Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

International Journal of Geography and Geology

April 2019, Volume 8, 4, pp 110-127

Assessing Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Dynamics in Upper East Region of Ghana Using Chirps Data from 1981 to 2016

Thomas Moore Okrah


J. A. Quaye-Ballard


S. A. Andam-Akorful


Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana

Thomas Moore Okrah 1 ,

J. A. Quaye-Ballard 1 S. A. Andam-Akorful 1 Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana 4

  1. Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. 1

  2. Pan African University Institute of Earth and Life Science Including Agriculture (PAULESI), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 4

Pages: 110-127

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2019.84.110.127

Share :

Article History:

Received: 13 August, 2019
Revised: 17 September, 2019
Accepted: 21 October, 2019
Published: 09 December, 2019


Precipitation variability evaluation assumes a vital part in water asset administration and rainfed agribusiness. In Ghana, rain gauge stations are poorly distributed and also, obtaining long time span of data is difficult due to data inconsistency, as a result remotely sensed precipitation products are largely used to complement ground gauge stations data for assessing climatic variability and water resource managements. In this study, Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) precipitation data from 1981-2016 and also utilizing Cumulative Residual Analysis (CRA), Mann-Kendall, Sen's Slope, Wavelet Transform (WT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results show that 1981, 1999, 2002 and 2013 were four noteworthy years with changes in precipitation. The Mann-Kendal and Sen's Slope demonstrate that 55.71% of UER indicated diminishing month to month precipitation with 27.34% critical patterns. Precipitation in April, May, and June demonstrated a diminishing pattern while July, August, and September showed an increasing trend during the 35 years’ study period. Further investigation using Continuous Wavelet Transform indicated an annual variation significant. PCA uncovered that the spatial variability of precipitation in UER is extremely assorted, however greater part (33.76%) of the fluctuation is situated in the north-eastern part. Thus, the results from remotely sensed precipitation products an effective, efficient and cheap way of assessing top to the bottom comprehension of precipitation variation at regional level.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated in the study area which applied new methods such as Cumulative residual analysis (CRA), Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Slope tests, Wavelet transform (WT), Principal component analysis (PCA) on remotely sensed precipitation data to assess both spatial and temporal variability.


Cumulative residual analysis (CRA), Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Slope tests, Wavelet transform (WT), Principal component analysis (PCA), Remote sensing, Ghana, CHIRPS data.



Andam-Akorful, S., V. Ferreira, C. Ndehedehe and J. Quaye-Ballard, 2017. An investigation into the freshwater variability in West Africa during 1979-2010. International Journal of Climatology, 37: 333-349.Available at:

Antwi-Agyei, P., E.D. Fraser, A.J. Dougill, L.C. Stringer and E. Simelton, 2012. Mapping the vulnerability of crop production to drought in Ghana using rainfall, yield and socioeconomic data. Applied Geography, 32(2): 324-334.Available at:

Awotwi, A., G.K. Anornu, J. Quaye-Ballard, T. Annor and E.K. Forkuo, 2017. Analysis of climate and anthropogenic impacts on runoff in the Lower Pra River Basin of Ghana. Heliyon, 3(12): e00477.Available at:

Baidu, M., L.K. Amekudzi, J.N.A. Aryee and T. Annor, 2017. Assessment of long-term Spatio-temporal rainfall variability over Ghana Using Wavelet Analysis. Climate, 5(30): 1–24.

Basalirwa, C., J. Odiyo, R. Mngodo and E. Mpeta, 1999. The climatological regions of Tanzania based on the rainfall characteristics. International Journal of Climatology, 19(1): 69-80.Available at:<69::aid-joc343>;2-d.

Bekoe, E.O. and F.Y. Logah, 2013. The impact of droughts and climate change on electricity generation in Ghana. Environmental Sciences, 1(1): 13–24.

Blain, G.C., 2013. The modified Mann-Kendall test: On the performance of three variance correction approaches. Bragantia, 72(4): 416-425.Available at:

Dale, M. and M. Mah, 1998. The use of wavelets for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9(6): 805-814.Available at:

Dawood, M. and Atta-ur-Rahman, 2017. Spatio-statistical analysis of temperature fluctuation using Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope approach. Climate dynamics, 48(3-4): 783-797.

Dyn, C., J. Zhang, Y. Hao, B.X. Hu, X. Huo and P. Hao, 2016. The effects of monsoons and climate teleconnections on the Niangziguan Karst Spring discharge in North China. Climate Dynamics, 48(1-2): 53-70.

Ghana Statistical Service, 2010. Population & housing census. Regional Analytical Report - Upper East Region: Accra.

Hsu, K.-C. and S.-T. Li, 2010. Clustering spatial–temporal precipitation data using wavelet transform and self-organizing map neural network. Advances in Water Resources, 33(2): 190-200.

Huang, J., Y. Xue, S. Sun and J. Zhang, 2014a. Spatial and temporal variability of drought during 1960-2012 in inner. Quaternary International, 10: 1–11.Available at: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.10.036.

IPCC, 2007. 976. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. Van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp: 976.

Jarawura, F.X., 2013. Drought and migration In Northern Ghana. PhD. Thesis, Centre for Migration Studies, University of Ghana. Accra, Ghana, 1-223.

Ji, L. and A.J. Peters, 2003. Assessing vegetation response to drought in the Northern Great Plains using vegetation and drought indices. Remote Sensing of Environment, 87(1): 85-98.Available at:

Kabo-bah, A.T., C.J. Diji, K. Nokoe, Y. Mulugetta, D. Obeng-ofori and K. Akpoti, 2016. Multiyear rainfall and temperature trends in the volta river Basin and their potential impact on Hydropower Generation in Ghana. Climate, 4(49): 1–17.

Kolivras, K.N. and A.C. Comrie, 2007. Regionalization and variability of precipitation in Hawaii. Physical Geography, 28(1): 76-96.Available at:

Lacombe, G., M. McCartney and G. Forkuor, 2012. Drying climate in Ghana over the period 1960–2005: Evidence from the resampling-based Mann-Kendall test at local and regional levels. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57(8): 1594-1609.Available at:

Le, A.M. and N.G. Pricope, 2017. Increasing the accuracy of runoff and streamflow simulation in the Nzoia Basin , Western Kenya, Throught the Incorpation of Satellite-Derived CHIRPS Data. Water, 9(114).

Leemhuis, C., G. Jung, R. Kasei and J. Liebe, 2009. The volta basin water allocation system: Assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta Basin, West Africa. Advances in Geosciences, 21: 57-62.Available at:

Liang, L., L. Li and Q. Liu, 2011. Precipitation variability in Northeast China from 1961 to 2008. Journal of Hydrology, 404(1-2): 67-76.Available at:

Liu, Z. and L. Menzel, 2016. Identifying long-term variations in vegetation and climatic variables and their scale-dependent relationships: A case study in Southwest Germany. Global and Planetary Change, 147: 54-66.Available at:

Mberego, S., K. Sanga-Ngoie and S. Kobayashi, 2013. Vegetation dynamics of Zimbabwe investigated using NOAA-AVHRR NDVI from 1982 to 2006: A principal component analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(19): 6764-6779.Available at:

Ministry of Food & Agriculture, 2017. Upper East region, Ministry of Food & Agriculture, Ghana. Available from [Accessed 21 February 2017].

Nalley, D., J. Adamowski, B. Khalil and B. Ozga-Zielinski, 2013. Trend detection in surface air temperature in Ontario and Quebec, Canada during 1967–2006 using the discrete wavelet transform. Atmospheric Research, 132: 375-398.Available at:

Navarra, A. and V. Simoncini, 2010. A guide to empirical othogonal function for climate data analysis. New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Nicholson, S.E., B. Some and B. Kone, 2000. An analysis of recent rainfall conditions in West Africa, including the rainy seasons of the 1997 El Niño and the 1998 La Niña years. Journal of Climate, 13(14): 2628-2640.

Nick, v.d.G., M. Andreini, A.V.A.N. Edig and P. Vlek, 2001. Competition for water resources of the Volta basin, Regional Management of Water Resources (Proceedings of a Symposium Held During the Sixth IAHS Scientific Assembly at Maastricht, The Netherlands, July 2001). IAHS Publication. no. 268, 20011964 (268), 199–205.

Nischitha, V., S. Ahmed, H. Varikoden and J. Revadekar, 2014. The impact of seasonal rainfall variability on NDVI in the Tunga and Bhadra river basins, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(23): 8025-8043.Available at:

Nunes, A.N. and P. Lopes, 2016. Streamflow response to cimate variability and land- cover changes in the River Beça Watershed, Northern Portugal. River Basin Management: 61-80.Available at: 10.5772/63079.

Paredes-Trejo, F.J., H. Barbosa and T.L. Kumar, 2017. Validating CHIRPS-based satellite precipitation estimates in Northeast Brazil. Journal of Arid Environments, 139: 26-40.Available at:

Quagraine, K.A., N. Ama, B. Klutse, F. Nkrumah, D.C. Adukpo and K. Owusu, 2017. Changes in Rainfall characteristics in Wenchi and Saltpond farming areas of Ghana. International Journal of Geosciences, 8(3): 305–317.Available at:

Retalis, A., F. Tymvios, D. Katsanos and S. Michaelides, 2017. Downscaling CHIRPS precipitation data: An artificial neural network modelling approach. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 38(13): 3943-3959.Available at:

Santos, C.A.G. and P.K.M.M. Freire, 2012. Analysis of precipitation time series of Urban Centers of Northeastern Brazil using Wavelet Transform. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, 6(7): 405–410.

Sun, T., V. Ferreira, X. He and S. Andam-Akorful, 2016. Water availability of Sao Francisco river basin based on a space-borne geodetic sensor. Water, 8(5): 1-20.Available at:

Torrence, C. and G.P. Compo, 1998. A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(1): 61-78.

Van Looy, K., J. Piffady and M. Floury, 2017. At what scale and extent environmental gradients and climatic changes influence stream invertebrate communities? Science of the Total Environment, 580: 34-42.

Vicente-Serrano, S.M., O. Chura, J.I. López-Moreno, C. Azorin-Molina, A. Sanchez-Lorenzo, E. Aguilar, E. Moran-Tejeda, F. Trujillo, R. Martínez and J. Nieto, 2015. Spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Bolivia: 1955–2012. International Journal of Climatology, 35(10): 3024-3040.Available at:

Wang, S., C. Huang, L. Zhang, Y. Lin, Y. Cen and T. Wu, 2016. Monitoring and assessing the 2012 drought in the great plains: Analyzing satellite-retrieved solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Drought Indices , and Gross Primary Production. Remote Sensing, 8(61): 1–17.

Yiran, G., J. Kusimi and S. Kufogbe, 2012. A synthesis of remote sensing and local knowledge approaches in land degradation assessment in the Bawku East District, Ghana. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 14(1): 204-213.Available at:

Zhao, G., X. Mu, G. Hörmann, N. Fohrer, M. Xiong, B. Su and X. Li, 2012. Spatial patterns and temporal variability of dryness/wetness in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Quaternary International, 282: 5-13.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Assessing the Catalytic Influence of Modern Information System and Socio-Economic Status on Communities’ Attitude and Awareness to Forest Resource Sustainability in Boki Local Government Area, Nigeria
( 2 ) Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda
( 3 ) Assessing Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Dynamics in Upper East Region of Ghana Using Chirps Data from 1981 to 2016
( 4 ) Temporal and Spatial Trend of Climate Variability in Vietnam
( 5 ) Identifying Potential Zones of Crime Commitment against Tourists in a Park: Conceptual and Logical Spatial Data Modeling
( 6 ) Application of Geospatial Analysis and Augmented Reality Visualization in Indoor Advertising
( 7 ) An Analysis of Effective Factors on Spatial Distribution of Poverty in Rural Regions of Hamedan Province
( 8 ) Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria
( 9 ) The Impact of Land Use on Spatial Variations of Begging in District Lahore_Pakistan
( 10 ) Effects of Hydroclimatic Variability on the Spatial Dynamics of Ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) of the Gambia River Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park (Senegal)
( 12 ) Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Agricultural Development A Block-Wise Study of Dehradun District
( 18 ) An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)
( 19 ) Micro Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 20 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 22 ) Tectomagmatic Origin of the Zahedan Batholiths – South East Iran (Reling on Intergrated Outcrop Study of the Petrology of High Mass in Loochan, Southwest Zahedan)
( 23 ) Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Two Species of Crabs from Chilika Lagoon, East Coast of India
( 24 ) Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
( 25 ) A Study on Gravimeteric Situation in East of Uromieh Lake Region with Determination of Suitable Bouguer Density
( 26 ) Analysis of the Factors Affecting Changes in Land Cover Patterns in Rural Districts in East of Guilan Province (Iran) for Foresight
( 27 ) Climate Change Vulnerability in Rwanda, East Africa
( 28 ) Geographical Analysis of Household Waste Generation and Disposal in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria
( 30 ) Perception and Impacts to Climate Emergency in Maiduguri Urban, North-East Nigeria: A Case for Community Based Adaptation Approach
( 31 ) Fonctionnement Hydrodynamique Des Aquiferes Discontinus De La Region D’abidjan-Agboville (Sud De La Cote D’ivoire)
( 32 ) Energy Demand and Financial Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan African Region
( 33 ) Investigating the Density Ratios of Geological Structure through Fractal Geometry Case Stady: (Dehno Region in Farss of Iran)
( 35 ) Geomorphology of the Piramagroon–Kanikhan Valley, Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq
( 36 ) Comparison of the Gravimetric Network in Esfarayen Region with the Network of Fractal Analysis
( 38 ) Residential Housing Quality Assessment Based on the Criteria of Sustainable Housing (Case Study: Residential Complex of 100 Units of Region 1 City of Zahedan)
( 39 ) Indicators of Sustainability in Vernacular Settlements Hot Dry Region of Iran, [Case Study: Kerman-Meymand]
( 40 ) 'Manifestations and Extent of Climate Change'. The Case of Merti District, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia
( 41 ) Determinants of Farmers’ Engagement in Off-Farm (Non-Farm Activities) as Copping Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Merti, Arsi Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia
( 43 ) The Impact of Energy Consumption and Productivity Growth on Carbon Emissions in Ghana
( 44 ) An Exploratory Study of Effects of Prepaid Metering and Energy Related Behaviour among Ghanaian Household
( 46 ) Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana
( 47 ) Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana
( 48 ) Hospital Site Selection Using a BDI Agent Model
( 49 ) Optimal Density Determination of Bouguer Anomaly Using Fractal Analysis (Case of Study: Charak Area, Iran)
( 50 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 51 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 52 ) Energy Trading and Congestion Management Using Real and Reactive Power Rescheduling and Load Curtailment
( 53 ) Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort Analysis of Public Housing in Sao Paulo, Brazil
( 54 ) Sequestration Rate of Heavy Metal Contaminants Using Riccia Fluitans as Potential Phytoremediation Agent in Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem
( 55 ) Economic Load Dispatch in Thermal Power Plant Considering Additional Constraints Using Curve Fitting and Ann
( 56 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 57 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 58 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 59 ) Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation
( 60 ) Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data
( 62 ) Landfill Site Selection Using Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) Method and Artificial Neural Network Method; A Case Study from Lorestan Province, Iran
( 63 ) Soil Erosion Hazard Mapping in Central Zab Basin Using Epm Model in GIS Environment
( 64 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 65 ) Sensitivity Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of the Guilan Aquifer Using Drastic Method
( 66 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 67 ) Evaluation of Road Traffic Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectricity
( 68 ) Reinforcing Kenya Power National Grid Using Statcom Devices
( 69 ) Implementable Approach of Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Based Smart City Using IoT
( 70 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera
( 71 ) Using Refined Phosphogypsum to Replace Natural Gypsum in Portland Cement Production in Vietnam
( 72 ) Modelling and Simulation of PV Solar-Thermoelectric Generators Using Nano Fluids
( 73 ) Reading Activities in Kauman Area, Parakan, Indonesia, During the Colonial Era Using Mapping Analysis
( 75 ) Characterization of Regolith Types and its Impact on Gold Anomaly in Highly Weathered Terrains Using Multiple Dataset
( 77 ) Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants
( 79 ) Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data by VES Method for Water Exploring Case Study: South West of Iran
( 86 ) Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria
( 87 ) A Study of Stream Sediments from Soltan Meydan Basaltic Formation Area, Northern Iran
( 88 ) Exsolution Lamellae in Orthopyroxene of Lherzolite from the Pauza Ultramafic Rocks, Ne Iraq: Evidence of Deep Mantle Signature in the Zagros Suture Zone
( 89 ) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization
( 90 ) Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy
( 91 ) Hydrocarbon Pollutant Emitted From a Diesel Engine Fueled With Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel No.2
( 94 ) Chemical Composition and Facieses of Water from Vaskareh Village, Damavand: Implication for Industrial, Agricultural and Human Consumptions
( 95 ) On Generation of Renewable Energy from Road Traffic
( 96 ) Forest as a Redeemer: Experiences Drawn from Selected Rural Ejagham Communities in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
( 98 ) The Role of Stratigraphy in Growth Strata Studies: A Case Study from the Middle-Late Cretaceous Deposits in Persian Gulf, SW Iran
( 100 ) Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties and Bacteriological Loads of Waste Water Effluent from Oxidation Pond at Woldia University, North Wollo, Ethiopia
( 102 ) Analysis of the Link between CO2 Outflows, Energy Utilization, and Economic Development in a Developing Country: Evidence from Republic of Congo
( 104 ) Supercapacitors Based on Activated Carbon and Polymer Electrolyte
( 105 ) The Remote Sensing Imagery, New Challenges for Geological and Mining Mapping in the West African Craton - The Example of Cote D’ivoire
( 106 ) Investigation into the Realization of Naturalism in Hashtgerd New Town Based On the Iranian Islamic Model
( 107 ) Sea oil Spill: An Approach Difficult to Overcome by Insurance and International Regulation
( 108 ) Land Degradation Due To Mining: The Gunda Scenario
( 109 ) Comparison and Review of the Advantages of the Fractal Method (Variogram) With Respect To the Nettelton in Determining the Density of the Bouguer Plane in the Southern Hormozgan: Iran
( 112 ) Power Loss Reduction in PWM Inverters of Induction Motor Drives Based on Soft Switching Technique
( 113 ) Sustainable Sources of Energy and the Expected Benefits to Nigerian Economy
( 114 ) Numerical Modeling of Wires Incorporation Response Applied To a Concealed Cable
( 115 ) Energy Education as a Necessary Condition to Transition to a Robust Future Energy Security in Suriname
( 117 ) Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria
( 118 ) Improved Analytical Approach of Vibration Behavior Destined To Ball Bearings in The Case of Angular Contact
( 119 ) Tourism Advertisement Management and Effective Tools in Tourism Industry
( 120 ) Application of Fractal Geometry to Study the Geological Structure of the Zarin Plain (Plain Razak)
( 121 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 122 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 123 ) Aquatic Plants as Ecological Indicator for Urban Lakes Eutrophication Status and Indices
( 125 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 126 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 130 ) Wind To Select the Recreation Flying Site
( 131 ) Urban Park Use, Quality Evaluation, and Resident Satisfaction Indicators in the City of Zahedan, Iran
( 132 ) Active Tectonics of Hamedan Area, West Iran
( 133 ) Calcareous Nannofossils Events of Nephrolithus Frequens Zone to Markalius Inversus Zone in Section of Kazerun, Zagros (Iran)
( 134 ) Analysis of Farmers’ Vulnerability, Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Kwara State, Nigeria
( 135 ) Characterization of Sand Dunes to Detect the Sand Source and their Stabilization, Abardej, Iran