International Journal of Geography and Geology

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2305-7041
Print ISSN: 2306-9872
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

Recent Articles

Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State

Pages: 1-12
Find References

Finding References

Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.1.12

Lazarus A. Mbaya

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Adah, P. and G. Abok, 2013. Challenges of urban water management in Nigeria: The way forward. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management, 5(1): 111-121.

Adekunle, I., M. Adetunji, A. Gbadebo and O. Banjoko, 2007. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in South West Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 4(4): 307-318.Available at:

Ademiluyi and Odugbesan, 2009. Sustainability and impact of community water supply and sanitation programmes in Nigeria:  An overviewAfrican. Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(12).

Aeschbach-Hertig, W. and T. Gleeson, 2012. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion. Nature Geoscience, 5(12): 853-861.Available at:

Agboola, T., 2003. Water supply and protection of urban watershed. A Paper Presented at the 20th WEDC International Conference towards the European Scientific Journal September 2015 Edition 11, No.26 Millennium Development Goals, Action for Water and Environmental Sanitation, Abuja, October 4.

Amengo-Etego, R. and S. Grusky, 2005. The new face of conditionality: The world bank and water privatization in Ghana 'in D.McDonald and G. Ruiters the age of cmmodity: Water pivatizationin Suthern Africa. London & Sterling, VA: Earth Scan. pp: 2275-290.

Bassey, S.A., 2003. The politics of safe water delivery in Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the Environmental Parliament Programme Held in Uyo, Nigeria 12 -16 June, 2003.

Bumba, J., H.M. Kida and Z. Bunu, 1985. Exploitation of underground water in the Chad Formation, Maidugurias a case study. Arid Zone Hydrology and water resources Gadzama, N.M., Adeniji, F.A., Richards, W. S. and Thambyapillay, G.G.R. University of Maiduguri. pp: 90 – 97.

Eduvie, M.O., 2006. Borehole failures and groundwater gevelopment in Nigeria. National Seminar on the Occasion of Water Africa Exhibition (Nigeria 2006), Lagos, Nigeria.

Konikow, L.F. and E. Kendy, 2005. Groundwater depletion: A global problem. Hydrogeology Journal, 13(1): 317-320.Available at:

Longe, E., D. Omole, I. Adewumi and S. Ogbiye, 2010. Water resources use, abuse and regulations in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(2): 35-44.

Mbaya, L.A., 2012. Assessment of gully erosion in Gombe Town. An Unpublished Ph.D Thesis Submitted to Department of Geography University of Maiduguri.

National Centre for Remote Sensing, 2017. Satellite Images of Gombe and its Environs. NCRS Jos, Nigeria.

National Population Commission, 2007. Population census result for Gombe State. NPC Abuja, Nigeria.

Omole, D.O. and S. Isiorho, 2011. Waste management and water quality issues in coastal states of Nigeria: The Ogun State experience. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(6): 207-217.Available at:

Shaminder, P., J. Margat, Y. Yurtsever and B. Wallin, 2006. Aquifer characterisation techniquesIn foster, S. and loucks, D.P. (Editors), ‘Non renewable groundwater resources’. UNESCO Paris.

Treidel, H., B.J.J. Martin and J.J. Gurdak, 2012. Climate change effects on groundwater resources: A global synthesis of findings and recommendations. International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) . Taylor & Francis Publishing. pp: 414.

USAID, 2010. NIGERIA Wter and Snitation pofile. Available from [Accessed 14 Dec. 2012].

Wada, Y., L.P. Van Beek, C.M. Van Kempen, J.W. Reckman, S. Vasak and M.F. Bierkens, 2010. Global depletion of groundwater resources. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(20): 1-5.

Yusuf, A.K., 2015. Groundwater resource management strategy in the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin. Journal of Natural Sciences, 5(14): 56-63.

No any video found for this article.
Lazarus A. Mbaya (2020). Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.1.12
Groundwater is the major freshwater store acting in the hydrological cycle. It provides water for human consumption, agriculture, industry and many groundwater-dependent ecosystems, especially during dry season and drought periods. This study “Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area” aimed at examine the quantity of water abstracted for various uses in the study area and its implications for future development. Field Measurement, Questionnaire and GPS device was used to collect information about water sources and uses in the study area and data collected were analyzed using T-test and descriptive statistics. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the depth of boreholes and wells between periods with minimum and maximum depth of 26m and 53.5 for boreholes and 12m and 21m for wells respectively. The study also revealed that Table water industries, Block industries, Fishpond, Water Vendors and Irrigation agriculture are the dominant activities that are using underground water with annual abstraction rate of 1785000m3, 1905600m3, 1818150m3, 3168000m3 and 1827100m3 respectively. A general decline in rainfall and geological nature of Gombe town has led to the over exploitation of groundwater in the study area. Sustainable groundwater management in the future requires groundwater to be used in a manner that can be maintained for an indefinite time without having unacceptable environmental, economic or social consequences.
Contribution/ Originality
This research work title assessment of groundwater abstraction in kwadon Gombe state will contribute to existing literature especially in the fields of water resource management and hydrology. Empirical methods were used in collecting relevant data and this study is among few and non-carried out in the state. The study is original and the primary findings was that groundwater in the study area is under threat due to over utilization. Therefore this study document the rate of groundwater abstraction and need for sustainable utilization.

Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana

Pages: 13-37
Find References

Finding References

Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.13.37

Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana , Jonathan Quaye-Ballard , Clement Ntori , Alfred Awotwi , Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka , Thomas Moore Okrah , Abena Asare-Ansah

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abhary, A. and H. Hassani, 2016. Mapping hydrothermal mineral deposits using PCA and BR methods in Baft 1: 100000 Geological sheet, Iran. Ratio, 7(5): 6.

Abubakar, A.J., M. Mazlan Hashim and A.B. Pour, 2014. Using landsat 8 (OLI) remote sensing data to map lithology and mineralogy for geothermal resource exploration. Geoscience and Digital Earth Centre (Geo-DEC), Research Institute for Sustainability and Environment (RISE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Available from [Accessed 1/02/2018].

Abuzied, S.M., S.K. Ibrahim, M.F. Kaiser and T.A. Seleem, 2016. Application of remote sensing and spatial data integrations for mapping porphyry copper zones in Nuweiba area, Egypt. International Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 4(2): 102-108.

Alimohammadi, M., S. Alirezaei and D.J. Kontak, 2015. Application of aster data for exploration of porphyry copper deposits: A case study of Daraloo–Sarmeshk area, southern part of the Kerman copper belt, Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 70: 290-304.Available at:

Allibone, A., J. Teasdale, G. Cameron, M. Etheridge, P. Uttley, A. Soboh, J. Appiah-Kubi, A. Adanu, R. Arthur and J. Mamphey, 2002. Timing and structural controls on gold mineralization at the bogoso gold mine, Ghana, West Africa. Economic Geology, 97(5): 949-969.Available at:

Amer, R., T. Kusky and A. Ghulam, 2010. Lithological mapping in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56(2-3): 75-82.Available at:

Appiah, H., 1991. Geology and mine exploration trends of Prestea goldfields, Ghana. Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 13(2): 235-241.Available at:

Botwe, T., E.O. Jnr, A.K. Kwaw and A.A. Omitogun, 2018. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using remote sensing and gis at the prestea concession of golden star bogoso/prestea ltd, Ghana. International Journal of Engineering Science, 8(1): 15898-15902.  [Accessed 2/3/2018].

Chavez, P., S.C. Sides and J.A. Anderson, 1991. Comparison of three different methods to merge multiresolution and multispectral data- Landsat TM and SPOT panchromatic. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57(3): 295-303.

Crosta, A., C. De Souza Filho, F. Azevedo and C. Brodie, 2003. Targeting key alteration minerals in epithermal deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, using aster imagery and principal component analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(21): 4233-4240.Available at:

Da Cunha Frutuoso, R.M., 2015. Mapping hydrothermal gold mineralization using landsat 8 data. A Case of Study in Chaves License, Portugal.

Dehnavi, A.G., R. Sarikhani and D. Nagaraju, 2010. Image processing and analysis of mapping alteration zones in environmental research, East of Kurdistan, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11(3): 278-283.Available at:

Gad, S. and T. Kusky, 2007. Aster spectral ratioing for lithological mapping in the Arabian–Nubian shield, the Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt. Gondwana Research, 11(3): 326-335.Available at:

Goetz, A.F., 2009. Three decades of hyperspectral remote sensing of the earth: A personal view. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113: S5-S16.Available at:

Goetz, A.F., L.C. Rowan and M.J. Kingston, 1982. Mineral identification from orbit: Initial results from the shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer. Science, 218(4576): 1020-1024.Available at:

Griffis, R.J., 1998. Explanotory notes-geological interpretation of geophysical data from Southwestern Ghana. Accra: Mineral Commission. pp: 51.

Griffis, R.J., K. Barning, F.L. Agezo and F.K. Akosah, 2002. Gold deposits of ghana. Ghana: Minerals commissions. Pp: 432.

Jensen, J.R., 2005. Introductory digital image processing: A remote sensing perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Jensen, J.R. and K. Lulla, 1987. Introductory digital image processing: A remote sensing perspective. 2(1): 65-65.Available at:

Kaufmann, H., 1988. Concepts, processing and results. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 9(10-11): 1639-1658.Available at:

Kesse, G.O., 1985. The rock and mineral resources of Ghana. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema, .

Knepper, D., 1989;2010. Mapping hydrothermal alteration with landsat thematic mapper data. Mineral Deposits of North America, 1: 13-21.Available at:

Kruse, F.A., S.L. Perry and A. Caballero, 2002. Integrated multispectral and hyperspectral mineral mapping, Los Menucos, Rio Negro, Argentina, Part II: EO-1 Hyperion/AVIRIS comparisons and landsat TM/ASTER extensions. In Proc. 11th JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Kuma, J., Y.U. Kim, D. Boamah and I. Sakamoto, 2010. Gold Potential of the Ashanti Belt of Ghana. Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 8(3): 25-39.

Kwang, C., E.O. Jnr and A. Duker, 2014. Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems for gold potential mapping in Birim North District of Eastern Region of Ghana. International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications, 4(1): 48-55.Available at:

Leube, A., W. Hirdes, R. Mauer and G.O. Kesse, 1990. The early proterozoic birimian supergroup of Ghana and some aspects of its associated gold mineralization. Precambrian Research, 46(1-2): 139-165.Available at:

Lillesand, T.M., R.W. Kiefer and J. Chipman, 2000. Remote sensing and image analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Loughlin, W., 1991. Principal component analysis for alteration mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57(9): 1163-1169.

Masoumi, F., T. Eslamkish, M. Honarmand and A.A. Abkar, 2017. A comparative study of landsat-7 and landsat-8 data using image processing methods for hydrothermal alteration mapping. Resource Geology, 67(1): 72-88.Available at:

Mia, B. and Y. Fujimitsu, 2012. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ETM+ image in and around Kuju volcano, Kyushu, Japan. Journal of Earth System Science, 121(4): 1049-1057.Available at:

Milési, J., P. Ledru, P. Ankrah, V. Johan, E. Marcoux and C. Vinchon, 1991. The metallogenic relationship between birimian and tarkwaian gold deposits in Ghana. Mineralium Deposita, 26(3): 228-238.Available at:

MLGRD, 2006. Western region (prestea-huni valley distric).

Mshiu, E.E., C. Gläßer and G. Borg, 2015. Identification of hydrothermal paleofluid pathways, the pathfinders in the exploration of mineral deposits: A case study from the sukumaland greenstone belt, Lake Victoria Gold Field, Tanzania. Advances in Space Research, 55(4): 1117-1133.Available at:

Nouri, R., M. Jafari, M. Arain and F. Feizi, 2012. Hydrothermal alteration zones identification based on remote sensing data in the Mahin Area, West of Qazvin Province, Iran. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, 6(7): 382-385.

Oberthür, T., U. Vetter, D.W. Davis and J.A. Amanor, 1998. Age constraints on gold mineralization and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution in the Ashanti belt of southern Ghana. Precambrian Research, 89(3-4): 129-143.

Oduro, 2011. Prestea Huni-Valley District Assembly website. Available from [Accessed 12/08/2018].

Pour, A.B. and M. Hashim, 2014. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using landsat-8 data, Sar Cheshmeh copper mining district, SE Iran. Journal of Taibah University for Science.

Pour, A.B., M. Hashim, J.K. Hong and Y. Park, 2017. Lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies using landsat-8 and aster satellite data: North-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula. Ore Geology Reviews.

Rajesh, H., 2004. Application of remote sensing and GIS in mineral resource mapping-An overview. Journal of mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 99(3): 83-103.Available at:

Ranjbar, H., M. Honarmand and Z. Moezifar, 2004. Application of the Crosta technique for porphyry copper alteration mapping, using ETM+ data in the southern part of the Iranian volcanic sedimentary belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24(2): 237-243.Available at:

Ruiz-Armenta, J.R. and R.M. Prol-Ledesma, 1998. Techniques for enhancing the spectral response of hydrothermal alteration minerals in Thematic Mapper images of Central Mexico. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(10): 1981-2000.Available at: 10.1080/014311698215108.

Sabins, F.F., 1999. Remote sensing for mineral exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 14(3-4): 157-183.

Sadiya, T.B., O. Ibrahim, T.F. Asma, V. Mamfe, C.J. Nsofor, A.S. Oyewmi and M.S. Ozigis, 2014. Mineral detection and mapping using band ratioing and crosta technique in Bwari Area Council, Abuja Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(12): 1100-1108.

Van der Meer, F.D., H.M. Van der Werff, F.J. Van Ruitenbeek, C.A. Hecker, W.H. Bakker, M.F. Noomen, M. Van Der Meijde, E.J.M. Carranza, J.B. De Smeth and T. Woldai, 2012. Multi-and hyperspectral geologic remote sensing: A review. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 14(1): 112-128.

No any video found for this article.
Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana , Jonathan Quaye-Ballard , Clement Ntori , Alfred Awotwi , Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka , Thomas Moore Okrah , Abena Asare-Ansah (2020). Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 13-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.13.37
Utilization of multispectral satellite images is an excellent approach in the reconnaissance stage of gold prospecting due to its high effectiveness and low cost. This research used Landsat 8 Remote Sensing data and Geographical Information System to identify, delineate and map hydrothermal alteration zone relating to gold pattern mineralization in Prestea Huni Valley District in the Western Region of Ghana. Principle Component Analysis (PCA), three band combinations, spectral rationing and Crosta techniques are used in this study. For three band combinations, bands 5, 4, 3 and 5, 6, 7 are used to map location of hydrothermal alterations. Band ratios (7/5and6/7), (6/5) and (4/2) are used to identify presence of clay, ferrous and iron oxide minerals respectively. Sabin's ratio 4/2, 6/7 and 6/5, Kaufmann ratio 7/5, 5/4 and 6/7, and 4/2, 6/7 and 5 are used to identify vegetation, outcrop and hydrothermal alterations respectively. Crosta and PCA techniques were used to suppress the interference of vegetation in delineating the alteration zones. Results revealed that the three band combinations and spectral ratioing clearly depicts hydrothermal deposit of ferrous minerals, clay and iron oxide minerals. PCA identifies presence of iron-oxide and hydroxyl minerals as bright pixels. The first three high order principal components (PC1, PC2 and PC3) of input spectral bands gave more than 98% of the spectral information. Thus, the results from satellite images an effective and efficient way of mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at regional scale.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated to identify hydrothermally alteration relating to gold mineralization. The study documents how Satellite data and Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System techniques can be used to delineate hydrothermal alterations at regional scale at a reduced cost.

Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana

Pages: 38-54
Find References

Finding References

Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.38.54

Blestmond A. Brako , Gordon Foli , Chiri Amedjoe , Simon K.Y. Gawu

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abouchami, W., Boher, M., Michard, A., & Albarede, F. (1990). A major 2.1 Ga event of mafic magmatism in West Africa: An early stage of crustal accretion. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 95(B11), 17605-17629.Available at:

Agyei, D. J., Loh, G., Boamah, K., Baba, M., Hirdes, W., Toloczyki, M., & Davis, D. (2009). Geological map of Ghana 1: 1,000,000. Geological Survey Department of Ghana.

Block, S., Ganne, J., Baratoux, L., Zeh, A., Parra-Avila, L., Jessell, M., & Siebenaller, L. (2015). Petrological and geochronological constraints on lower crust exhumation during Paleoproterozoic (Eburnean) orogeny, NW Ghana, West African Craton. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 33(5), 463-494.Available at:

Boggs, S. J. (1992). Petrology of sedimentary rocks (pp. 707). New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

Boggs, S. J. (2014). Principles of sedimentology & stratigraphy (5th ed., pp. 99-150): Pearson Prentice Hall.

Davis, D., Hirdes, W., Schaltegger, U., & Nunoo, E. (1994). U-Pb age constraints on deposition and provenance of Birimian and gold-bearing Tarkwaian sediments in Ghana, West Africa. Precambrian Research, 67(1-2), 89-107.Available at:

Dickinson, W. R. (1970). Interpreting detrital modes of graywacke and arkose. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 40(2), 695-707.Available at:

Folk, R. L. (1968). Bimodal supermature sandstones: Product of the desert floor. Paper presented at the Proc 23rd. Intern. Geol. Cong., Prague.

Griffis, R. J., Barning, K., Agezo, F. L., & Akosah, F. K. (2002). Gold deposits of Ghana. Accra: Minerals Commission.

Hirdes, W., Davis, D., & Eisenlohr, B. (1992). Reassessment of proterozoic granitoid ages in Ghana on the basis of U/Pb zircon and monazite dating. Precambrian Research, 56(1-2), 89-96.Available at:

Ingersoll, R. V., & Suczek, C. A. (1979). Petrology and provenance of Neogene sand from Nicobar and Bengal fans, DSDP sites 211 and 218. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 49(4), 1217-1228.Available at:

Kesse, G. O. (1985). The mineral and rock resources of Ghana. Accord, MA: AA Balkema Publishers.

Leube, A., Hirdes, W., Mauer, R., & Kesse, G. O. (1990). The early Proterozoic Birimian Supergroup of Ghana and some aspects of its associated gold mineralization. Precambrian Research, 46(1-2), 139-165.Available at:

McBride, E. (1963). A classification of common sandstones. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 33(3), 664-669.

Perrouty, S., Aillères, L., Jessell, M. W., Baratoux, L., Bourassa, Y., & Crawford, B. (2012). Revised Eburnean geodynamic evolution of the gold-rich Southern Ashanti Belt, Ghana, with new field and geophysical evidence of pre-Tarkwaian deformations. Precambrian Research, 204, 12-39.Available at:

Pettijohn, F. J., Potter, P. E., & Siever, R. (1987). Sand and sandstone (2nd ed., pp. 571). NY: Springer-Verlag.

Powers, M. C. (1953). A new roundness scale for sedimentary particles. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 23(2), 117-119.Available at:

Salvi, S., Amponsah, P. O., Béziat, D., Baratoux, L., Siebenaller, L., Nude, P. O., & Nyarko, R. S. (2015).

Streckeisen, A. (1979). Classification and nomenclature of volcanic rocks, lamprophyres, carbonatites, and melilitic rocks: Recommendations and suggestions of the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Geology, 7(7), 331-335.Available at:<331:canovr>;2.

Strogen, P. (1991). The sedimentology, stratigraphy and structure of the Tarkwaian, Western Region, and its relevance to gold exploration and development. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Conference on the Geology of Ghana, 1988, Accra.

Terry, R. D., & Chilingar, G. V. (1955). Summary of" Concerning some additional aids in studying sedimentary formations," by MS Shvetsov. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 25(3), 229-234.Available at:

Tetteh, G. M., & Arthur, D. (2018). Depositional significance of pebble textures and orientations in the Kawere conglomerate of the Tarkwaian group. The Journal of Geography and Geology. Photon, 121(2018), 317-323.

White, A. J., Waters, D. J., & Robb, L. J. (2015). Exhumation-driven devolatilization as a fluid source for orogenic gold mineralization at the Damang deposit, Ghana. Economic Geology, 110(4), 1009-1025.

Whitney, D. L., & Evans, B. W. (2010). Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 95(1), 185-187.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Blestmond A. Brako , Gordon Foli , Chiri Amedjoe , Simon K.Y. Gawu (2020). Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 38-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.38.54
This study geologically compares conglomerate and sandstone units in the Chagupana area of the Upper West Region and the Kawere conglomerate and Kawere-Huni-Banket sandstone units in the Tarkwa area of the Western Region in Ghana. Some work in the area has over time proposed that rocks from the two areas as similar based on only field relations, hence the need for more detailed work for re-classification. Macro and microscopic studies of the composition, mineralogy and texture of the rock types reveal that the conglomerates in both areas are metamorphic-clast units, greenish-grey, polymictic, foliated and texturally immature. Compositionally and mineralogically, Chagupana conglomerate is matrix-supported and immature, while Kawere conglomerate is clast-supported and mature; these constraint similarities between the conglomerates to only composition. The sandstones from both areas have similar mineralogical compositions, but with decreasing feldspar in the order of Chagupana>Huni>Kawere>Banket. Texturally, all the sandstones are sub-mature, well-indurated and angular-rounded; except the Huni sandstone, which is fine to medium-grained, while the other sandstones are medium-coarse-grained. Based on the feldspar contents, the Chagupana, Huni, Banket and Kawere sandstones classify as greywacke, feldspathic arenite, sub-litharenite and sub-feldspathic-feldspathic arenite, respectively. The greywacke and sandstones have the same cementing materials as quartz, sericite and chlorite. Concluding, the Chagupana rocks are not entirely the same as those from the Tarkwaian Group, probably due to differences in provenance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses petrographic and structural investigations to unravel the puzzle of the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks in the Chagupana area of the Upper West Region as being part, or not, of the Tarkwaian Group in the Tarkwa area of Ghana.

An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)

Pages: 55-70
Find References

Finding References

An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.55.70

Jatau, Sarah , Mmaduka Louis , Obidike Emeka Esae

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Asaeda, C. V. T., & Abu, E. M. (1998). Reduction in air conditioning energy caused by a nearby park. Energy Build, 29(1), 83-92.Available at:

Balchin, W. G. V., & Pye, N. (1947). A micro-climatological investigation of bath and the surrounding district. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 73(317-318), 297-323.Available at:

Bounoua, L., Zhang, P., Mostovoy, G., Thome, K., Masek, J., Imhoff, M., & Silva, J. (2015). Impact of urbanization on US surface climate. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8), 1-9.Available at:

Climate- ADAPT. (2015). Green spaces and corridors in urban areas. European Climate Adaptation Platform, European Environment Agency. Retrieved from: ttp//

Coutts, A. M., Beringer, J., & Tapper, N. J. (2006). Impact of increasing urban density on local climate: Spatial and temporal variations in the surface energy balance in Melbourne, Australia. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(1), 477-493.

Davies, M., Steadman, P., & Oreszczyn, T. (2008). Strategies for the modification of the urban climate and the consequent impact on building energy use. Energy Policy, 36(12), 4548-4551.Available at:

Debbage, N., & Shepherd, J. M. (2015). The urban heat island effect and city contiguity. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 181-194.Available at:

Doick, K., & Hutchings, T. (2013). Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure. Forest Commission Research  Note. Forest Commission Edinburgh.

DPHE Birmingham. (2004). Department of public health and Epidemiology University of Birmingham. Retrieved from: [Accessed 21 August 2015].

Emmanuel, R. (2005). Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: The Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka. Building and Environment, 40(12), 1591-1601.Available at:

Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Heat Island effect trees and vegetation 2013. Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Retrieved from:

Esri. (2015). ArcGIS for desktop. Retrieved from: [Accessed 1st December 2015].

Esslingen, & Nurtingen. (2015). Retrieved from: [Accessed 15th July 2015].

Howard, L. (1818). The climate of London, deduced from meteorological observations, made at different places in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. Retrieved from: [Accessed 06 June 15]. 2, 1818-1820.

Huang, L., Li, J., Zhao, D., & Zhu, J. (2008). A fieldwork study on the diurnal changes of urban microclimate in four types of ground cover and urban heat island of Nanjing, China. Building and Environment, 43(1), 7-17.Available at:

Inhabitat. (2010). Retrieved from: [Accessed 11/, July, 2014].

Karl, T. R., Diaz, H. F., & Kukla, G. (1988). Urbanization: Its detection and effect in the United States climate record. Journal of Climate, 1(11), 1099-1123.Available at:<1099:uidaei>;2.

Kershaw, T., Sanderson, M., Coley, D., & Eames, M. (2010). Estimation of the urban heat island for UK climate change projections. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 31(3), 251-263.Available at:

Lauwaet, D., Hooyberghs, H., Maiheu, B., Lefebvre, W., Driesen, G., Van Looy, S., & De Ridder, K. (2015). Detailed Urban Heat Island projections for cities worldwide: Dynamical downscaling CMIP5 global climate models. Climate, 3(2), 391-415.

Mentens, J., Raes, D., & Hermy, M. (2006). Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in the urbanized 21st century? Landscape and Urban Planning, 77(3), 217-226.Available at:

Met Office. (2015). Metrological office annual report. Retrieved from http:/ [Accessed28 July 2015].

Mills, L. (2005). Sources of EU funding for urban environment activities in the UK. London: Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2015). Vegetation limits city warming. Retrieved from: [Accessed 25 July 2015].

Oke. (1973). City size and the urban heat island. Retrieved from [Accessed 17 July 2015].

Oke., T. R. (1982). The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 108(455), 1-24.Available at:

Peng, H., & Li, H. (2009). Application study of urban heat island effect in the Northwestern City based on MODIS. Paper presented at the 2009 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event.

Quattrochi, D. A., Luvall, J. C., Rickman, D. L., Estes, M. G., Laymon, C. A., & Howell, B. F. (2004). A decision support information system for urban landscape management using thermal infrared data: Decision support systems. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 66(10), 1195-1207.

Reverb/Echo. (2015). NASA’s earth observing system data and information system (EOSDIS). Retrieved from: [Accessed 10/06/15].

Sailor, D. (2002). Urban heat islands, opportunities and challenges for mitigation and adaptation. Sample Electric Load Data for New Orleans, LA (NOPSI, 1995). North American Urban Heat Island Summit. Toronto, Canada, 1-4.

Shahmohamadi, P., Che-Ani, A. I., Maulud, K. N. A., Tawil, N. M., & Abdullah, N. A. G. (2011). The impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island and energy consumption balance. Retrieved from [Accessed 24 July 15].

Shashua-Bar, L., & Hoffman, M. E. (2002). Vegetation as a climatic component in the design of an urban street: An empirical model for predicting the cooling effect of urban green areas with trees. Energy and Buildings, 31(3), 221-235.

Spronken-Smith, R., & Oke, T. (1998). The thermal regime of urban parks in two cities with different summer climates. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(11), 2085-2104.Available at:

Stewart, I. D., & Oke, T. R. (2012). Local climate zones for urban temperature studies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(12), 1879-1900.Available at:

Susca, T., Gaffin, S. R., & Dell’Osso, G. (2011). Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat Island and green roofs. Environmental Pollution, 159(8-9), 2119-2126.Available at:

The New Green Spaces. (2011). Cities – the green roofs, eco-friendly, roofs, 2011. Retrieved from: [Accessed July, 2014].

UCAR. (2015). Center for science education: Urban heat Islands. Retrieved from [Accessed 10/06/15].

Unger, J., Sümeghy, Z., & Zoboki, J. (2001). Temperature cross-section features in an urban area. Atmospheric Research, 58(2), 117-127.Available at:

United Nations (UN)-Habitat. (2007). Global report on human settlements 2007: Enhancing urban safety and security. Retrieved from: [Accessed 14 July 2015].

Voogt, A. J. (2004). Thermal remote sensing of urban climates. Remote Sensing Environment, 86(1), 370-384.

Wan, Z. (2006). MODIS land surface temperature products users’ guide. Institute for computational earth system science. Santa Barbara,CA: University of California.

Wilby, R. L. (2003). Past and projected trends in London's urban heat island. Weather, 58(7), 251-260.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Jatau, Sarah , Mmaduka Louis , Obidike Emeka Esae (2020). An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014). International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 55-70. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.55.70
Urban heat island (UHI) intensity is the characteristic warmth of both the atmosphere and lithosphere in urban areas compared to its rural surrounding areas. This study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI in Coventry city. ArcGIS was used to collect the land surface temperature (LST) of different seasons; summer, autumn, spring and fall using the peak month to represent each season. These data was collected during the night times to avoid cloud cover and limit other impeding factors for accurate data collection and results. The data was collected for a period of 11years that is 2004-2014. The study revealed that there was no regular pattern of UHI across the four seasons, however, it was discovered that there was a marginal increase in temperature in some regions during the seasons. To mitigate UHI effects this study recommends the planting of trees to moderate the microclimate as well as the use of green roofs to absorb more of CO² thereby modifying and regulating the climate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on urban heat Island Intensity. Using ArcGIS and land surface temperature, the study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI intensity in Coventry City with a marginal increase in temperature in some seasons; it therefore recommends the planting of trees to moderate the climate.

Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State

Pages: 71-83
Find References

Finding References

Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.71.83

Agulue Emmanuel , Okoye Nnabuike , Samuel Oji Iheukwumere , Kelechi Friday Nkwocha

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Acheampong, R. A., & Anokye, P. A. (2013). Understanding household’s residential location choices in Kumasi’s Peri-Urban settlements and the applications for sustainable Urban growth. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(9), 60 -70.

Adeniyi, R. O., & Omojola, A. (1999). Land use/land cover change evaluation in Sokoto-Rima basin of North western Nigeria on archival remote sensing and GIS techniques. Journal of African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE), 1(1), 42-116.

Agarwal, C., Green, G. M., Grove, J., Evans, T. P., & Schweik, C. M. (2002). A review and assessment of land-use change models: dynamics of space, time, and human choice. General Technical Report. NE-297. Newton Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 61.

Alphan, H. (2003). Land-use change and urbanization of Adana, Turkey. Land Degradation & Development, 14(6), 575-586. Available at:

Anil, N., Sankar, G. J., Rao, M. J., Prasad, I., & Sailaja, U. (2011). Studies on land use/land cover and change detection from parts of South West Godavari District, AP–using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Journal of Indian Geophysical Union, 15(4), 187-194.

Barnsley, M. J., & Barr, S. L. (2000). Monitoring urban land use by Earth observation. Surveys in Geophysics, 21(2-3), 269-289. Available at:

Brebante, M. (2017). Analysing the effects of land cover/land use changes on flashflood: A case study of Marikina River Basin (MRB). M.Sc Thesis Submitted to Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente.  

CIFOR. (2012). Simply redd; CIFOR’S guide to forests, climate change and reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REPP).

Congalton, R. G., & Mead, R. A. (1983). A quantitative method to test for consistency and correctness in photointerpretation. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 49(1), 69-74.

De Roo, A., Odijk, M., Schmuck, G., Koster, E., & Lucieer, A. (2001). Assessing the effects of land use changes on floods in the Meuse and Oder catchment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 26(7-8), 593-599. Available at:

Eastman, J. (2009). IDRISI taiga guide to GIS and image processing (Manual Version 16.02) (Software). Massachusetts, USA: Clark Labs: Clark University.

Efobi, K., & Anierobi, C. (2013). Impact of flooding on riverine communities: The experience of the Omambala and other areas in Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(18), 58-63.

Ezeomedo, I., & Igbokwe, J. (2013). Mapping and analysis of land use and land cover for sustainable development using high resolution satellite images and GIS. FIG Working Week 2013 Peer-Reviewed Paper, Environment for Sustainability Abuja Nigeria, 6-10 May 2013.

Jensen, J. R. (1996). Introductory digital image processing. A remote sensing perspective. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Jiang, T., & Tian, G. (2010). Analysis of the impact of landuse/landcover charge on land surface temperature with remote sensing.

Olaleye, J., Abiodun, O., & Asonibare, R. (2012). Land-use and land-cover analysis of Ilorin Emirate between 1986 and 2006 using landsat imageries. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(4), 189-198. Available at:

Oluseyi, I. O., Fanan, U., & Magaji, J. Y. (2009). An evaluation of the effect of landuse/landcover charge on the surface temperature of Lokoja town Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(3), 086-090.

Panahi, A., Alijani, B., & Mohammadi, H. (2010). The effect of the land use/cover changes on the floods of the Madarsu Basin of Northeastern Iran. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2(4), 373-379. Available at:

Paria, P., & Bhatt, B. (2012). A spatio-temporal land use change analysis of Waghodia Taluka using RS and GIS. Geoscience Research, 3(2), 96-99.

Ravetz, J., Fertrier, C., & Nielsen, T. B. (2013). Remarking cities contradictions of the recent Urban environment. In Peri-Urban features: Scerario and models for land use charge in Europe; Nilsson, K., Pauliet, S., Bell, S., Aalbers, C., Nielsen, S.T., Eds (pp. 13-44). New York, USA: Rutledge Publications.

Takuechi, W., Hashim, N., & Thef, K. M. (2010). Application of RS and GIS for monitoring UHI in KL metropolitan area. Map Asia 2010 and ISG 2010 Kuala Lumpur.

Weng, Q., Lu, D., & Schubring, J. (2004). Estimation of land surface temperature–vegetation abundance relationship for urban heat island studies. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89(4), 467-483. Available at:

Yasodharan, S., Balachandar, D., Rutharvel, M., Muruganandam, R., & Kumaraswamy, K. (2011). Land use/land cover change detection through using remote sensing and GIS technology-A case study of St. Thomas Mount Block, Kacheepuram District, Tamilnadu. International Journal of Current Research, 3(11), 501-506.

Yeates, M., & Garner, B. (1976). The North American city. New York: Harper and Row Publication.

No any video found for this article.
Agulue Emmanuel , Okoye Nnabuike , Samuel Oji Iheukwumere , Kelechi Friday Nkwocha (2020). Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 71-83. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.71.83
This paper assessed the landuse and landcover changes and its implications to flooding along Omambala floodplain in Anambra State. The paper aimed at identifying the landuse and landcover types in Omambala floodplain in relations to their temporal dynamics, the extent of landuse change and its implication to recurring incidence of flood disaster in the study area over a period of 20 years starting from the year 1998 to 2018. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imageries were obtained at 10 years interval; 1998; 2008 and 2018 to observe the pattern of landuse and landcover along the floodplain over the period of study. Population data of study area were obtained from National Population Commission on four time paints as to understand the rate of land conversion and modification of the floodplain. Visual interpretation method was used to map landuse and landcover into five classes namely: waterbody; built-up; sparse vegetation; bare surface and dense vegetation. The result of the analysis of the imageries showed a considerable change in the pattern of landuse and landcover classes within the period under study. There was also a considerable population growth leading to progressive conversion of natural vegetation to other human activities with Built-up lands sparse vegetation and bare surface on the increase as well as their attendant consequences. However, the study concluded that various anthropogenic landuse activities especially poor farming system leading to increasing sparse vegetation, bare surface and built-up area are major factors that affects natural vegetation thereby worsening the incidence of flooding in the study area. The research therefore recommends relocation of settlements, greening of space already turning bare, effective floodplain management and continues monitoring of changes on land characters to ensure environmental sustainability and to forestall recurring incidence of flooding along the floodplain.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated land-use and land-cover changes and its implications to flooding along Omambala flood plain, Anambra State. The research demonstrated the ability of GIS and remote sensing in capturing spatial-temporal data for land-use, land-cover changes and flood incidence studies.