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International Journal of Geography and Geology

April 2017, Volume 6, 4, pp 79-93

Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)

Hoda Yavarmanesh


Seyed Hamid Vaziri


Ali Asghar Aryaei


Davood Jahani


Mohsen Pourkermani

Hoda Yavarmanesh 1 ,

Seyed Hamid Vaziri 1 Ali Asghar Aryaei 3
Davood Jahani 1 Mohsen Pourkermani 1 
  1. Department of Geology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran 1

  2. Department of Geology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran 3

Pages: 79-93

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2017.64.79.93

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Article History:

Received: 29 July, 2016
Revised: 24 March, 2017
Accepted: 19 April, 2017
Published: 16 June, 2017


In this research, the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (north of Chenaran) with the thickness of 412 m in north flank and 251 m in south flank is studied. The Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh sectionsis included limestones, marlylimestones, shales and sandstones in lower parts of the formation. In these sections, there are impressions of echinoderms toxasteridae family, many of foraminifera from orbitolinidae family and also lots of calcareous algae that create facies variation along with other nonskeletal allochems. The study of sediment facies led to the recognition of four facies belts and six microscopic standard facies in the Tirgan Formation and shows the oscillation of sea level but totally it can be concluded that the basin was shallow and formed in the ramp platform. According to the evidence, the oolithic limestones and intercalated shales of the Tirgan Formation in south flank, Ghorogh Syncline are slided on the red sandstone of Shurijeh Formation as transition slides because of lubrication. These landslides are distinguished and formed (7times) because of the stresses which are done from the northern syncline to the south of Ghorogh valley and formed the current morphotectonic for the area. This phenomenon could name as decollement.

Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding real thickness of  Tirgan Formation in south flank Ghorogh Syncline. Morphotectonic studies show transitional slides of Tirgan Formation in Chenaran map (1:100000) wrongly named Shurijeh Formation while this research led to the corrected and these transitional slides named Tirgan Formation.


Tirgan, Ghorogh, Foraminifera, Calcareous algae, Nonskeletal allochems, Lubrication, Decollement



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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( 208 ) The Relationship Between Low-Carbon Finance and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Industrial Bank of China
( 209 ) Political Economy and Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusive Low-Carbon Energy Transition: Case of Kenyan Rangelands
( 210 ) Sphene and Zircon Fission Track Analysis of Syenite Rocks of the Sushina Hills, Purulia-Bankura Shear Zone (TPSZ)
( 211 ) Climate Change, Cattle-Rearing and Creation of Ranches to Protect the Environment in Southwest, Nigeria
( 212 ) Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?
( 213 ) Efficiency Enhancement in Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Employing High Performance TiO2 Photoanode Doped with Silver Nanoparticles
( 214 ) Variations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Stability Conditions Over Climate Belts in Nigeria
( 215 ) Assessing the National Sanitation Policy in Rwanda
( 216 ) Monitoring of surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh
( 217 ) Analysis of the Effect of Variations in Refractivity Gradient on Line of Sight Percentage Clearance and Single Knife Edge Diffraction Loss
( 218 ) Determination of Refractivity Gradient and Modified Refractivity Gradient for Cross River State
( 219 ) Impact of the Optimal Tilt Angle on the Solar Photovoltaic Array Size and Cost for a 100 kWh Solar Power System in Imo State
( 220 ) Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh
( 221 ) Economic Contributions and Environmental Effects of Geothermal Energy: Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Example
( 222 ) Community Management Plan for Sustainability of Mangrove Ecosystem in Nuxco Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico
( 223 ) Experimental and Numerical Study of Magnetic Field Impact on the Thermal Solar Collectors
( 224 ) Optimal Planning of Energy Hubs Considering Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Energy Storage System
( 225 ) Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System Drives Small-Scale Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant
( 226 ) Using Refined Phosphogypsum to Replace Natural Gypsum in Portland Cement Production in Vietnam
( 227 ) Climate Change Vulnerability in Rwanda, East Africa
( 228 ) Modelling and Simulation of PV Solar-Thermoelectric Generators Using Nano Fluids
( 229 ) The Use of Indigenous Methods in Seasonal Climate Prediction and Adaptation among Farmers in Atisbo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 230 ) Reading Activities in Kauman Area, Parakan, Indonesia, During the Colonial Era Using Mapping Analysis
( 231 ) Emissions Reduction of a Chemical Process Plant by Maximizing Energy Recovery, Minimizing Energy Losses and Fuel Switching
( 232 ) Habitat Selection and Threats of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) in Rara National Park, Nepal
( 233 ) Effects of Municipal Abattoir Waste on Water Quality of Woji River in Trans-Amadi Industrial Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
( 234 ) Geographical Analysis of Household Waste Generation and Disposal in Taraba State, Northeast Nigeria
( 235 ) Post Disaster Recovery Process of Landslides in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Aranayake Landslide - Sri Lanka
( 236 ) Effects of Hydroclimatic Variability on the Spatial Dynamics of Ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) of the Gambia River Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park (Senegal)
( 237 ) Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties and Bacteriological Loads of Waste Water Effluent from Oxidation Pond at Woldia University, North Wollo, Ethiopia
( 238 ) Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Different Water Sources and its Impact on Downstream Community Health around Woldia Town, Ethiopia
( 239 ) Bathymetry of the Makoye Reservoir and its Implications on Water Security for Livestock within the Catchment
( 240 ) Assessing Spatial and Temporal Precipitation Dynamics in Upper East Region of Ghana Using Chirps Data from 1981 to 2016
( 241 ) 2016-2017 Recession: Perspectives of Women's Vulnerability to Cassava Consumption and Cultivation in Nigeria's Sub-Urban Space