, "Seasonal migration and settlement around Lake Chad: Strategies for control of resources in an increasingly drying Lake," Resources, vol. 6, pp. 1-17, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6030041.

[3]          A. Umesh and N. Pouyan, "Impacts of climate change on water resources in Malawi," Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 21, p. 05016026, 2016.

[4]          S. L. Gebre, K. Tadele, and B. G. Mariam, "Potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology and water resources availability of didessa catchment, Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia," Journal of Geology and Geosciences, vol. 4, p. 193, 2015.

[5]          A.-K. Mohamed, "Water for development and development for water: Realizing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) vision," Aquatic Procedia, vol. 6, pp. 106-110, 2016. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2016.06.013.

[6]          A. Babagana, "The impacts of global climate change in Africa: The Lake Chad, adaptation and vulnerability," 2017.

[7]          O. Agumagu and M. Todd, "Modelling the climatic variability in the Niger Delta Region: Influence of climate change on hydrology," Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, vol. 6, p. 1, 2015.

[8]          J. Babatolu and R. Akinnubi, "Influence of climate change in Niger River Basin development authority area on Niger Runoff, Nigeria," Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, vol. 5, pp. 1-8, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7617.1000230.

[9]          S. Ojoye, A. O. Sulyman, and T. I. Yahaya, "Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in some parts of Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Nigeria," Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, vol. 9, pp. 326 – 338, 2016. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v9i3.7.

[10]        D. Yunana, A. Shittu, S. Ayuba, E. Bassah, and W. Joshua, "Climate change and lake water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa: Case study of lake Chad and lake Victoria," Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 36, pp. 648-654, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v36i2.42.

[11]        P. S. Esther, E. Kodra, K. Steinhaeuser, and A. R. Ganguly, "Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population," Computers & Geosciences, vol. 42, pp. 79-86, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2012.01.019.

[12]        M. Demircan, H. Gürkan, O. Eskioğlu, H. ARABACI, and M. Coşkun, "Climate change projections for Turkey: Three models and two scenarios," Turkey Journal of Water Science and Management, vol. 1, pp. 22-43, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31807/tjwsm.297183.

[13]        A. AbdulKadir, M. Usman, and A. Shaba, "An integrated approach to delineation of the ecoclimatic zones in Northern Nigeria," Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, vol. 7, pp. 247-255, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5897/jene2015.0532.

[14]        T. Chai and R. R. Draxler, "Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)?–Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature," Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 7, p. 1247 1250, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-1247-2014.

[15]        S. Shrestha and A. Y. Htut, "Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Bago River Basin, Myanmar," Environmental Modeling & Assessment, vol. 21, pp. 819-833, 2016. Available at: 10.1007/s10666-016-9511-9.

[16]        N. Khan, S. Shahid, K. Ahmed, T. Ismail, N. Nawaz, and M. Son, "Performance assessment of general circulation model in simulating daily precipitation and temperature using multiple gridded datasets," Water, vol. 10, p. 1793, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121793.

[17]        R. Nurmohamed and D. Peter, "The impact of climate change and climate variability on the agricultural sector in Nickerie District," Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 51-65, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.15640/jaes.v6n1a6.

[18]        J. F. Escarcha, J. A. Lassa, E. P. Palacpac, and K. K. Zander, "Understanding climate change impacts on water buffalo production through farmers’ perceptions," Climate Risk Management, vol. 20, pp. 50-63, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2018.03.003.

[19]        C. Fullarton, T. C. Draper, N. Phillips, B. P. de Lacy Costello, and A. Adamatzky, "Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction in liquid marbles," Journal of Physics: Materials, vol. 2, p. 015005, 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7639/aaed4c.

[20]        J. Schewe, J. D. Heinke, I. Gerten, N. W. Haddeland, D. B. Arnell, R. Clark, S. Dankers, B. Eisner, F. J. Fekete, S. N. Colón-González, H. Gosling, X. Kim, Y. Liu, F. T. Masaki, Y. Portmann, T. Satoh, Q. Stacke, Y. Tang, D. Wada, T. Wisser, K. Albrecht, F. Frieler, L. Piontek, Warszawski, and P. Kabat, "Multi-model assessment of water scarcity under climate change," in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (in press), 2013.

[21]        A.-K. S. Mohammed, M. F. Price, A. Abahussain, M. Ahmed, and T. O'Higgins, "Vulnerability assessment of environmental and climate change impacts on water resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman," Water, vol. 6, pp. 3118-3135, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/w6103118.

[22]        R. Singh and R. Kumar, "Vulnerability of water availability in India due to climate change: A bottom-up probabilistic Budyko analysis," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 42, pp. 9799-9807, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/2015gl066363.

[23]        J. P. Lapidez, "Assessment of changes in the water resources budget and hydrological regime of the Pampanga River Basin (Philippines) due to climate change," United Nations Peace and Progress, vol. 3, pp. 15-31, 2016.

[24]        M. Ahmed, Y. Tramblay, L. Hanich, D. Ruelland, and L. Jarlan, "Climate change impacts on surface water resources in the Rheraya catchment (High Atlas, Morocco)," Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 62, pp. 979-995, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2017.1283042.

[25]        O. Taikan and R. E. Quiocho, "Economically challenged and water scarce: Identification of global populations most vulnerable to water crises," International Journal of Water Resources Development, vol. 36, pp. 416-428, 2020. Available at: 10.1080/07900627.2019.1698413.

[26]        H. B. Mann, "Nonparametric tests against trend," Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, vol. 13, pp. 245-259, 1945. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2307/1907187.

[27]        M. G. Kendall, Rank correlation methods. London: Charles Griffin, 1975.

[28]        M. S. Pervez and G. M. Henebry, "Assessing the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change on the freshwater availability in the Brahmaputra River basin," Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol. 3, pp. 285-311, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.09.003.

[29]        A. F. Abdussalam, "Potential future risk of cholera due to climate change in Northern Nigeria," African Research Review, vol. 11, pp. 205-218, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v11i1.15.

[30]        A. Nahlah, S. A. Wasimi, and N. Al-Ansari, "Impacts of climate change on water resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, using soil and water assessment tool model," International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 823-829, 2017. Available at: 1307-6892/10007957.

[31]        A. S. Michael, G. P. Jewitt, and M. L. Toucher, "Scenario-based impacts of land use and climate changes on the hydrology of a lowland rainforest catchment in Ghana, West Africa," Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, pp. 1-27, 2017.

[32]        T. Vetter, J. Reinhardt, M. Flörke, A. van Griensven, F. Hattermann, S. Huang, H. Koch, I. G. Pechlivanidis, S. Plötner, O. Seidou, B. Su, R. W. Vervoort, and V. Krysanova, "Evaluation of sources of uncertainty in projected hydrological changes under climate change in 12 large-scale river basins," Climatic Change, vol. 141, pp. 419-433, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1794-y.

[33]        C. S. Vera and L. Díaz, "Anthropogenic influence on summer precipitation trends over South America in CMIP5 models," International Journal of Climatology, vol. 35, pp. 3172-3177, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4153.

[34]        S. Kumar, V. Merwade, J. L. Kinter, and D. Niyogi, "Evaluation of temperature and precipitation trends and long-term persistence in CMIP5 twentieth-century climate simulations," Journal of Climate, vol. 26, pp. 4168–4185, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00259.1.

[35]        A. L. Miguel, O. V. Müller, E. H. Berbery, and G. V. Müller, "Evaluation of CMIP5 retrospective simulations of temperature and precipitation in northeastern Argentina," International Journal of Climatology, vol. 38, pp. e1158-e1175, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5441.

[36]        D. Bozkurt, M. Rojas, J. P. Boisier, and J. s. Valdivieso, "Climate change impacts on hydroclimatic regimes and extremes over Andean basins in central Chile," Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, pp. 1-29, 2017.

[37]        I. Didovets, A. Bronstert, A. Lobanova, V. Krysanova, S. Snizhko, and C. Maule, "Assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in three representative ukrainian catchments using eco-hydrological modelling," Water (Switzerland), vol. 9, pp. 9030204-9030204, 2017.

[38]        S. L. Gebre and F. Ludwig, "Hydrological response to climate change of the upper blue Nile River Basin: based on IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5)," Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting, vol. 3, pp. 1-15, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4172/2332-2594.1000121.

[39]        J. Pengpeng, D. Zhuang, and Y. Wang, "Impacts of temperature and precipitation on the spatiotemporal distribution of water resources in Chinese mega cities: The case of Beijing," Journal of Water and Climate Change, vol. 8, pp. 593-612, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2017.038.

[40]        S. E. Gneneyougo, A. B. Yao, Y. M. Kouame, and T. A. G. Bi, "Climate change and its impacts on water resources in the Bandama basin, Côte D’ivoire," Hydrology, vol. 4, pp. 1-13, 2017. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology4010018.

[41]        E. D. Coffel, B. Keith, C. Lesk, R. M. Horton, E. Bower, J. Lee, and J. S. Mankin, "Future hot and dry years worsen Nile Basin water scarcity despite projected precipitation increases," Earth's Future, vol. 7, pp. 967-977, 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019ef001247.

[42]        M. Hosea, S. Julich, S. D. Patil, M. A. McDonald, and K.-H. Feger, "Relative contribution of land use change and climate variability on discharge of upper Mara River, Kenya," Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol. 5, pp. 244-260, 2016. Available at: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.12.059.

[43]        F. Kara, "Effects of climate change on water resources in Omerli Basin," An Unpublished PhD Thesis of Department of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technology, Submitted to the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University, Turkey, 2014.

[44]        L. Guoyong, M. Huang, N. Voisin, X. Zhang, G. R. Asrar, and L. R. Leung, "Emergence of new hydrologic regimes of surface water resources in the conterminous United States under future warming," Environmental Research Letters, vol. 11, p. 114003, 2016. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114003.

Statistics:

Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor

Funding:

This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 2 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 3 ) Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria
( 4 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 5 ) Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes
( 6 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 7 ) Impact of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Condations
( 8 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 9 ) Hot Water Enhanced Germination of Leucaena Leucocephala Seeds in Light and Dark Conditions
( 10 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 12 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 13 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 15 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 16 ) A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes
( 18 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 19 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 20 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 24 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 26 ) Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso
( 28 ) An Assessment of the Level of Awareness of Climate Change and Variability among Rural Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 29 ) Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
( 30 ) Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used In Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Abia State, Nigeria
( 31 ) Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria
( 32 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 33 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 34 ) Assessment of Human Capital Attributes Influencing Occupational Diversification among Rural Women in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 35 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 36 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 37 ) Assessment of the Impact of Land Use Changes along the Floodplains of River Lamurde, Jalingo Lga, Nigeria
( 38 ) Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
( 39 ) Farmers Assessment of the Training and Visit Extension System in Niger State: Evidence from Fadama Ii & Iii in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 41 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 42 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 43 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 44 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 45 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 46 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 47 ) Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria
( 48 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 49 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 50 ) An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 51 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 52 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 53 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 54 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 55 ) Establishing Short Bowel Syndrome in Nigerian Dogs
( 56 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 57 ) Diversity and Growth Characteristics of Tree Species in the Botanical Gardens, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
( 58 ) Problems Confronting Shea Butter Industry in Nigeria
( 59 ) Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria
( 61 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 62 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 63 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 64 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 65 ) Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 66 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 67 ) Attitude of Youth to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 68 ) Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 69 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 71 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 72 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 74 ) Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria
( 75 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 76 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 77 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 79 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 80 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 82 ) Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
( 83 ) The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters
( 85 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 90 ) Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis
( 95 ) Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs
( 97 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate