Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

International Journal of Geography and Geology

January 2020, Volume 9, 1, pp 13-37

Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana

Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana


Jonathan Quaye-Ballard


Clement Ntori


Alfred Awotwi


Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka


Thomas Moore Okrah


Abena Asare-Ansah

Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana 1 ,

Jonathan Quaye-Ballard 2 Clement Ntori 1 Alfred Awotwi 4
Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka 5
Thomas Moore Okrah 2 Abena Asare-Ansah 2 

  1. Pan African University Institute of Earth and Life Science Including Agriculture (PAULESI), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. 2

  3. Department of Earth an Environmental science, University for Development Studies (UDS), Navrongo, Ghana. 4

  4. Department of Geology, University of Ibadan (UI), Ibadan, Nigeria. 5

Pages: 13-37

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.13.37

Share :

Article History:

Received: 30 October, 2019
Revised: 29 November, 2019
Accepted: 02 January, 2020
Published: 13 February, 2020


Utilization of multispectral satellite images is an excellent approach in the reconnaissance stage of gold prospecting due to its high effectiveness and low cost. This research used Landsat 8 Remote Sensing data and Geographical Information System to identify, delineate and map hydrothermal alteration zone relating to gold pattern mineralization in Prestea Huni Valley District in the Western Region of Ghana. Principle Component Analysis (PCA), three band combinations, spectral rationing and Crosta techniques are used in this study. For three band combinations, bands 5, 4, 3 and 5, 6, 7 are used to map location of hydrothermal alterations. Band ratios (7/5and6/7), (6/5) and (4/2) are used to identify presence of clay, ferrous and iron oxide minerals respectively. Sabin's ratio 4/2, 6/7 and 6/5, Kaufmann ratio 7/5, 5/4 and 6/7, and 4/2, 6/7 and 5 are used to identify vegetation, outcrop and hydrothermal alterations respectively. Crosta and PCA techniques were used to suppress the interference of vegetation in delineating the alteration zones. Results revealed that the three band combinations and spectral ratioing clearly depicts hydrothermal deposit of ferrous minerals, clay and iron oxide minerals. PCA identifies presence of iron-oxide and hydroxyl minerals as bright pixels. The first three high order principal components (PC1, PC2 and PC3) of input spectral bands gave more than 98% of the spectral information. Thus, the results from satellite images an effective and efficient way of mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at regional scale.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated to identify hydrothermally alteration relating to gold mineralization. The study documents how Satellite data and Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System techniques can be used to delineate hydrothermal alterations at regional scale at a reduced cost.


Principle component analysis, PCA, Band Ratio, Hydrothermal alteration, Hydroxyl minerals, Mineralization, Ghana.



Abhary, A. and H. Hassani, 2016. Mapping hydrothermal mineral deposits using PCA and BR methods in Baft 1: 100000 Geological sheet, Iran. Ratio, 7(5): 6.

Abubakar, A.J., M. Mazlan Hashim and A.B. Pour, 2014. Using landsat 8 (OLI) remote sensing data to map lithology and mineralogy for geothermal resource exploration. Geoscience and Digital Earth Centre (Geo-DEC), Research Institute for Sustainability and Environment (RISE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Available from [Accessed 1/02/2018].

Abuzied, S.M., S.K. Ibrahim, M.F. Kaiser and T.A. Seleem, 2016. Application of remote sensing and spatial data integrations for mapping porphyry copper zones in Nuweiba area, Egypt. International Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 4(2): 102-108.

Alimohammadi, M., S. Alirezaei and D.J. Kontak, 2015. Application of aster data for exploration of porphyry copper deposits: A case study of Daraloo–Sarmeshk area, southern part of the Kerman copper belt, Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 70: 290-304.Available at:

Allibone, A., J. Teasdale, G. Cameron, M. Etheridge, P. Uttley, A. Soboh, J. Appiah-Kubi, A. Adanu, R. Arthur and J. Mamphey, 2002. Timing and structural controls on gold mineralization at the bogoso gold mine, Ghana, West Africa. Economic Geology, 97(5): 949-969.Available at:

Amer, R., T. Kusky and A. Ghulam, 2010. Lithological mapping in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 56(2-3): 75-82.Available at:

Appiah, H., 1991. Geology and mine exploration trends of Prestea goldfields, Ghana. Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 13(2): 235-241.Available at:

Botwe, T., E.O. Jnr, A.K. Kwaw and A.A. Omitogun, 2018. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using remote sensing and gis at the prestea concession of golden star bogoso/prestea ltd, Ghana. International Journal of Engineering Science, 8(1): 15898-15902.  [Accessed 2/3/2018].

Chavez, P., S.C. Sides and J.A. Anderson, 1991. Comparison of three different methods to merge multiresolution and multispectral data- Landsat TM and SPOT panchromatic. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57(3): 295-303.

Crosta, A., C. De Souza Filho, F. Azevedo and C. Brodie, 2003. Targeting key alteration minerals in epithermal deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, using aster imagery and principal component analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(21): 4233-4240.Available at:

Da Cunha Frutuoso, R.M., 2015. Mapping hydrothermal gold mineralization using landsat 8 data. A Case of Study in Chaves License, Portugal.

Dehnavi, A.G., R. Sarikhani and D. Nagaraju, 2010. Image processing and analysis of mapping alteration zones in environmental research, East of Kurdistan, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11(3): 278-283.Available at:

Gad, S. and T. Kusky, 2007. Aster spectral ratioing for lithological mapping in the Arabian–Nubian shield, the Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt. Gondwana Research, 11(3): 326-335.Available at:

Goetz, A.F., 2009. Three decades of hyperspectral remote sensing of the earth: A personal view. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113: S5-S16.Available at:

Goetz, A.F., L.C. Rowan and M.J. Kingston, 1982. Mineral identification from orbit: Initial results from the shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer. Science, 218(4576): 1020-1024.Available at:

Griffis, R.J., 1998. Explanotory notes-geological interpretation of geophysical data from Southwestern Ghana. Accra: Mineral Commission. pp: 51.

Griffis, R.J., K. Barning, F.L. Agezo and F.K. Akosah, 2002. Gold deposits of ghana. Ghana: Minerals commissions. Pp: 432.

Jensen, J.R., 2005. Introductory digital image processing: A remote sensing perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Jensen, J.R. and K. Lulla, 1987. Introductory digital image processing: A remote sensing perspective. 2(1): 65-65.Available at:

Kaufmann, H., 1988. Concepts, processing and results. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 9(10-11): 1639-1658.Available at:

Kesse, G.O., 1985. The rock and mineral resources of Ghana. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema, .

Knepper, D., 1989;2010. Mapping hydrothermal alteration with landsat thematic mapper data. Mineral Deposits of North America, 1: 13-21.Available at:

Kruse, F.A., S.L. Perry and A. Caballero, 2002. Integrated multispectral and hyperspectral mineral mapping, Los Menucos, Rio Negro, Argentina, Part II: EO-1 Hyperion/AVIRIS comparisons and landsat TM/ASTER extensions. In Proc. 11th JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Kuma, J., Y.U. Kim, D. Boamah and I. Sakamoto, 2010. Gold Potential of the Ashanti Belt of Ghana. Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 8(3): 25-39.

Kwang, C., E.O. Jnr and A. Duker, 2014. Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems for gold potential mapping in Birim North District of Eastern Region of Ghana. International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications, 4(1): 48-55.Available at:

Leube, A., W. Hirdes, R. Mauer and G.O. Kesse, 1990. The early proterozoic birimian supergroup of Ghana and some aspects of its associated gold mineralization. Precambrian Research, 46(1-2): 139-165.Available at:

Lillesand, T.M., R.W. Kiefer and J. Chipman, 2000. Remote sensing and image analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Loughlin, W., 1991. Principal component analysis for alteration mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57(9): 1163-1169.

Masoumi, F., T. Eslamkish, M. Honarmand and A.A. Abkar, 2017. A comparative study of landsat-7 and landsat-8 data using image processing methods for hydrothermal alteration mapping. Resource Geology, 67(1): 72-88.Available at:

Mia, B. and Y. Fujimitsu, 2012. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ETM+ image in and around Kuju volcano, Kyushu, Japan. Journal of Earth System Science, 121(4): 1049-1057.Available at:

Milési, J., P. Ledru, P. Ankrah, V. Johan, E. Marcoux and C. Vinchon, 1991. The metallogenic relationship between birimian and tarkwaian gold deposits in Ghana. Mineralium Deposita, 26(3): 228-238.Available at:

MLGRD, 2006. Western region (prestea-huni valley distric).

Mshiu, E.E., C. Gläßer and G. Borg, 2015. Identification of hydrothermal paleofluid pathways, the pathfinders in the exploration of mineral deposits: A case study from the sukumaland greenstone belt, Lake Victoria Gold Field, Tanzania. Advances in Space Research, 55(4): 1117-1133.Available at:

Nouri, R., M. Jafari, M. Arain and F. Feizi, 2012. Hydrothermal alteration zones identification based on remote sensing data in the Mahin Area, West of Qazvin Province, Iran. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, 6(7): 382-385.

Oberthür, T., U. Vetter, D.W. Davis and J.A. Amanor, 1998. Age constraints on gold mineralization and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution in the Ashanti belt of southern Ghana. Precambrian Research, 89(3-4): 129-143.

Oduro, 2011. Prestea Huni-Valley District Assembly website. Available from [Accessed 12/08/2018].

Pour, A.B. and M. Hashim, 2014. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using landsat-8 data, Sar Cheshmeh copper mining district, SE Iran. Journal of Taibah University for Science.

Pour, A.B., M. Hashim, J.K. Hong and Y. Park, 2017. Lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies using landsat-8 and aster satellite data: North-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula. Ore Geology Reviews.

Rajesh, H., 2004. Application of remote sensing and GIS in mineral resource mapping-An overview. Journal of mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 99(3): 83-103.Available at:

Ranjbar, H., M. Honarmand and Z. Moezifar, 2004. Application of the Crosta technique for porphyry copper alteration mapping, using ETM+ data in the southern part of the Iranian volcanic sedimentary belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24(2): 237-243.Available at:

Ruiz-Armenta, J.R. and R.M. Prol-Ledesma, 1998. Techniques for enhancing the spectral response of hydrothermal alteration minerals in Thematic Mapper images of Central Mexico. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(10): 1981-2000.Available at: 10.1080/014311698215108.

Sabins, F.F., 1999. Remote sensing for mineral exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 14(3-4): 157-183.

Sadiya, T.B., O. Ibrahim, T.F. Asma, V. Mamfe, C.J. Nsofor, A.S. Oyewmi and M.S. Ozigis, 2014. Mineral detection and mapping using band ratioing and crosta technique in Bwari Area Council, Abuja Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(12): 1100-1108.

Van der Meer, F.D., H.M. Van der Werff, F.J. Van Ruitenbeek, C.A. Hecker, W.H. Bakker, M.F. Noomen, M. Van Der Meijde, E.J.M. Carranza, J.B. De Smeth and T. Woldai, 2012. Multi-and hyperspectral geologic remote sensing: A review. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 14(1): 112-128.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This work was supported by the African Union Commission.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana
( 2 ) Application of Geographic Information System to Select Dam Location for Hydropower
( 3 ) The Remote Sensing Imagery, New Challenges for Geological and Mining Mapping in the West African Craton - The Example of Cote D’ivoire
( 4 ) Soil Erosion Hazard Mapping in Central Zab Basin Using Epm Model in GIS Environment
( 5 ) Sensitivity Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of the Guilan Aquifer Using Drastic Method
( 6 ) Reading Activities in Kauman Area, Parakan, Indonesia, During the Colonial Era Using Mapping Analysis
( 10 ) Hospital Site Selection Using a BDI Agent Model
( 11 ) Optimal Density Determination of Bouguer Anomaly Using Fractal Analysis (Case of Study: Charak Area, Iran)
( 12 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 13 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 14 ) Energy Trading and Congestion Management Using Real and Reactive Power Rescheduling and Load Curtailment
( 15 ) Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort Analysis of Public Housing in Sao Paulo, Brazil
( 16 ) Sequestration Rate of Heavy Metal Contaminants Using Riccia Fluitans as Potential Phytoremediation Agent in Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem
( 17 ) Economic Load Dispatch in Thermal Power Plant Considering Additional Constraints Using Curve Fitting and Ann
( 18 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 19 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 20 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 21 ) Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation
( 22 ) Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data
( 23 ) Residential Housing Quality Assessment Based on the Criteria of Sustainable Housing (Case Study: Residential Complex of 100 Units of Region 1 City of Zahedan)
( 24 ) Landfill Site Selection Using Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) Method and Artificial Neural Network Method; A Case Study from Lorestan Province, Iran
( 26 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 28 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 29 ) Evaluation of Road Traffic Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectricity
( 30 ) Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
( 31 ) Implementable Approach of Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Based Smart City Using IoT
( 32 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera
( 33 ) Using Refined Phosphogypsum to Replace Natural Gypsum in Portland Cement Production in Vietnam
( 34 ) Modelling and Simulation of PV Solar-Thermoelectric Generators Using Nano Fluids
( 36 ) Assessing Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Dynamics in Upper East Region of Ghana Using Chirps Data from 1981 to 2016
( 37 ) Characterization of Regolith Types and its Impact on Gold Anomaly in Highly Weathered Terrains Using Multiple Dataset
( 39 ) Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants
( 40 ) Estimating the Extreme Temperature Occurrence Over Pakistan Using Interannual and Interdecadal Temperature Variation and Teleconnections During 1901-2018
( 41 ) Influence of Reaction Temperature on Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Using Cassava as Substrate
( 42 ) Comparative Analysis of Nested Domain Sensitivity on Thunderstorm Simulation using WRF-ARW Model: A Case Study Over Bangladesh
( 43 ) Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Using Water Quality Index in Gadilam River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India
( 50 ) Resolving Optimum Magnetic Signatures for Drill-Hole Targeting in Gold Exploration – A Case Study for Mbudzane in Gwanda, Zimbabwe
( 51 ) Development of Solar Energy in Sabah Malaysia: The Case of Trudgill’s Perception
( 53 ) Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data by VES Method for Water Exploring Case Study: South West of Iran
( 54 ) Problems of Mechanized Tunneling In Gassy Ground Conditions a Case Study: Nousoud Water Transmission Tunnel
( 55 ) Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State
( 56 ) Improved Analytical Approach of Vibration Behavior Destined To Ball Bearings in The Case of Angular Contact
( 57 ) Modeling and Optimization of Phenylacetyylcarbinol Synthesis via Benzaldehyde: A Case of Artificial Neural Network vs. Response Surface Methodology
( 58 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 59 ) Investigating the Density Ratios of Geological Structure through Fractal Geometry Case Stady: (Dehno Region in Farss of Iran)
( 61 ) Expanded of Informal Jobs in Iranian Border Cities, Case: Zabol-Iran
( 62 ) The Roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) On the Practices of Soil and Water Conservation in the Case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia
( 63 ) Predicting Changes in the Land Use in Midsize Cities (Case Study: Urmia City of Iran in 2025)
( 64 ) The Effect of Ergonomics on Sustainable Urban Development: A Case Study
( 65 ) A Study on River Ecotourism Development: Case Study: Karaj River
( 66 ) Theoretical Solution of the Diffusion Equation in Unstable Case
( 67 ) Prioritization of Museums in Terms of Performance in Attracting Tourists (Case Study: Museum of North of Sistan and Baluchestan Province)
( 69 ) Indicators of Sustainability in Vernacular Settlements Hot Dry Region of Iran, [Case Study: Kerman-Meymand]
( 71 ) Net-Zero Energy Building – Case Study Al Khobar City, Saudi Arabia
( 72 ) The Role of Stratigraphy in Growth Strata Studies: A Case Study from the Middle-Late Cretaceous Deposits in Persian Gulf, SW Iran
( 74 ) 'Manifestations and Extent of Climate Change'. The Case of Merti District, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia
( 75 ) Determinants of Farmers’ Engagement in Off-Farm (Non-Farm Activities) as Copping Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Merti, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia
( 76 ) The Relationship Between Low-Carbon Finance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Industrial Bank of China
( 77 ) Political Economy and Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusive Low-Carbon Energy Transition: Case of Kenyan Rangelands
( 78 ) Post Disaster Recovery Process of Landslides in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Aranayake Landslide - Sri Lanka
( 79 ) Perception and Impacts to Climate Emergency in Maiduguri Urban, North-East Nigeria: A Case for Community Based Adaptation Approach
( 81 ) Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State