Ahlborg, G., J. Wahren and P. Felig, 1986. Splanchnic and peripheral glucose and lactate metabolism during and after prolonged arm exercise. J Clin Invest, 77 (3): 690-699.
Andrews, J., D. Sedlock, M. Flynn, J. Navalta and H. Ji, 2003. Carbohydrate loading and supplementation in endurance-trained women runners. J Appl Physiol, 95 (52): 584–590.
Angus, D., M. Hargreaves, J. Dancey and M. Febbraio, 2000. Effect of carbohydrate or carbohydrate plus medium-chain triglyceride ingestion on cycling time trial performance. J Appl Physiol, 88 (1): 113–119.
Astorino, T., K. Firth and R. Rohmann, 2008. Effect of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength. Eur J Appl Physiol., 102 (2): 127–132.
Beaven, C., W. Hopkins, K. Hansen, M. Wood, J. Cronin and T. Lowe, 2008. Dose effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisol responses to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab., 18 (2): 131-141.
Beaven, C., P. Maulder, A. Pooley, L. Kilduff and C. Cook, 2013. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., 38 (6): 633-637.
Beck, T., T. Housh, R. Schmidt, G. Johnson, D. Housh, J. Coburn and M. Malek, 2006. The acute effects of a caffeine containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. J Strength Cond Res., 20 (3): 506–510.
Bernasconi, S., N. Tordi, S. Perrey, B. Parratte and G. Monnier, 2006. Is the VO2 slow component in heavy arm-cranking exercise associated with recruitment of type II muscle fibers as assessed by an increase in surface EMG? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., 31 (4): 414-422.
Boekema, J., G. Samsom, A. Van Berge Henegouwen and P. Smout, 1999. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: Facts and fiction: A review. Scand Journal Gast., 34: 35-39.
Borg, G., 1982. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 14 (5): 377-381.
Bottoms, L., H. Hurst, A. Scriven, F. Lynch, J. Bolton, L. Vercoe, Z. Shone, G. Barry and J. Sinclair, 2014. The effect of caffeine mouth rinse on self-paced cycling performance. Comp Ex Phys., 10 (4): 239-245.
Cerqueira, V., A. De Mendonça, A. Minez, A. Dias and M. De Carvalho, 2006. Does caffeine modify corticomotor excitability? Neurophysiol Clin., 36 (4): 219–226.
Chambers, E., M. Bridge and D. Jones, 2009. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: Effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol., 587: 1779-1794.
Costill, D., G. Dalsky and W. Fink, 1978. Effects of caffeine on metabolism and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 10 (3): 155–158.
Cox, G., B. Desbrow, P. Montgomery, M. Anderson, C. Bruce, T. Macrides, D. Martin, A. Moquin, A. Roberts, J. Hawley and L. Burke, 2002. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol., 93 (3): 990–999.
Coyle, E., J. Hagberg, B. Hurley, W. Martin, A. Ehsani and J. Holloszy, 1983. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J App Phys: Resp, Env and Exerc Phys., 55 (1): 230-235.
Davis, J. and J. Green, 2009. Caffeine and anaerobic performance ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med., 39 (10): 813-832.
Desbrow, B., S. Anderson, J. Barrett, E. Rao and M. Hargreaves, 2004. Carbohydrate-electrolyte feedings and 1 h time trial cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab., 14 (5): 541–549.
Doherty, M. and P. Smith, 2005. Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: A meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 15 (2): 69–78.
Ganio, M., J. Klau, E. Lee, S. Yeargin, B. McDermott, M. Buyckx, C. Maresh and L. Armstrong, 2010. Effect of various carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids on cycling performance and maximal voluntary contraction. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab., 20 (2): 104–114.
Greiwe, J., R. Hickner, P. Hansen, S. Racette, M. Chen and J. Holloszy, 1999. Effects of endurance exercise training on muscle glycogen accumulation in humans. Journal App Phys., 87 (1): 222-226.
Hulston, C. and A. Jeukendrup, 2009. No placebo effect from carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab., 19 (3): 275–284.
Jacobs, I., H. Pasternak and D. Bell, 2003. Effects of ephedrine, caffeine, and their combination of muscular endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 35 (6): 987–994.
Kalmar, J. and E. Cafarelli, 2004. Caffeine: A valuable tool to study central fatigue in humans? Exerc Sport Sci Rev., 32 (4): 143 –147.
Kamimori, G., C. Karyekar, R. Otterstetter, D. Cox, T. Balkin, G. Belenky and N. Eddington, 2012. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Int Jou of Pharm., 234 (1): 159-167.
Klein, M., B. Simon and M. Schneider, 1990. Effects of caffeine on calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in frog skeletal muscle fibres. Journal Phys., 425: 599-626.
Meeusen, R., B. Roelands and L. Spriet, 2013. Caffeine, exercise and the brain. Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, 76: 1-12.
Osterberg, K., J. Zachwieja and J. Smith, 2008. Carbohydrate and carbohydrate + protein for cycling time-trial performance. J Sports Sci., 26 (3): 227–233.
Paton, C., T. Lowe and A. Irvine, 2010. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. Eur J App Phys., 110 (6): 1243-1250.
Peters, H., F. van Schelven, P. Verstappen, R. De Boer, E. Bol, W. Erich and W. De Vries, 1993. Gastrointestinal problems as a function of carbohydrate supplements and mode of exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 25 (11): 1211-1224.
Pottier, A., J. Bouckaert, W. Gilis, T. Roels and W. Derave, 2010. Mouth rinse but not ingestion of a carbohydrate solution improves 1-h cycle time trial performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20 (1): 105-111.
Rollo, I., M. Cole, R. Miller and C. Williams, 2010. Influence of mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution on 1-h running performance. Med Sci Sports Exer., 42 (4): 798-804.
Ryan, E., C. Kim, E. Fickes, M. Williamson, M. Muler, J. Barkley and E. Glickman, 2013. Caffeine gum and cycling performance: A timing study. J Strength Cond Res., 27 (1): 259-264.
Sinclair, J., L. Bottoms, C. Flynn, E. Bradley, G. Alexander, S. McCullagh and H. Hurst, 2014. The effect of different durations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance. Eur J Sport Sci., 14 (3): 259-264.
Smith, P., E. McCrindle, M. Doherty, M. Price and A. Jones, 2006. Influence of crank rate on the slow component of pulmonary O2 uptake during heavy arm-crank exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., 31 (3): 292-301.
Tsintzas, K. and C. Williams, 1998. Human muscle glycogen metabolism during exercise; effect of carbohydrate supplementation. Sports Med., 25 (1): 7-23.
Williams, J., T. Batts and S. Lees, 2012. Reduced muscle glycogen differentially affects exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Int Schol Res Not, 13: 1-8.
No any video found for this article.
Jonathan Sinclair , Lindsay Bottoms (2014). The Effects of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Arm Crank Time-Trial Performance. Journal of Sports Research, 1(2): 34-44. DOI:
This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAFF) mouth rinsing would improve 30 minute arm cranking time-trial performance. Twelve male participants (age 21.54 ± 1.28 years, height 179.46 ± 7.38 cm and mass 73.69 ± 5.40 kg) took part in the current investigation. Participants came to the laboratory on 3 occasions during which they performed 30 minute self-paced arm crank time trials. On one occasion water was given as a mouth rinse for 5 s (PLA), on another occasion a 6.4% CHO solution was given for 5 s and finally a 0.032% CAFF solution was given for 5s. Key measurements of distance covered, heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), cadence and power output were recorded throughout all trials. Distance covered during the CAFF (15.43 ± 3.27 km) and CHO (15.30 ± 3.31) mouth rinse trials were significantly (p<0.05) greater in comparison to PLA (13.15 ± 3.36 km). Cadence and power output and velocity were also significantly greater during the CAFF and CHO trials compared to PLA and CHO (p<0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences between trials were observed for HR and RPE. CAFF and CHO mouth rinse serve to improve 30 minute arm cranking performance by mediating increasing cadence and power output without a concurrent increase in RPE and HR.
Contribution/ Originality This study contributes in the existing literature as the first investigation to comparatively examine the influence of both carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing on upper body time trial performance.
Training Effects of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in D- And D/C-Squad Badminton Players
Bobbert, M.F., 1990. Drop jumping as a training method for jumping ability. Sports Medizin, 9(1): 7-22.
Cabello, M.D. and J.J. González-Badillo, 2003. Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(1): 62-66.
Faude, O., T. Meyer, F. Rosenberger, M. Fries, G. Huber and W. Kindermann, 2007. Physiological characteristics of badminton match play. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(4): 479-485.
Faude, O., A. Schlumberger, T. Fritsche, G. Treff and T. Meyer, 2010. Leistungsdiagnostische testverfahren im fußball - methodische standards. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 61(6): 129-133.
Gehri, D.J., R. M., D. Kleiner and D. Kirkendall, 1998. A comparison of plyometric training techniques for improving vertical jump ability and energy production. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 12(2): 85-89.
Grosset, J.F., J. Piscione, D. Lambertz and C. Perot, 2009. Paired changes in electromechanical delay and musculo-tendinous stiffness after endurance or plyometric training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(1): 131-139.
Hong, Y., 1993. The biomechanics of badminton smash technique. In Proceedings XIV Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports. Paris: Société De Biomecanique: pp: 588-589.
Hong, Y. and M. Tong, 2000. The playing pattern of the world´s top single badminton players in competition. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 38: 185-200.
Joshi, I., 2012. Comparative analysis of 4 weeks agility training program and plyometric training on agility in badminton players – a randomised clinical trial. Dissertation. Kle University.
Kannas, T.M., E. Kellis and I.G. Amiridis, 2012. Incline plyometrics-induced improvement of jumping performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(6): 2353-2361.
Kato, T., T. Terashima, T. Yamashita, Y. Hatanaka, A. Honda and Y. Umemura, 2006. Effect of low-repetition jump training on bone mineral density in young women. Journal Applied Physiology, 100(3): 839-843.
Kubo, K., M. Morimoto, T. Komuro, H. Yata, N. Tsunoda, H. Kanehisa and T. Fukunaga, 2007. Effects of plyometric and weight training on muscle-tendon complex and jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(10): 1801-1810.
Kyröläinen, H., J. Avela, J.M. McBride, S. Koskinen, A.J. L., S. Sipila, T.E. Takala and P.V. Komi, 2005. Effects of power training on muscle structure and neuromuscular performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 15(1): 58-64.
Kyröläinen, H. and P.V. Komi, 1994. Neuromuscular performance of lower limbs during voluntary and reflex activity in power- and endurance-trained athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 69(3): 233-239.
Liddle, S.D., M.H. Murphy and W. Bleakley, 1996. A comparison of the physiological demands of singles and doubles badminton: A heart rate and time/motion analysis. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 30: 159-176.
Macaluso, F., A.W. Isaacs and K.H. Myburgh, 2012. Preferential type ii muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(4): 414-420.
Majumdar, P., G.L. Khanna, V. Malik, S. Sachdeva, M. Arif and M. Mandal, 1997. Physiological analysis to quantify training load in badminton. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(4): 342- 345.
Malisoux, L., M. Francaux, H. Nielens, P. Renard, J. Lebacq and D. Theisen, 2006. Calcium sensitivity of human single muscle fibers following plyometric training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(11): 1901-1908.
Markovic, G., 2007. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? A meta-analytical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(6): 349-355.
Martinez-Lopez, M.J., L. Benito-Martinez, F. Hita-Contreras, A. Lara-Sanchez and A. Martinez-Amat, 2012. Effects of electrostimulation and plyometric training program combination on jump height in teenage athletes. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11(4): 727-735.
Meylan, C. and D. Malatesta, 2009. Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9): 2605-2613.
Middleton, G., D.C. Bishop, C. Smith and T.I. Gee, 2013. The implementation of a sports-specific resistance and plyometric training programme for an elite junior badminton player. Presented at the UKSCA 2013 Annual Conference, 31.08.13 - 01.09.13, Not-Tingham University.
Rambely, A.S., W.A.B.W. Abas and M.S. Yusof, 2005. The analysis of jumping smash in the game of badminton. In International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (Ed.). Proceedings of International Symposium on biomechanics in sports conference .Beijing: International Society of Biomechanics in Sports. pp: 671- 674.
Saez-Saez de Villarreal, E., B. Requena and R.U. Newton, 2010. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(2): 513-552.
Sialis, J., 2004. Innervations charakteristik und training sadaptabilität im dehnungs-verkürzungs-zyklus. Stuttgart: Dissertation.
Sturgess, S. and R.U. Newton, 2008. Design and implementation of a specific strength program for badminton. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(3): 33-41.
Tang, H.P., K. Abe and K. Katoh, 1995. Three-dimensional cinematographical analysis of the badminton forehand smash: Movements of the forearm and hand. In: T. Reilly, M. Hughes and A. Lees (Eds). Science and Racket Sports. London: E and FN Spon. pp: 113-118.
Tsai, C.L. and S.S. Chang, 1998. Biomechanical analysis of differences in the badminton smash and jump smash between Taiwan elite and collegiate players. XVI International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. pp: 259-262.
Tsai, C.L., C. Huang, D.C. Lin and S.S. Cheng, 2000. Biomechanical analysis of the upper extremity in three different badminton overhead strokes. Proceedings of XVIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong. pp: 831-834.
Witzke, K.A. and C.M. Snow, 2000. Effects of plyometric jump training on bone mass in adolescent girls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(6): 1051-1057.
Wu, Y.K., Y.H. Lien, K.H. Lin, T.T. Shih, T.G. Wang and H.K. Wang, 2010. Relationships between three potentiation effects of plyometric training and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(1): 80-86.
No any video found for this article.
M. Frohlich , H. Felder , M. Reuter (2014). Training Effects of Plyometric Training on Jump Parameters in D- And D/C-Squad Badminton Players. Journal of Sports Research, 1(2): 22-33. DOI:
Plyometric training is popular among individuals involved in dynamic sports, and plyometric exercises such as jumping, hopping, skipping and bounding are executed with the goal of increasing dynamic muscular performance, especially jumping. Much less information is available on the effectiveness of plyometric training (PT) in badminton, where jumping high (e.g. forehand overhead jump-smash) is important for success. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week periodized PT program on jumping high and power among male and female junior badminton players, using high-impact bilateral plyometric exercises. Starting and finishing with the biomechanical diagnostics of the squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ) on force plates, kinematic analysis of forehand overhead smashes, anthropometric data as well as force data for pre- and posttest were analyzed. Before and after the biomechanical diagnostics, the players (n=11) undergo an 8-week PT (2 units per week) with a total of 2286 jumps. 8 male and 3 female junior badminton players (age: 16.0±1.6 years, height: 175.5±9.9 cm, mass: 69.3±11.4 kg) were tested in jumping high and forehand overhead jump-smashes performance. Looking at the plyometric strength parameters of the squat jump (P<0.05; dz=0.8) and the floor reaction-time of the drop jump (P<0.05; dz=1.1), the positive effect of the 8-week PT in junior badminton players is significant. Consequently, this form of training is essential for the development of junior and top-level badminton players. Moreover, the study has shown that the contact of the overhead smash cannot be increased by improving plyometric strength training (P>0.05). Therefore, the focus must be on technical training. Consequently, it is considered to be important to include short-term PT in in-season preparation in order to improve complex badminton-specific dynamic performance (smash-jumping).
The paper´s primary contribution is finding that an 8-week plyometric training in junior badminton players can significantly improve different parameters in jumping high but the plyometric training has no direct influence of the overhead smash. Therefore, the focus must be on technical training.