Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

International Journal of Geography and Geology

October 2016, Volume 5, 10, pp 194-208

Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies and Depositional Environment of the Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh Oil Field (Well No. 29), Southwest Iran

M. Rikhtegarzadeh


S.H. Vaziri


M. Aleali


H. Amiri Bakhtiar


D. Jahani

M. Rikhtegarzadeh 1 

S.H. Vaziri 2 ,

M. Aleali 1 H. Amiri Bakhtiar 4
D. Jahani 2 
  1. Department of Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran 1

  2. Department of Geology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran 2

  3. National Iranian South Oil fields Company, Ahwaz, Iran 4

Pages: 194-208

DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2016.5.10/

Share :


The Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh oil field (well No.29) with the thickness of 324 m consists of limestone in Cenomanian - Turonian period. The upper boundary of the Sarvak Formation is in the form of disconformity with the Gurpi Formation. The lower boundary of Sarvak Formation is not clear because of lack of sequential excavation. According to microbiostratigraphy studies, 4 genera and 2 species of planktonic foraminifera and 22 genera and 28 species of benthic foraminifera are identified and based on them, three biozones were introduced including Nezzazata–Alveolinids assemblage zone, Rudist debris, and Oligosteginid facies. The zones are in consistence with zones introduced by Wynd (1965). In the study area (southwest of Iran), the Sarvak Formation is subdivided into 8 microfacies that are distinguished by petrographic analysis on the basis of their depositional textures and fauna. In addition, four major depositional environments were identified in the Sarvak Formation. These include shelf lagoon, platform margin, slope and basin environmental settings, which are interpreted as a carbonate shelf without an effective barrier separating the platform from the open ocean.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the upper cretaceous sequences of oil fields. The results of this study will help to make biostratigraphy biozones, interpretation of microfacies and depositional environments upper cretaceous, Recognition of lithology specificities and Separation and definition of the upper cretaceous sequences.


Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies, Sarvak formation, Bi Bi Hakimeh oil field, Cenomanian – Turonian.



  1. Bolli, H.M., 1945. Zur Stratigraphie der Oberen Kreide in den hoheren Helvetischen Dechen. Eclog. Helv, 37: 217-328.
  2. Bolli, H.M., 1959. Planktonic foraminifera from the cretaceous of trinidad. B. W. I., Bull., Amer. Paleonto, 39(179): 257-277.
  3. Bolli, H.M., 1966. Zonation of cretaceous to pliocene marine sediments based on planktonic foraminifera bolethin informative asociacion venezolana de geologia. Mineriay Petroleo, 9: 3-32.
  4. Bolz, H., 1977. Reappraisal of the biozonation of the Bangestan group (late Aptian - early Campanian) of Southwest Iran. Report 1252, Tehran, Iranian Offshore Oil Company.
  5. Bolz, H., 1978. Paleogeographical evolution during the cretaceous in the operating erea, with special emphasis on the Bangestan group. Report 1274, Tehran, Oil Servies Company of Iran.
  6. Bonet, E.C. and Coskin, 1958. Zur Mikropaläontologie und Biostratigraphie der Oberkreide und des Alttertiärs von Jordanien. I. Oberkreide. Geol. Jb., 85: 627-668.
  7. Bonet, F., 1956. Zonification microfaunistica de las calizas cretacias del Este de Mexico. 20th Cong. Geol. Int. Mexico.
  8. Bourgeois, F., 1969. Kuh-e Bangestan: A model for cretaceous structures in Iran, techincal memoir 89. Iranian Offshore Oil Company Technical.
  9. Caron, M., 1983. Taxonomie et phylogenie de la famille des Globotruncanidae. 2nd Kreide Symposium, Munchen, 1982, Zitteliana, Munchen, 10: 667-81.
  10. Caron, M., 1989. Cretaceous, Plankton foraminifera in: Bolli, H.M., et al., (editors). Planktonic stratigraphy. Cambrige: Cambrige University Press, 1.
  11. D Archiac, A.D., 1837. Mcm01re sur  Ia formation Cn!tace du sud•out:st  de  Ia Fr.mce. AJemoires de Ia Societe Geologiqne de France, 2(7): 157-192.
  12. De Castro, P., 1965. Su alcune soritidae (Foraminiferida) del cretacico delle Campania. Note stratigrafiche sul gruppo montuoso del Tifata. Bollettino della Societa dei Naturalisti in Napoli, 74: 317-372.
  13. Dunham, R.J., 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir, 1: 108-121.
  14. Embry, A.F. and J.E. Klovan, 1971. A late devonian reef tract on North Eastern banks Island, NWT. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 19: 730-781.
  15. Flugel, E., 1982. Microfacies analysis of limestones. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp: 633.
  16. Flugel, E., 2004. Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Berlin Heidberg: Springer-Verlag. pp: 976.
  17. Flugel, E., 2010. Microfacies of carbonate rocks, analysis, interpretation and application. Berlin: Springer. pp: 976.
  18. Geel, T., 2000. Recognition of stratigraphic sequences in carbonate platform and slope deposits: Empirical models based on microfacies analysis of Palaeogene deposits in South Eastern Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155: 211-238.
  19. Hamaoui, M., 1964. Cycledomia, a new peneroplid genus. Micropaleontology, 10: 438 – 442.
  20. Hamaoui, M., 1965. Biostratigraphy of the cenomanian type Hazera formation with a preliminary note on Ostracoda by E. Gerry, Israel geological survey. Stratigraphic Sections 2b: 1-27.
  21. Hamaoui, M. and P. Saint-Marc, 1970. Microfaunes et microfacies du cenomanian du proche-orient. Bulletina du Centre de Recherches Pau- SNPA, 4: 257-352.
  22. Henson, F.R.S., 1948. Larger imperforate foraminifera of South-Western Asia (Families Lituolidae, Orbitolinidae and Meandropsinidae): London: British Museum (Natural History). pp: 127.
  23. Hottinger, L., 1997. Shallow benthic foraminiferal assemblages as signals for depth of their deposition and their limitations. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 168(4): 491–505.
  24. Husinec, A., L. Velic, L. Fucek, I. Vlahovic, D. Maticˇec, N. Os˘tric and T. Korbar, 2000. Mid cretaceous orbitolinid (Foraminiferida) record from the islands of cres and Los˘inj (Croatia) and its regional stratigraphic correlation. Cretaceous Research, 21: 155-171.
  25. James, G.A. and J.G. Wynd, 1965. Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. Am. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull, 49(12): 2182-2245.
  26. Kalantary, A., 1969. Foraminifera from the middle Jurassic- cretaceous successions of Koppe - Dagh region (NE, Iran) - Tehran national Iranian oil company. Geol. Labor., Publ, 3: 1-298.
  27. Khalili, M., 1974. The biostratigraphic synthesis of the Bangestan group in South West Iran. Report 1219, Tehran, Offshore Oil Company of Iran.
  28. Khatibi Mehr, M. and H.M. Adabi, 2013. Microfacies and geochemical evidence for original aragonite mineralogy of a foraminifera-dominated carbonate ramp system in the late Paleocene to middle Eocene, Alborz basin, Iran. Carbonates and Evaporites(29): 155-175.
  29. Khosro, T.K. and B. Fossiluni, 1994. New findings about microbiostratigraphy of Sarvak formation in Fars and Khuzestan zones. Journal of Geology, 11: 2-15.
  30. Lasemi, Y. and A. Jalilian, 1997. Assessing microfacies and depositional zones of Sarvak formation in Khuzestan and Lurestan zones. Journal of Geology, 25, 26: 48-59.
  31. Luperto, S.E., 1968. Nummofallotia apula n.Sp. Foraminifero del cretacea superiore della murge. Bolletino della Societa dei Naturalisii in Napoli, 77: 93-102.
  32. Marie, P., 1955. Quelques  genres nouveaux de foraminiferes du cretace a facies recifal, in Compte Rendu 19th Congres Geologique International, Alger 1952. Sect. 13. Fase, 15: 117-124.
  33. Motiei, H., 1994. Stratigraphy of Zagros. Publ. Geol. Survey of Iran in Farsi, 1: 536.
  34. Munier-Chalmas, E., 1887. Sur la cyclolina et trios nouveaux genres de foraminiferes de couches a rudistes: Cyclopsina, dicyclina et spirocyclina. Compte Rendu des Seances. Societe Geologique de France: xxx-xxxi.
  35. Omara, S., 1956. New foraminifera from the cenomanian of Sinai, Egypt. Fournal of Paleontology, 30: 883-890.
  36. Orbigny, A.D., 1839. Voyage dans lAmerique meridionale- foraminiferes. Paris and Strasbourg: P. Bertrand, 5: 1-86.
  37. Orbigny, A.D., 1846. Foraminiferes  fossils du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Autriche). Paris: Gide et Comp.
  38. Philippson, 1887. Benthic foraminiferal assemblage of the Cretaceous platform carbonate succession in the Yava area (Bolkar Mountains, S Turkey). Geobios, 39(4): 521-533.
  39. Postuma, J., 1971. Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. pp: 420.
  40. Reichel, M., 1941. Sur un nouveau genre d'alveonlines du cretace superirur. Schweiz. Nat. Ges. Verh, 121: 137-138.
  41. Reiss, Z. and L. Hottinger, 1984. The gulf of Aqaba: Ecological micropaleontology. Ecological studies 50. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp: 354.
  42. Reuss, A.E., 1854. Beitrage zur Charakteristik der Kreideschichten in den Ostalpen, besonders im Gosauthale und am Wolfgangsee, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch- Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 7: 1-156.
  43. Rikhtegarzadeh, M., 2016. Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of the Sarvak and  Ilam formations in of middel Dezful embayment: PhD Thesis, Tehran University of Science and Research: pp: 320.
  44. Schulze, F., J. Kuss and A. Marzouk, 2005. Platform configuration, microfacies and cyclicities of the upper Albian to Turonian of West-central Jordan. Facies, 50: 505–527.
  45. Smout, A.H., 1956. Three new cretaceous genera of foraminifera related to the ceratobuliminidae. Micropaleontology, 2: 335-348.
  46. Stache, G., 1913. Uber Rhipidionina St. und Rhapydionina St. Jahrbuch des Geologischen Reichanstalt, 62: 659-680.
  47. Tappan, H., 1940. Foraminifera from the grayson formation of northern texas. Journal of Paleontology, 14: 93-126.
  48. Teimurian, A., 2004. Underground stratigraphy of Sarvak and Ilam formations (Bangestan Group) in Southeast of Ahwaz, MA Thesis, Isfahan University. pp: 177.
  49. Vaziri, M.H. and A. Safari, 2003. Assessing lime facies and interpretation of depositional zone of sarvak formation in samiram zone. Journal of Isfahan University Fundamental Sciences, 2: 59-74.
  50. Wilson, J.L., 1975. Carbonate facies in geologic history. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp: 471.
  51. Wynd, A.G., 1965. Biofacies of the Iranian oil consortium agreement Area ( I. O. O. C ). Report No. 1082 Unpublished Paper.
  52. Zhicheng, Z., H. Willems and Z. Binggao, 1997. Marine cretaceous-Paleogene biofacies and ichnofacies in Southern Tibet, China, and their sedimentary significance. Marine Micropaleontology, 32: 3–29.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study. The authors are grateful to the Tehran Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University and National Iranian South Oil fields Company for providing financial support.

Related Article

( 1 ) Microbiostratigraphy, Microfacies and Depositional Environment of the Sarvak Formation in Bi Bi Hakimeh Oil Field (Well No. 29), Southwest Iran
( 3 ) Microfacies and Morphotectonic of the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (North of Chenaran)
( 5 ) Geographic Information System (GIS) and Its Application in Urban Planning and Environment
( 6 ) Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State
( 7 ) Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria
( 9 ) Soil Erosion Hazard Mapping in Central Zab Basin Using Epm Model in GIS Environment
( 10 ) Assessment of Environmental Effect of Abandoned Uranium Mine Site in Mika Village of Taraba State Nigeria
( 11 ) Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria
( 12 ) Using Rubber Aggregate Derived from Discarded Tires for Producing Cement Concrete towards Resource Recovery and Environmental Protection in Vietnam
( 13 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of the Sarvak and Kazhdumi Formations in Bahregansar Oil Field
( 14 ) Climate Change, Cattle-Rearing and Creation of Ranches to Protect the Environment in Southwest, Nigeria
( 15 ) Economic Contributions and Environmental Effects of Geothermal Energy: Çanakkale-Tuzla Geothermal Example
( 16 ) Effects of Municipal Abattoir Waste on Water Quality of Woji River in Trans-Amadi Industrial Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
( 17 ) Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria
( 18 ) Evaluation of Environmental Awareness Level among Stakeholders in Rural and Urban Communities, Southern Nigeria
( 19 ) Phytoremediation: An Environmental Detoxification Technology using Plants
( 20 ) Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria
( 23 ) A Study of Stream Sediments from Soltan Meydan Basaltic Formation Area, Northern Iran
( 24 ) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Achieving Desire BA in the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde Using Free Cells of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the Effect of Β-Cyclodextrin
( 25 ) Micro Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 26 ) Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 28 ) Well Log Sequence Stratigraphic and Palynological Analysis of Late Miocene to Pliocene Agbada Formation, Southwestern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
( 29 ) Microbiostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Permian Dalan Formation in Kuh-E-Surmeh (Zagros Basin, Southwest Iran)
( 30 ) Assessing the Catalytic Influence of Modern Information System and Socio-Economic Status on Communities’ Attitude and Awareness to Forest Resource Sustainability in Boki Local Government Area, Nigeria
( 32 ) Technogenic Transformations of Sea Coasts on the Example of the Baltic Sea
( 35 ) Application of Geographic Information System to Select Dam Location for Hydropower
( 36 ) Fonctionnement Hydrodynamique Des Aquiferes Discontinus De La Region D’abidjan-Agboville (Sud De La Cote D’ivoire)
( 39 ) Valorization of Hazelnut Biomass Framework in Turkey: Support and Model Guidelines from the Italian Experience in the Field of Renewable Energy
( 40 ) Evaluate the Capabilities and Limitations Sustainable Rural Development in the Kermanshah District
( 41 ) Temporal and Spatial Trend of Climate Variability in Vietnam
( 43 ) Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri
( 44 ) Hydrocarbon Pollutant Emitted From a Diesel Engine Fueled With Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel No.2
( 45 ) Modeling and Optimization of Phenylacetyylcarbinol Synthesis via Benzaldehyde: A Case of Artificial Neural Network vs. Response Surface Methodology
( 46 ) UPFC Integrated With Battery Energy Storage Systems for Stability Improvement
( 47 ) Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Two Species of Crabs from Chilika Lagoon, East Coast of India
( 49 ) Analysis of Farmers’ Vulnerability, Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change in Kwara State, Nigeria
( 50 ) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Quality of Water in Aliero Dam (Kebbi State, Nigeria)
( 51 ) Characterization of Sand Dunes to Detect the Sand Source and their Stabilization, Abardej, Iran
( 52 ) The Relationship Between P-Wave Velocity and Slake Durability Index
( 53 ) Reliability and Rationing Cost: Some Analytical Implications for a Power System
( 54 ) Indicators of Sustainability in Vernacular Settlements Hot Dry Region of Iran, [Case Study: Kerman-Meymand]
( 57 ) Biogas Technology in South Africa, Problems, Challenges and Solutions
( 58 ) Net-Zero Energy Building – Case Study Al Khobar City, Saudi Arabia
( 59 ) Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic, Biomass Gas Turbine and District Heating Hybrid System
( 60 ) Possibilities of Creating Swimming Pools with Zero Co2 Emissions Due to Energy Use in Them
( 61 ) Sensitivity Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of the Guilan Aquifer Using Drastic Method
( 62 ) The Impact of Al-Yarmouk University on the Commercial Uses Types (Retail Activities) of Shafeeq Irshedat Street (University Street in Irbid City- Jordan)
( 63 ) The Influence of Climate Variability on Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Yobe State, Nigeria
( 66 ) Effect of Local Admixture Ipomoea Asarifolia (Ajara) on the Strength Characteristics of Stabilized and Unstabilized Lateritic Blocks
( 67 ) Dynamic Simulation and Modeling of a Novel Combined Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Panel Hybrid System
( 68 ) Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera
( 69 ) Variations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Stability Conditions Over Climate Belts in Nigeria
( 70 ) Community Management Plan for Sustainability of Mangrove Ecosystem in Nuxco Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico
( 71 ) Climate Change Vulnerability in Rwanda, East Africa
( 72 ) Habitat Selection and Threats of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) in Rara National Park, Nepal
( 73 ) Effects of Hydroclimatic Variability on the Spatial Dynamics of Ponds (Simenti, Kountadala and Oudassi) of the Gambia River Basin in the Niokolo Koba National Park (Senegal)
( 74 ) 2016-2017 Recession: Perspectives of Women's Vulnerability to Cassava Consumption and Cultivation in Nigeria's Sub-Urban Space
( 75 ) Analysis of Trend and Variability of Climate of Hawassa Based on Surface Observations