Journal of Sports Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-6534
Print ISSN: 2413-8436
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No. 2

The Effects of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Arm Crank Time-Trial Performance

Pages: 34-44
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The Effects of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Arm Crank Time-Trial Performance

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Citation: 2

Jonathan Sinclair , Lindsay Bottoms

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Jonathan Sinclair , Lindsay Bottoms (2014). The Effects of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Arm Crank Time-Trial Performance. Journal of Sports Research, 1(2): 34-44. DOI:
This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAFF) mouth rinsing would improve 30 minute arm cranking time-trial performance. Twelve male participants (age 21.54 ± 1.28 years, height 179.46 ± 7.38 cm and mass 73.69 ± 5.40 kg) took part in the current investigation. Participants came to the laboratory on 3 occasions during which they performed 30 minute self-paced arm crank time trials.  On one occasion water was given as a mouth rinse for 5 s (PLA), on another occasion a 6.4% CHO solution was given for 5 s and finally a 0.032% CAFF solution was given for 5s.  Key measurements of distance covered, heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), cadence and power output were recorded throughout all trials. Distance covered during the CAFF (15.43 ± 3.27 km) and CHO (15.30 ± 3.31) mouth rinse trials were significantly (p<0.05) greater in comparison to PLA (13.15 ± 3.36 km). Cadence and power output and velocity were also significantly greater during the CAFF and CHO trials compared to PLA and CHO (p<0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences between trials were observed for HR and RPE. CAFF and CHO mouth rinse serve to improve 30 minute arm cranking performance by mediating increasing cadence and power output without a concurrent increase in RPE and HR.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature as the first investigation to comparatively examine the influence of both carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing on upper body time trial performance.

Training Effects of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in D- And D/C-Squad Badminton Players

Pages: 22-33
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Training Effects of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in D- And D/C-Squad Badminton Players

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Citation: 5

M. Frohlich , H. Felder , M. Reuter

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M. Frohlich , H. Felder , M. Reuter (2014). Training Effects of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in D- And D/C-Squad Badminton Players. Journal of Sports Research, 1(2): 22-33. DOI:
Plyometric training is popular among individuals involved in dynamic sports, and plyometric exercises such as jumping, hopping, skipping and bounding are executed with the goal of increasing dynamic muscular performance, especially jumping. Much less information is available on the effectiveness of plyometric training (PT) in badminton, where jumping high (e.g. forehand overhead jump-smash) is important for success. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week periodized PT program on jumping high and power among male and female junior badminton players, using high-impact bilateral plyometric exercises. Starting and finishing with the biomechanical diagnostics of the squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ) on force plates, kinematic analysis of forehand overhead smashes, anthropometric data as well as force data for pre- and posttest were analyzed. Before and after the biomechanical diagnostics, the players (n=11) undergo an 8-week PT (2 units per week) with a total of 2286 jumps. 8 male and 3 female junior badminton players (age: 16.0±1.6 years, height: 175.5±9.9 cm, mass: 69.3±11.4 kg) were tested in jumping high and forehand overhead jump-smashes performance. Looking at the plyometric strength parameters of the squat jump (P<0.05; dz=0.8) and the floor reaction-time of the drop jump (P<0.05; dz=1.1), the positive effect of the 8-week PT in junior badminton players is significant. Consequently, this form of training is essential for the development of junior and top-level badminton players. Moreover, the study has shown that the contact of the overhead smash cannot be increased by improving plyometric strength training (P>0.05). Therefore, the focus must be on technical training. Consequently, it is considered to be important to include short-term PT in in-season preparation in order to improve complex badminton-specific dynamic performance (smash-jumping).
Contribution/ Originality
The paper´s primary contribution is finding that an 8-week plyometric training in junior badminton players can significantly improve different parameters in jumping high but the plyometric training has no direct influence of the overhead smash. Therefore, the focus must be on technical training.