Journal of Sports Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-6534
Print ISSN: 2413-8436
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No. 1

Physiological Energy and Body Composition Reaction After 6 Weeks of Training at 2500m Hypoxia Chamber of Male Sprint

Pages: 39-43
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Physiological Energy and Body Composition Reaction After 6 Weeks of Training at 2500m Hypoxia Chamber of Male Sprint

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.39.43

Luong Thi Anh Ngoc , Nguyen Khanh Duy , Nguyen Tien Tien

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Belle, R., D.J. Bentley, O. Coste, J. Mercier and G.P. Millet, 2007. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training on cycling performance in well-trained athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(3): 359-368.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0506-8.

Debevec, T., 2011. T he use of normobaric hypoxia and hyperoxia for the enhancement of sea level and / or altitude exercise performance. Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School. Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 2011.

Milosz, C., W. Zbigniew, Z. Adam, P. Stanislaw, C. Jaroslaw and R. Robert, 2011. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10(1): 175-183.

Nguyen, K.D., V.B. Vu and Q.P. Le, 2017. The effects of hypoxic training on aerobic oxygen delivery capacity and aerobic performance in basketball players. International Sports Conferencing Sports, Korea National Sport University. pp: 46.

Park, H.-Y., H. Hwang, J. Park, S. Lee and K. Lim, 2016. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes–a meta-analysis. Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry, 20(1): 15-22.Available at: https://doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2016.03.20.1.3.

Randall, L.W., 2011. Application of altitude / hypoxic training by elite athletes. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 6(2): 271-286.Available at: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.62.07.

Roels, B., G.P. Millet, C. Marcoux, O. Coste, D.J. Bentley and R.B. Candau, 2005. Effects of hypoxic interval training on cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(1): 138-146.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000150077.30672.88.

Sinex, J.A. and R.F. Chapman, 2015. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(4): 325-332.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.005.

Truijens, M.J., H.M. Toussaint, J. Dow and B.D. Levine, 2003. Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(2): 733-743.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00079.2002.

Wilber, R.L., 2001. Current trends in altitude training. Sports Medicine, 31(4): 249-265.Available at: https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131040-00002.

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Luong Thi Anh Ngoc , Nguyen Khanh Duy , Nguyen Tien Tien (2019). Physiological Energy and Body Composition Reaction After 6 Weeks of Training at 2500m Hypoxia Chamber of Male Sprint. Journal of Sports Research, 6(1): 39-43. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.39.43
The study was to verify the influence of environment assumed elevation (FiO = 15.72% with the altitude 2500m) intermittently to change certain physiological functions, biochemical and body composition of male sprinters in this study. For 6 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the (H) group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500m, while the group (C) performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 5 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (VO2max-hyp) for the (H) group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group (C). (The speed was increased linearly by 1 km/h per 1min until volitional exhaustion in a run of ?5 minutes). The results showed that both groups had significant changes (p <0.05), but the analysis showed that group (H) in the training in hypoxia caused changes significant (p <0.05), better than group (C) (HRmin reduce -9.17bpm, vital capacity (VC) to 0.42 liters, increase in 3000m run (0.94%), VO2max (3.98%), hemoglobin (1.3%), hematocrit (3:47 %), EPO decreased -2.07%).
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature by verifying the influence of environment assumed elevation (FiO = 15.72% with the altitude 2500m) intermittently to change certain physiological functions, biochemical and body composition of male sprinters in this study.

The Difference in the Structure of the Functional Readiness of the Football Players with Different Abilities

Pages: 33-38
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The Difference in the Structure of the Functional Readiness of the Football Players with Different Abilities

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.33.38

Dao Chanh Thuc , Vang Cong Danh

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Dao Chanh Thuc , Vang Cong Danh (2019). The Difference in the Structure of the Functional Readiness of the Football Players with Different Abilities. Journal of Sports Research, 6(1): 33-38. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.33.38
This study on the functional readiness of football players in the different game roles of the teams of Vietnam's first and second championships is revealed. The criteria for the readiness of football players are indicators such as maximum oxygen consumption and physical performance. Functional status of the players is determined in the research laboratory of HCM State Physical Culture Academy. The difference in the structure of the functional readiness of the players with different abilities of different playing roles (goalkeeper, center and wing, central midfield and wing and attack) is revealed. The results of this study show that the greatest level of aerobic performance is characteristic of wing players and midfield players. But, especially important is aerobic performance for the flank, or, the wing players who perform the greatest amount of work on the field. It has been established that the VO2max of wing defenders is in the range from 64.32 to 65.32 ml/min kg-1.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by studying on the functional readiness of football players in the different game roles of the teams of Vietnam's first and second championships is revealed.

The Influence of Strength and Power on Rowing, Ski Ergometer Performance

Pages: 29-32
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The Influence of Strength and Power on Rowing, Ski Ergometer Performance

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.29.32

Andrew Hatchett , Kaitlyn Armstrong , Brittany Hughes , Charlie Tant

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Andrew Hatchett , Kaitlyn Armstrong , Brittany Hughes , Charlie Tant (2019). The Influence of Strength and Power on Rowing, Ski Ergometer Performance. Journal of Sports Research, 6(1): 29-32. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.29.32
Ergometers have been developed as off-season or dryland training tools for sports such as rowing and cross-country skiing. These ergometers have recently been staples in the training methods for functional fitness athletes. Purpose: To examine the relationship between athlete strength and power with rowing ergometer and ski ergometer performance. Methods: Eight healthy college-aged participants, age 18-26 years volunteered to go through a series of strength and ergometric exercises while being assessed with a metabolic cart to measure gas exchange. The three strength measures were a maximal effort on bench press, back squat, and deadlift. A watt bike was also used to assess lower body power output. All strength tests were performed following the National Strength and Conditioning Association protocols. The ergometric performances on ski ergometer and rower were performed both using the Concept2 model with the damper settings at 10. Results: A significant relationship exists between strength and ergometer performance at both sprint and mid-distances. Conclusions: Athlete strength is a significant contributor to ski ergometer and rowing ergometer performance at 100-meter and 2000-meter performances. When considering training protocols for rowing and cross-country skiing, athletes and coaches should invest in addressing strength as a meaningful portion of the training effort.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding the relationship athlete strength and power have with ergometer performance.

Developing a Scale to Measure a Football Players Transfer Score

Pages: 9-28
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Developing a Scale to Measure a Football Players Transfer Score

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.9.28

Necmi Gursakal , Halil Orbay Cobanoglu , Bulent Batmaz , Sandy Cagliyor , Fırat Melih Yilmaz

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Necmi Gursakal , Halil Orbay Cobanoglu , Bulent Batmaz , Sandy Cagliyor , Fırat Melih Yilmaz (2019). Developing a Scale to Measure a Football Players Transfer Score. Journal of Sports Research, 6(1): 9-28. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.9.28
The aim of this study is to develop a scale that demonstrates the transfer score of a football player, with the help of metrics generated through network science. Six matches played Turkish National Football Team in the 2014 World Cup Qualifiers were analyzed with e-analysis soccer program. To obtain the network of the matches and the measurements of networks we used the open-source program Gephi. By taking into consideration the correlations between 11 network metrics, factor analysis was performed, and factor loadings were obtained. To determine the transfer score, as a measure of centralization: degree, weighted-degree and betweenness-centrality, and as a measure of contravention: eccentricity, 4 variables were defined. As a result of factor analysis, three variables were combined into a single component. The variance explanation value was found to be 90.611%, the internal consistency criterion was 0.66 and the transfer score value was calculated using the squares of factor loadings. The scale we developed will be able to determine the transfer value of a player, as well as the changes in the player's performance over time.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with a new scale that can be used as a support tool in the existing transfer system. With the development of such scale, the transfer score of soccer players will be determined and the change of their performance over time could be observed.

FMS Corrective Intervention Improves FMS Composite Score and 1-Mile Run Time, without Concurrent Change in Hip Extension Strength, Vertical Jump or T-Shuttle Run Time, in Recreational Runners

Pages: 1-8
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FMS Corrective Intervention Improves FMS Composite Score and 1-Mile Run Time, without Concurrent Change in Hip Extension Strength, Vertical Jump or T-Shuttle Run Time, in Recreational Runners

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.1.8

George Dallam , Karen Hostetter , Michael McFadden , Daniel Bowan , Marie Pickeril , Steve McClaran

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George Dallam , Karen Hostetter , Michael McFadden , Daniel Bowan , Marie Pickeril , Steve McClaran (2019). FMS Corrective Intervention Improves FMS Composite Score and 1-Mile Run Time, without Concurrent Change in Hip Extension Strength, Vertical Jump or T-Shuttle Run Time, in Recreational Runners. Journal of Sports Research, 6(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.90.2019.61.1.8
The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of an intervention designed to improve functional movement as determined by Functional Movement Screen ™ (FMS) composite scores, one mile run time, standing isometric hip extension strength, agility T-Test time, and vertical jump in recreational runners (N=12, 7 males and 5 females; Mean Age = 49.08±15.87 yrs.; and mean weekly run volume = 15.96±21.21 miles), while normal running training load was maintained. We employed a two group (Control and Treatment) randomized experimental design. The treatment group (n=6) completed a 6 week intervention using the standard corrective methodology advocated by the FMS organization in combination with their normal run training, while the control group (n=6) continued their normal run training without additional intervention. We found a significant interaction between group and pre/post measure with a large effect sizes demonstrating improvement in the treatment group for the both the 1 mile run time (F = 5.45, p=0.042, Np2= 0.353) and the FMS composite score (F = 10.55, p=0.009, Np2= 0.513). There were no other significant interactions or meaningful effect sizes for any other dependent variable. This study supports the concept that a 6 week standard FMS intervention can result in concurrent improvements in both FMS composite score and 1 mile running performance without a concurrent change in running training load, isometric hip extension strength, vertical jump performance or t-shuttle times, in recreational runners.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by being the first to examine the effect of a corrective intervention for functional movement ability on both FMS score and athletic performance (1-mile run, t-shuttle, vertical jump, hip extension strength) concurrently, while simultaneously controlling for training, in recreational runners.