J. Lee, V. Taneja, and R. Vassallo, "Cigarette smoking and inflammation: Cellular and molecular mechanisms," Journal of Dental Research, vol. 91, pp. 142-149, 2011.
F. B. Thunnissen, C. Prinsen, B. Hol, M. Van Der Drift, A. Vesin, C. Brambilla, L. Montuenga, J. K. Field, and The EUELC consortium, "Smoking history and lung carcinoma: KRAS mutation is an early hit in lung adenocarcinoma development," Lung Cancer, vol. 75, pp. 156-160, 2012.
W. Evans and M. Wolfson, "Computed tomography screening for lung cancer without a smoking cessation program—not a cost-effective idea," Journal of Thoracic Oncology, vol. 6, pp. 1781-1783, 2011.
C. E. Sheffer, C. P. Barone, and M. E. Anders, "Training healthcare providers in the treatment of tobacco use and dependence: Pre and post training results," Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, vol. 15, pp. 607- 613, 2009.
L. Caplan, C. Stout, and D. S. Blumenthal, "Training physicians to do office based smoking cessation increases adherence to PHS guidelines," Journal of Community Health, vol. 36, pp. 238-243, 2011.
J. P. Rosseel, J. E. S. R. Jacobs, S. R. Hilberink, I. M. Maassen, D. Segaar, A. J. M. Plasschaert, and R. T. P. M. Grol, "Experienced barriers and facilitators for integrating smoking cessation advice and support into daily dental practice. A short report," British Dental Journal, vol. 210, pp. E10-E10, 2011.
K. G. Volpp, A. B. Troxel, M. V. Pauly, H. A. Glick, A. Puig, D. A. Asch, R. Galvin, J. Zhu, F. Wan, J. DeGuzman, E. Corbett, J. Weiner, and J. Audrain-McGovern, "A randomized, controlled financial incentives for smoking cessation," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, pp. 699-709, 2009.
J. T. Hays and J. O. Ebbert, "Varenicline for tobacco dependence," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, pp. 2018-2024, 2008.
M. A. Steliga and C. M. Dresler, "Epidemiology of lung cancer: Smoking secondhand smoke, and genetics," Surgical Oncological Clinic North America, vol. 20, pp. 605-618, 2011.
K. Bolin, B. Borgman, C. Gip, and K. Wilson, "Current and future avoidable cost of smoking-estimates for Sweden 200," Health Policy, vol. 103, pp. 83-91, 2011.
S. Haug, C. Meyer, S. Ulbricht, G. Schorr, J. Ruge, H. Rumpf, and U. John, "Predictors and moderators of outcome in different brief interventions for smoking cessation in general medical practice," Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 78, pp. 57-64, 2010.
P. Jha, C. Ramasundarahettige, V. Landsman, B. Rostron, M. Thun, R. N. Anderson, T. McAfee, and R. Peto, "21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, pp. 341-350, 2013.
C. C. S. Dela, L. T. Tanoue, and R. A. Matthay, "Lung cancer: Epidemiology, etiology and prevention," Clinical Chest Medicine, vol. 32, pp. 605-644, 2011.
A. Papadopoulos, F. Guida, S. Cenee, D. Cyr, A. Schmaus, L. Radoi, S. Paget- Bailly, M. Carton, C. Tarnaud, G. Menvielle, P. Delafosse, F. Molinie, D. Luce, and I. Stucker, "Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in women: Results of the French ICARE case control study," Lung Cancer, vol. 74, pp. 369-377, 2011.
C. F. Robinson, P. A. Sullivan, J. Li, and J. T. Walker, "Occupational lung cancer in US women, 1984-1998," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 54, pp. 102-117, 2011.
Lung Cancer Statistics, United states cancer statistics: 1999-2011 incidence and mortality web-based report. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Cancer Institute, 2014.
Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality Trend Report, Lung Cancer Fact Sheet, American Lung Association2015.
B. D. Carter, C. C. Abnet, D. Feskanich, N. D. Freedman, P. Hartge, C. E. Lewis, J. K. Ockene, R. L. Prentice, F. E. Speizer, M. J. Thun, and E. J. Jacobs, "Smoking and mortality-beyond established causes," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, pp. 631-640, 2015.
R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, "Cancer statistics, 2015," CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 65, pp. 5–29, 2015.
R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, "Cancer statistics, 2016," CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 66, pp. 7–30, 2016.
J. R. Molina, P. Yang, S. D. Cassivi, S. E. Schild, and A. A. Adjei, "Non-small cell lung cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, treatment and survivorship," Mayo Clinical Proceedings, vol. 83, pp. 584-594, 2008.
D. Morgensztern, K. Politi, and R. S. Herbst, "EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: Find, divide and conquer," Journal of American Medical Association Oncology, vol. 1, pp. 146-148, 2015.
M. M. Larzelere and D. E. Williams, "Promoting smoking cessation," American Family Physician, vol. 85, pp. 591-598, 2012.
M. Bharti and G. Yashila, "Lung cancer and nicotine," Journal of Chromatography, vol. 7, pp. 1-2, 2016.
W. D. Hall, "Will nicotine genetics and a nicotine vaccine prevent cigarette smoking and smoking-related diseases?," PLoS Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 0860-0863, 2005.
G. A. Colditz, "Smoke alarm-tobacco control remains paramount," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, pp. 665-666, 2015.
J. L. Westmaas, J. Bontemps-Jones, and J. E. Bauer, "Social support in smoking cessation: Reconciling theory and evidence," Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 12, pp. 695-707, 2010.
G. Heydari, M. Masjedi, A. E. Ahmady, S. J. Leischow, H. A. Lando, M. B. Shadmehr, and L. Fadaizadeh, "A comparative study on tobacco cessation methods: A quantitative systematic review," International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 673-678, 2014.
M. Minor and S. Sondike, "Adolescent smoking cessation methods: A review article," West Virginia Medical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 16-20, 2014.
M. Nides, "Update on pharmacological options for smoking cessation treatment," American Journal of Medicine, vol. 121, pp. S20-S31, 2008.
United States Preventive Services Task Force, "Counseling and interventions to prevent tobacco use and tobacco-caused disease in adults and pregnant women: U.S. preventive services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 150, pp. 551-555, 2009.
S. Shiffman, M. D. Marino, and J. Pillitteri, "The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers," Journal Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 28, pp. 49–55, 2005.
D. E. Jorenby, S. J. Leischow, M. A. Nides, S. I. Rennard, J. A. Johnston, A. R. Hughes, S. S. Smith, M. L. Muramoto, D. M. Daughton, K. Doan, M. C. Fiore, and T. B. Baker, "A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, pp. 685-691, 1999.
E. K. Tong, R. Strouse, J. Hall, M. Kovac, and S. A. Schroeder "National survey of US health professionals smoking prevalence, cessation practices and beliefs," Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 12, pp. 724-733, 2010.
J. O. Ebbert, J. R. Hughes, R. J. West, S. I. Rennard, C. Russ, T. D. McRae, J. Treadow, C. Yu, M. P. Dutro, and P. W. Park, "Effect of varenicline on smoking cessation through smoking reduction, a randomized clinical trial," Journal of American Medical Association, vol. 313, pp. 687-694, 2015.
N. K. Cobb and D. B. Abrams, "The FDA, E. cigarettes and the demise of combusted tobacco," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, pp. 1469-1471, 2014.
B. C. Bock, J. L. Fava, R. Gaskins, K. M. Morrow, D. M. Williams, E. Jennings, B. M. Becker, G. Tremont, and B. H. Marcus, "Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation," Journal of Women’s Health, vol. 21, pp. 240-248, 2012.
Joanna Briggs Institute, "Smoking cessation interventions and strategies," Best Practice, vol. 12, pp. 1-4, 2008.
R. West, W. Zatonski, M. Cedzynska, D. Lewandowska, J. Pazik, P. Aveyard, and J. Stapleton, "Placebo-controlled trial of cysteine for smoking cessation," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, pp. 1193- 1200, 2011.
N. Walker, C. Howe, M. Glover, H. McRobbie, J. Barnes, V. Nosa, V. Parag, B. Bassett, and C. Bullen, "Cytisine versus nicotine for smoking cessation," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, pp. 2353-2362, 2014.
Z. Sanford and L. Goebel, "E-cigarettes: An up to date review and discussion of the controversy," West Virginia Medical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 10-15, 2014.
H. McRobbie, C. Bullen, J. Hartmann-Boyce, and P. Hajek, "Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2014. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub2, 2014.
M. A. Awad, M. El Kouatly, and R. Fakhry, "Smoking counseling practices of physicians in the United Arab Emirates," Global Health Promotion, vol. 17, pp. 89-95, 2010.
M. N. Iqbal, C. Castro, M. Elrifai, S. D. Williams, J. D. Thornton, and L. S. Sroujieh, "Factors affecting smoking cessation interventions in pulmonary clinic," American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, vol. 193, p. A6503, 2016.
The National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, "Reduced lung cancer mortality with low dose computed tomographic screening," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, pp. 395-409, 2011.
Tokunbo Ajayi , Jerome C Okudo (2016). Current Issue: Smoking Cessation, The Patient, The Physician and The Policy Makers. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 3(6): 77-84. DOI: 10.18488/journal.9/2016.3.6/126.96.36.199
Tobacco smoking continues to be a bane in the US. Nearly 540, 000 people die annually because of cigarette smoking. These deaths are preventable. Smoking is implicated in lung cancer and many other medical conditions. Billions of dollars have been spent on health issues related to smoking. Lung cancer affects men and women. Nicotine addiction is the culprit in continued smoking and understanding its role is important in promoting smoking cessation. Smoking cessation is important and scientific evidence and approaches exist in the literature. We have explored traditional, non-traditional and novel modalities for smoking cessation and the need for physicians to be actively involved in recommending smoking cessation. We have also discussed special populations that have special requirements for smoking cessation.
This paper’s primary contribution is making stakeholders aware of the implications of smoking and the role of the physicians and policy makers in reducing the incidence of cigarette related deaths. It also emphasizes how available smoking cessation methods may be beneficial to smokers.