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International Journal of Geography and Geology

June 2017, Volume 6, 6, pp 123-130

The Impact of Human Activities on the Ndivana Forest Reserves, Kwaya Kusar Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria

Anthony Dami


Balami Huali Daniel


Garba, S.S

Anthony Dami 1 ,

Balami Huali Daniel 1 Garba, S.S 3

  1. Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria 1

  2. Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria 3

Pages: 123-130

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2017.66.123.130

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Article History:

Received: 06 September, 2016
Revised: 14 July, 2017
Accepted: 31 July, 2017
Published: 20 December, 2017


The focus of this study is to assess the effects of human activities on the Ndivana forest Reserves in Borno State. The types of data collected for the study involves the satellite imageries of Landsat (MSS) 1976, 1986 (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) 1999, 2005, 2009 and 2013 respectively, from Global Lat-sat Cover Facility (GLCF) on Earth Science data interface. The GIS software used for the analysis of the datasets include: ILWIS 3.3a to geo-reference and image classification while, ArcGIS 10.1 was used for area calculation and over lay operations. The study adopted six land use and land cover classification scheme (namely, agriculture, bare surface, shrub/grassland, swamp, settlement and wood land). The major findings reported that the land use and land cove change for the period of 37years showed an increase and declining trends. For example, it was observed that agriculture increases in 1986 and 2009 with 3.84km2(7.21%) and 3.86km2(7.23%) because of the increase in human population that engaged in farming activities in the area and decreases in 2013 with 1.40km2(2.61%) due to increase in bare surface. Settlement also increases sharply in 1999 with 7.81km (14.75%) and decreases to 4.17km (7.79%) in 2013 due to the problems of insecurity in the region as many communities relocated to a safer environment. The implication of this change on the forest ecosystem therefore, could lead to further environmental degradation and biodiversity lost in the area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literatures and use geo-information techniques. It’s one of the very few studies which investigated the effects of human activities in the reserve. The primary contribution revealed landuse/cover change in the area. It documents GIS application for management of the reserve.


GIS, Remote sensing, Ndivana, Satellite imageries, Forest reserve, Landuse, Landcover.



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Balami, H.D., 2015. An assessment of human activities on the Ndivana forest reserves of Kwaya Kusar local government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. M. Sc. Thesis (Unpublished) Department of Geography, Unimaid.

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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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