Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

International Journal of Geography and Geology

March 2019, Volume 8, 3, pp 93-109

Bathymetry of the Makoye Reservoir and its Implications on Water Security for Livestock within the Catchment

Manoah Muchanga


Henry M. Sichingabula


Joy Obando


Innocent Chomba


Happy Sikazwe


Moses Chisola

Manoah Muchanga 1 ,

Henry M. Sichingabula 1 Joy Obando 3
Innocent Chomba 4
Happy Sikazwe 1 Moses Chisola 1 
  1. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. 1

  2. Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya 3

  3. Ministry of Water Resource Development, Zimba, Zambia. 4

Pages: 93-109

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2019.83.93.109

Share :

Article History:

Received: 23 May, 2019
Revised: 28 June, 2019
Accepted: 31 July, 2019
Published: 18 September, 2019


The objectives of the study were to: determine bathymetry of the reservoir; understand seasonal hydrological regimes of the reservoir; determine factors influencing reservoir bathymetry and, examine the implications of the reservoir's bathymetry on livestock water demand and policy decision making. The determined reservoir bathymetries and capacities at low, medium and full levels confirmed drastic changes in water volumes and eventually, a threat to water security for livestock. This unsteady equilibrium in reservoir's bathymetry and water volumes was mainly due to high mean annual siltation rates (>5,000 tyr-1). Using 3D spatial analysts tools in ArcGIS 10.3 and spreadsheet Microsoft Excel to analyze the data based on the study, hypsometric curves showed strong non-linear relationships among water depth and water surface; water depths and water volume, as well as water surface area and water volume. Generally, through inter-seasonal comparisons of reservoir's bathymetries and water volumes between 2015 and 2017, this study illustrates the significance of bathymetric study of small reservoirs as a plinth to provide policy context and guidelines on water resource management for livestock, as a missing component in general studies of bathymetry, which are usually predominated by understanding the physical processes, but with little or no emphasis on their meaning towards addressing societal needs. Hence, a community engaged strategy to addressing upstream sediment-generating activities would help in stabilizing the bathymetry of the reservoir and eventually enhance water security for livestock.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated implications of bathymetric surveying on sustainable water resource management for livestock. The study documents how bathymetric surveying can be used to understand seasonal hydrological regimes and storage capacity loss of small reservoirs so as to prepare for water security.


Bathymetry, Evaporation, GIS, Hydrological regimes, Livestock, Monze District-Zambia, Reservoir, Sedimentation, Water.



Ajith, A.V., 2016. Bathymetric survey to study the sediment deposit in reservoir of Peechi dam. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 3(1): 34-38.

Bryman, A., 2008. Social research methods. New York: Oxford University.

Castillo, J.J., 2009. Snowball sampling. Experiment resources. Available from [Accessed 16/02/2016].

Chomba, I.C. and H.M. Sichingabula, 2016. Sedimentation and its effects on selected small Dams East of Lusaka, Zambia. Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, 1(6): 325-340.

Coden, 2014. Operation manual for RC-2 hydrographic survey boat. Tokyo: Coden.

CSO, 2015. Livelihood census report. Lusaka: CSO.

Curtarelli, M., J. Leão, I. Ogashawara, J. Lorenzzetti and J. Stech, 2015. Assessment of spatial interpolation methods to map the bathymetry of an Amazonian hydroelectric reservoir to aid in decision making for water management. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 4(1): 220-235.Available at:

Dalu, T., E.M. Tambara, B. Clegg, L.D. Chari and T. Nhiwatiwa, 2013. Modeling sedimentation rates of Malilangwe reservoir in the South-Eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Applied Water Science, 3(1): 133-144.Available at:

El-Hassan, I., 2015. Bathymetric techniques. Al-Khuzama: King Saud University.

FAO, 2015. Manual on small earth dams: A guide to siting, design and construction. Irrigation and drainage paper 64. Rome: FAO.

Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2006. Soils map of Africa. Paris: FAO.

Heidi, K., K. Tobias, V. Anne, M. Alfonso, L. Junguo, H. McMillan and A. Castellarin, 2016. Scientific debate of Panta Rhei research – How to advance our knowledge of changes in hydrology and society? Hydrological Sciences Journal, 20: 1-3.

International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (IIGSEO), 2016. Bathymetry generation using sonar and satellite imagery. Hengelosestraat: IIGSEO.

McPherson, K.R., L.A. Freeman and L.E. Flint, 2009. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir, 2011 Santa Cruz County. California. USGSI Scientific Investigation Report No. 2009-09.

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock  (MLF), 2016. Livestock census report 2015. Monze: MLF.

Muchanga, M., 2017. Understanding sedimentation process in the Makoye Reservoir of Southern Zambia. Journal of Geography, 5(1): 77-96.Available at:

Richard, A.O., T.K. Randall, K. Wells and J. Cornwell, 2000. Bathymetric survey and sedimentation analysis of Loch Raven and Prettyboy Reservoirs. Baltimore: Mary Department of Environment.

Robinson, P.J. and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1999. Contemporary climatology. 2nd Edn., Harlow: Pearson Education.

Sebnem, E., A. Bor and A. Çalışkan, 2009. Using numerical models and acoustic methods to predict reservoir sedimentation. Lake and Reservoir Management, 25(3): 297-306.Available at:

Sichingabula, H.M., 1997. Problems of sedimentation in small dams in Zambia. Proceedings of the Rabat Symposium. IAHS Publication No. 245. pp: 251-259.

Sichingabula, H.M., 1999. Analysis and results of discharge and sediment monitoring activities in the Southern Lake Tanganyika Basin: Final Report.’ Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project funded by UNDP/GEF/RAF/G32. pp: 251-309. Available from

Sichingabula, H.M., 2000. Clastic sediment flux into Indian and pacific oceans by rivers in Central Southern Africa and Western Canada.’extended abstract.Manaus’99. International Symposium on Hydrological and Geochemical Processes in Large-Scale River Basins, Held 16–19 November 1999 at Manaus, Brazil. pp: 15-19.

Smith, W.H. and D.T. Sandwell, 2004. Conventional bathymetry, bathymetry from space, and geodetic altimetry. Journal of Oceanography, 17(1): 8-23.Available at:

Srinivasan, V., M. Sanderson, M. Garcia, M. Konar, G. Blöschl and M. Sivapalan, 2016. Prediction in a socio-hydrological world. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 20(3): 1-3.Available at: org/10.1080/02626667.2016.1253844.

Swain, A., 1996. The environmental trap: The Ganges river diversion, Bangladesh migration and conflict in India. Uppsala: Uppsala University.

Theresa, B., N. Ilja and M. Weiler, 2016. The role of experimental work in hydrological sciences – insights from a community survey. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 20(3): 1-3.

United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), 2013. U.S. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE). (2013). National inventory of dams. Available from Inventory of Dams.aspx. 2/2/14.

Vojinovic, Z., Y. Abebe, R. Ranasinghe, A. Vacher, P. Martens, D. Mandl, S. Frye, E. Van Ettinger and R. De Zeeuw, 2013. A machine learning approach for estimation of shallow water depths from optical satellite images and sonar measurements. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 15(4): 1408-1424.Available at:

World Meteorological Organisation [WMO], 2016. Impact of El Nino Southern oscillation on Africa. New York: WMO.

Yuzugullu, O. and A. Aksoy, 2014. Generation of the bathymetry of a eutrophic shallow lake using WorldView-2 imagery. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16(1): 50-59.Available at:

Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD), 2016. National weather data sheet. Lusaka: MDZ.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Funding for this study under Task 109 project was largely received from the Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Use (SASSCAL) funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) (Project Grant Number 01LG1201M), and partly from the Zambian Government.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Bathymetry of the Makoye Reservoir and its Implications on Water Security for Livestock within the Catchment
( 4 ) Qanat and Its Challenges in Ferdows County-Iran
( 5 ) A Comparative Study of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Sistan and Baluchistan University Wastewater and Its Re-Use of Wastewater
( 6 ) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization
( 7 ) Sustainable Sources of Energy and the Expected Benefits to Nigerian Economy
( 8 ) Geographic Information System (GIS) and Its Application in Urban Planning and Environment
( 9 ) Transesterification of Caso With Low Amount of Free Fatty Acids and Its Optimization
( 10 ) Thermodynamic Parameters for Solvation of Nano ZNO and Its Dopes In 50% DMSO - 50% DMF (V/V) Solutions at Different Temperatures
( 11 ) Determining the Optimal Density of Neka Using Fractal Method and the Study of Its Geological Situation
( 12 ) Residential Housing Quality Assessment Based on the Criteria of Sustainable Housing (Case Study: Residential Complex of 100 Units of Region 1 City of Zahedan)
( 13 ) The Role of Stratigraphy in Growth Strata Studies: A Case Study from the Middle-Late Cretaceous Deposits in Persian Gulf, SW Iran
( 14 ) Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Different Water Sources and its Impact on Downstream Community Health around Woldia Town, Ethiopia
( 16 ) Characterization of Regolith Types and its Impact on Gold Anomaly in Highly Weathered Terrains Using Multiple Dataset
( 17 ) Rural Harvested Rainwater: Effect of Roof Types and its Design on Water Quality and Health: A Case for CBP Approach in Anambra State
( 18 ) Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State
( 19 ) The Effect Assessment of Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Cimerwa and its Surrounding Areas, Rusizi-District-Rwanda
( 20 ) Efficient Engineering Techniques for Segregation and Management of Non-Biodegradable Wastes: Saving the Earth by Replenishing its Dearth
( 21 ) Seasonal Wildfire Outbreak Trend and its Consequences on Forest Biodiversity and the Environment: A Case Study of Sierra Leone
( 22 ) Governments Policy Reforms from 1970s Onward and It’s Implications on Land Use and Land Cover With the Help of GIS And RS Techniques In Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia
( 23 ) Reliability and Rationing Cost: Some Analytical Implications for a Power System
( 26 ) Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Human Development: Implications for Climate Change Impacts in Africa
( 27 ) Paleoredox Conditions of Paleocene to Miocene Rocks of Eastern Benin (Dahomey) Basin, Nigeria: Implications for Chemostratigraphy
( 28 ) Trace Metal Distribution in Surface Water, Sediment, and Tissues of Freshwater Catfish (Clarias. Gariepinus), From Oke- Afa Canal, Lagos Nigeria
( 30 ) Soil Thermal Properties and the Effects of Groundwater on Closed Loops
( 31 ) Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data by VES Method for Water Exploring Case Study: South West of Iran
( 32 ) Problems of Mechanized Tunneling In Gassy Ground Conditions a Case Study: Nousoud Water Transmission Tunnel
( 33 ) Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri
( 34 ) Phytoremediation Model System for Aquaculture Wastewater Using Glossostigma Elatinoides and Hemianthus Callitrichoides
( 35 ) The Roles of Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) On the Practices of Soil and Water Conservation in the Case of Sekela District, Amhara State, Ethiopia
( 36 ) Chemical Composition and Facieses of Water from Vaskareh Village, Damavand: Implication for Industrial, Agricultural and Human Consumptions
( 37 ) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Quality of Water in Aliero Dam (Kebbi State, Nigeria)
( 38 ) The Problems of Legal Regulations, Protection and Use of Groundwater (International Experience and Practice in Kazakhstan)
( 39 ) Is the Sosiani River Healthy? Investigating the Relationship between Water Quality Indicators and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Sosiani River
( 40 ) Probable Deep Erosion by Continental Ice Sheet Melt Water Floods: Chalk Buttes Area of Carter County, Montana, USA
( 41 ) Effects of Municipal Abattoir Waste on Water Quality of Woji River in Trans-Amadi Industrial Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
( 42 ) Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties and Bacteriological Loads of Waste Water Effluent from Oxidation Pond at Woldia University, North Wollo, Ethiopia
( 45 ) Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State
( 47 ) Investigation of Performance of Solar Powered Water Generator
( 48 ) 21st Century Trend of Water Yield in River Basins of Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones, Nigeria
( 49 ) A Novel Approach for Lithium Extraction from Sea-Water and Subsequent Battery Fabrication for Solving Energy Crisis: Energizing the Earth for Future Dearth
( 50 ) Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Using Water Quality Index in Gadilam River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India
( 51 ) Groundwater Occurrence and Development in the Daura Area of Katsina State, Extreme Northern Nigeria
( 52 ) Climate Change Effect on Irrigation Water Requirement of Wheat and Maize in Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 53 ) Energy Education as a Necessary Condition to Transition to a Robust Future Energy Security in Suriname
( 55 ) The Remote Sensing Imagery, New Challenges for Geological and Mining Mapping in the West African Craton - The Example of Cote D’ivoire
( 56 ) A Study of Stream Sediments from Soltan Meydan Basaltic Formation Area, Northern Iran
( 57 ) Resolving Optimum Magnetic Signatures for Drill-Hole Targeting in Gold Exploration – A Case Study for Mbudzane in Gwanda, Zimbabwe
( 58 ) Energy Demand and Financial Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan African Region
( 59 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 60 ) Micro Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 61 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 62 ) Subsidies and the Demand for Petroleum Products in Nigeria
( 66 ) Rayleigh Distribution-Based Model for Prediction of Wind Energy Potential of Cameroon
( 68 ) Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort Analysis of Public Housing in Sao Paulo, Brazil
( 69 ) Carbon Sequestration Potential of Kpashimi Forest Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria
( 70 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 71 ) Eutrophication State Monitoring for Unhealthy Aquatic Ecosystem via Free-Floating Macrophytes Pattern and Behavioral
( 72 ) Aquatic Plants as Ecological Indicator for Urban Lakes Eutrophication Status and Indices
( 73 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 74 ) Effect of Active Mass in Electrode Disc on Performance of Li1.06ni0.313co0.313mn0.313o2cathode
( 75 ) Strategies for Tourism Development in National Parks with the Use of Swot Model (Case: Golestan National Park)
( 76 ) Laterite Sampling Preparation for Gold Exploration Survey at Western Burkina Faso, Northern Extension of the Lawra Belt
( 78 ) Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
( 79 ) Expanded of Informal Jobs in Iranian Border Cities, Case: Zabol-Iran
( 80 ) Renewable Sources of Energy for Economic Development in Nigeria
( 81 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 82 ) Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of SP and SC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations
( 84 ) Characterization of Sedimentary Anzali Sand for Static and Seismic Studies Purposes
( 86 ) Fuzzy Logic Based Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle
( 87 ) Experimental Research Concerning the Energy Performance Determination of a New Type of Rotating Working Machine
( 88 ) Prioritization of Museums in Terms of Performance in Attracting Tourists (Case Study: Museum of North of Sistan and Baluchestan Province)
( 90 ) Runoff Prediction by Support Vector Machine for Chalous River Basin of Iran
( 91 ) Forest as a Redeemer: Experiences Drawn from Selected Rural Ejagham Communities in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
( 92 ) Preliminary Study of Activated Carbon Filters for Pollutants Removal in Diesel Engines
( 93 ) Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Behavior of Shallow Foundation Resting on the Reinforced Sand with Embedded Pipes
( 94 ) Assessing the Catalytic Influence of Modern Information System and Socio-Economic Status on Communities’ Attitude and Awareness to Forest Resource Sustainability in Boki Local Government Area, Nigeria
( 95 ) Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies and Depositional Environment of the Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh Oil Field (Well No. 29), Southwest Iran
( 96 ) Technogenic Transformations of Sea Coasts on the Example of the Baltic Sea
( 97 ) Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 98 ) Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area)
( 99 ) Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)
( 100 ) Experimental Study on Overtopping Performance of a Circular Ramp Wave Energy Converter
( 101 ) Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Measures for Improving Productivity among Smallholder Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria