Soil losses and erosion are the primary concerns that decrease soil fertility, deposition materials in waterways, flooding, environmental pollution, and declining dam capacity. The aim of this study is zonation of soil erosion hazard and sediment yield in central Zab basin in southwest of West-Azerbaijan province in Iran. The Sardasht dam construction is established on its main branches that estimate amount of soil erosion and sedimentation of behind the dam is necessary. Hence EPM model have been used to soil erosion hazard mapping using series of GIS data, Landsat ETM+ satellite images, aerial photos in GIS environment. Required layers information was used in this research including slope, aspect, lithology, soil, land use, rainfall, and river erosion. Hence, GIS databases and their weighting of each map layers were extracted according to the hydrologic units. Also, GIS database was prepared based on EPM model to extract of erosion and sedimentation maps The obtained result using EPM model showed that south and southwest parts of central Zab basin near the Sardasht Dam construction are very highly eroded due to their soil erosion and lithology while the northern parts of case study are moderately eroded because of the intensive land cover.
This study contributes in the existing literature to determine the dominant erosion features in the mountainous catchment using satellite data and GIS techniques. This study documents can be used to estimate the amount of sediment reaching the dams, natural resource management and land use planning.
Alexakis, D.D., D.G. Hadjimitsis and A. Agapiou, 2013. Integrated use of remote sensing, GIS and precipitation data for the assessment of soil erosion rate in the catchment area of Yialias. Cyprus Atmospheric Research, 131(5): 108-124.
Amini, S., B. Rafiei, S. Khodabakhsh and M. Heydari, 2010. Estimation of erosion and sediment yield of Ekbatan dam drainage basin with EPM. Using GIS Iranian Journal of Earth Science, 2(1): 173-180.
Amiri, F., 2010. Estimate of erosion and sedimentation in semi-arid basin using empirical models of erosion potential within a geographic information system air. Soil and Water Research, 3(4): 37-44.
Amiri, F. and T. Tabatabaie, 2009. EPM approach for erosion modeling by using RS and GIS. 7th Regional Conference Spatial Data Serving People: Land Governance and the Environment-Building the Capacity, Hanoi, Vietnam. pp: 19-22.
Bahadur, K.K., 2009. Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using remote sensing and GIS: A case of the Upper Nam Wa Watershed. Nan Province: Thailand Environmental Geology, 57(3): 695-705.
Borah, D.K., E.C. Krug and D. Yoder, 2008. Watershed sediment yield Sedimentation engineering: Processes, measurement, modeling, and practice. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice. pp: 827-858.
Chen, T., R.Q. Niu, P.X. Li, L.P. Zhang and B. Du, 2011. Regional soil erosion risk mapping using RUSLE, GIS, and remote sensing: A case study in Miyun Watershed, North China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 63(3): 533-541.
Daneshvar, M.R.M. and A. Bagherzadeh, 2011. Landslide hazard zonation assessment using GIS analysis at Golmakan Watershed, Northeast of Iran. Frontiers of Earth Science, 5(1): 70-81.
De, R.A., 1998. Modelling runoff and sediment transport in catchments using GIS. Hydrological Processes, 12(6): 905-922.
Eisazadeh, L., R. Sokouti, M. Homaee and E. Pazira, 2012. Comparison of empirical models to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield in micro catchments. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 1(1): 28-33.
Erskine, W.D., A. Mahmoudzadeh and C. Myers, 2002. Land use effects on sediment yields and soil loss rates in small basins of Triassic sandstone near Sydney. Australia Catena: NSW, 49(4): 271-287.
Fanetti, D. and L. Vezzoli, 2007. Sediment input and evolution of lacustrine deltas: The Breggia and Greggio rivers case study (Lake Como, Italy). Quaternary International, 173(2): 113-124.
Garg, V. and V. Jothiprakash, 2012. Sediment yield assessment of a large basin using PSIAC approach in GIS environment. Water Resources Management, 26(3): 799-840.
Gavrilovic, Z., 1988. Use of an empirical method (Erosion Potential Method) for calculating sediment production and transportation in unstudied or torrential streams. International Conference on River Regime. Hydraulics Research Limited, Wallingford, Oxon UK. pp: 411-422.
Gobin, A., R. Jones, M. Kirkby, P. Campling, G. Govers, C. Kosmas and A. Gentile, 2004. Indicators for Pan-European assessment and monitoring of soil erosion by water. Environmental Science & Policy, 7(1): 25-38.
Jones, E., 1981. Quantifying soil erosion and sediment transport in drainage basins; Some observations on the use of 137Cs. Proceedings of the Variability in Stream Erosion and Sediment Transport, Australia, 224. pp: 55.
Karr, J.R. and D.R. Dudley, 1981. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environmental Management, 5(1): 55-68.
Khezri, S., 2011. Discovery of the Tuzhal cave from geomorphological aspect. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19: 677-682.
Mallick, J., Y. Alashker, S.A.D. Mohammad, M. Ahmed and M.A. Hasan, 2014. Risk assessment of soil erosion in semi-arid mountainous watershed in Saudi Arabia by RUSLE model coupled with remote sensing and GIS. Geocarto International, 29(8): 915-940.
Martínez, C.J., F.C. Antón and M. Ramos, 2003. Sediment production in large gullies of the Mediterranean area (NE Spain) from high-resolution digital elevation models and geographical information systems analysis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 28(5): 443-456.
Mati, B.M., R.P. Morgan, F.N. Gichuki, J.N. Quinton, T.R. Brewer and H.P. Liniger, 2000. Assessment of erosion hazard with the USLE and GIS: A case study of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro North basin of Kenya. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 2(2): 78-86.
Millward, A. and J. Mersey, 2001. Conservation strategies for effective land management of protected areas using an erosion prediction information system (EPIS). Journal of Environmental Management, 61(4): 329-343.
Moghimi, E., M. Yamani, M. Maghsodi, J.J. Aevazi and M. Salari, 2013. The analysis of the form of the channel and its geomorphological evidence of changes fundamentally and functionally case study: Zab River, between Mirabad to Brisu. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 13(4): 589-595.
Morgan, R.P.C., 2009. Soil erosion and conservation. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Nelson, C. and Y. Rasele, 1989. Evaluating the debris flow potential after a wild fire, rapid response using the PSIAC method. Salt Lake County, Utah: GSA Abstracts with Programs.
Ownegh, M., M. Nohtani, S. Raine, A. Biggs, N. Menzies, D. Freebairn and P. Tolmie, 2004. Relationship between geomorphologic units and erosion and sediment yield in Kashidar watershed, Golestan Province, Iran. Proceedings of ISC.
Panagos, P., K. Christos, B. Cristiano and G. Ioannis, 2014. Seasonal monitoring of soil erosion at regional scale: An application of the G2 model in crete focusing on agricultural land uses. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 27(3): 147-155.
Raghunath, J., 2002. Potential erosion map for Bagmati basin using GRASS-GIS. Proceedings of the Open Source GIS-GRASS Users Conference. pp: 11-13.
Refahi, H. and M. Nematti, 1995. Erodibility assessment of the Alamout sub-catchment and its effect on the sediment yield. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Iran, 26(6): 48-56.
Shahabi, H., B. Ahmad and S. Khezri, 2012. Evaluation and comparison of bivariate and multivariate statistical methods for landslide susceptibility mapping (Case Study: Zab Basin). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6(10): 3885-3907.
Shahabi, H., B. Ahmad and S. Khezri, 2013. Evaluation and comparison of bivariate and multivariate statistical methods for landslide susceptibility mapping (Case Study: Zab Basin). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6(10): 3885-3907.
Shahabi, H. and M. Hashim, 2015. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and remote sensing data in tropical environment. Scientific Reports, 5(22): 98-110.
Shahabi, H., S. Khezri, B.B. Ahmad and M. Hashim, 2014. Landslide susceptibility mapping at central Zab Basin, Iran: A comparison between analytical hierarchy process, frequency ratio and logistic regression models. Catena, 115(9): 55-70.
Tangestani, M.H., 2006. Comparison of EPM and PSIAC models in GIS for erosion and sediment yield assessment in a semi-arid environment: Afzar catchment, Fars Province. Iran Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(5): 585-597.
Wischmeier, W.H. and D.D. Smith, 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses-a guide to conservation planning. Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Worboys, M.F. and M. Duckham, 2004. GIS: A computing perspective. USA: CRC Press.
Yuliang, Q. and Q. Yun, 2002. Fast soil erosion investigation and dynamic analysis in the loess plateau of China by using information composite technique. Advances in Space Research, 29(1): 85-88.
Zakerinejad, R. and M. Maerker, 2015. An integrated assessment of soil erosion dynamics with special emphasis on gully erosion in the Mazayjan Basin, Southwestern Iran Natural Hazards, 79(1): 25-50.
Zhang, K., B.C. Douglas and S.P. Leatherman, 2004. Global warming and coastal erosion. Climatic Change, 64(1-2): 41-58.
This study was conducted as a part of Research University Grant (Q.J130000.2527.12H65) by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and University of Kurdistan, Iran.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study. The authors gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers and editor for their valuable reviews and suggestions.