Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2409-4293
Print ISSN: 2412-3390
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 1

Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria

Pages: 22-29
Find References

Finding References

Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2020.41.22.29

Nura Sani Yahaya , Hassan Abdullahi , Hafsat Garba Abdullahi

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

No any video found for this article.
Nura Sani Yahaya , Hassan Abdullahi , Hafsat Garba Abdullahi (2020). Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation, 4(1): 22-29. DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2020.41.22.29
This study examined the effect of nonrenewable energy use, output, domestic credit and FDI on environmental pollution in Nigeria through the use of ARDL method from 1980 – 2016. The outcome of the study’s estimation reveals that all the variables possess the long run association. It is indicated that in short and long run conditions, nonrenewable energy use, FDI and trade increased environmental dilapidation, thereby adversely affect environmental quality in Nigeria. However, financial development has negative influence on environmental degradation. The finding clearly illustrates that nonrenewable energy utilization rise environmental pollution in Nigeria. Hence, policymakers should design appropriate policies to enhance environmental quality through policies that will regulate the use nonrenewable energy and backed the policies in promoting the utilization of renewable energy resources, inform of wind, solar and hydro energy. It is essential for government to take anti-corruption measures, that the designed policies are implemented appropriately to achieve the benefits of the policies. This would be very vital in achieving environmental quality, welfare enhancement, poverty reduction as well as sustainable economic development.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature by examining the effect of nonrenewable energy use on environmental pollution in Nigeria, as studies on environmental quality are few in African and Nigeria in particular. The outcome of the study would help policymakers in designing appropriate and effective policies for environmental quality.

Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria

Pages: 1-21
Find References

Finding References

Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2020.41.1.21

Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa , Solomon A. Akpafun , Charity O. Chukumah

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abdulkareem, A. and J. Odigure, 2006. Deterministic model for noise dispersion from gas flaring: A case study of Niger–Delta area of Nigeria. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 20(2): 157-164.

Abdulkareem, A.S., 2006. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria.

Adati, A.K., 2012. Oil exploration and spillage in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 2(3): 38-51.

Adewale, O.O. and U. Mustapha, 2015. The impact of gas flaring in Nigeria. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society, 3(2): 40-50.Available at:

Ajugwo, A.O., 2013. Negative effects of gas flaring: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Environmental Pollution Human Health, 1(1): 6-8.

AK-BASES, 2005. Akwa Ibom State socio-economic study report. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: A Publication by the Ministry of Economic Development. pp: 86-92.

Akankali, J.A. and J.A.O. Oronsaye, 1997. Socio-economic assessment of the impact of crude oil pollution on artisanal fisheries in selected local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3(2): 64-87.

Akpafun, A.S., C.C.G. Ndinwa and O.C. Chukumah, 2019. Evaluation of environmental awareness level among stakeholders in rural and urban communities, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Climate Research.

Akpojwi, R.E. and P.E. Akumagha, 2008. Impact of gas flaring on soil fertility. In: Proceedings of the 18th Shell Petroleum Corporation International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment. Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria. pp: 7-12

Akuirene, O.A., J.O. Adjene, N.I. Obi and E.U. Nwose, 2019. Impact of gas flaring in Ubeji metropolis of Delta State Nigeria: A comparative survey of environment health effects. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 5(10): 283-290.Available at:

Bassey, N., 2008. Gas flaring: Assaulting communities and jeopardizing the world. In: Proceedings of 11th Environmental Rights Actions Conference in Conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja, 2008. pp: 18-22.

Bhopal, R., S. Moffatt, T. Pless-Mulloli, P. Phillimore, C. Foy, C. Dunn and J. Tate, 1988. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel and other industries impair health? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(3): 812-822.

Choi, O. and A. Fisher, 2003. The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses: Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) and the US. Climatic Change, 58(1-2): 149-170.

Cutchin, M.P., K.R. Martin, S.V. Owen and J.S. Goodwin, 2008. Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 28(3): 589-601.Available at:

Delta State Ministry of Land Urban Development and Housing, 2016. Topographical details of Kwale. Scale 1:50.000 series. Department of Survey, Cartography and GIS. Issued by Delta State Ministry of Land, Urban Development and Housing.

Department of Petroleum Resources, 1999. Annual Report of the Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR), 1992, Lagos. pp: 29.

Dessel, J.B., P. Van and P.S. Onwuka, 1996. Environmental impact of oil exploration and production operations on the Niger Delta Mangrove. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration Production, Jakarta, 2:437-445.

Ebiyeghagha, G., 2010. Gas flaring and its impacts on socio-economic livelihoods. B.Sc Project, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Niger Delta University, Amasoma, Nigeria. Unpublished.

Efe, S., 2003. Effect of gas flaring on temperature and adjacent vegetation in Niger Delta environment. International Journal of Environmental Issues, 1(1): 91-101.

Ekpoh, I.J. and A.E. Obia, 2010. The role of gas flaring in the rapid corrosion of zinc roofs in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 30(4): 347-352.Available at:

Elenwo, E. and J. Akankali, 2014. Environmental policies and strategies in Nigeria oil and gas industry: Gains, challenges and prospects. Natural Resources, 5(14): 884-896.Available at:

Environmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth Nigeria, 2008. The environment, issues, cases and sustainability. In Knee deep in crude: Environmental field reports. N. Bassey (eds). Sango, Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited, 2: 57-69.

Esu, B. and O. Dominic, 2013. Perceived effects of gas flaring on socio-economic well-being of farming households in Ogbia Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. American Journal of Research Communication, 1(3): 27-34.

Facito, C. and T. Spurling, 1992. Developing agricultural extension for women farmers. Washington D.C: World Bank.

FOE (Friends of the Earth), 2004. Gas flaring in Nigeria: Human Rights environmental and economic monstrosity. Available from [Accessed June 5, 2010].

FOEN, 2008. Fact sheet: Harmful gas flaring in Nigeria, 2008.

Friends of the Earth Nigeria, 2008. Where vultures feast: 40 years of Shell in the Niger Delta. Reversed ed., Sierra Club Books in conjunction with Random House 2008. pp: 39-62.

Idris, R.O., 2010. Impacts of oil spillage and gas flaring on the population and distribution of birds in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A Brief Interim Report Prepared for ABC Conservation Fund, United Kingdom.

Ilori, O.O., 1999. Gas flaring and its effects on the environment. B.Sc Thesis, University of Lagos. Lagos.

Kamalu, O.J. and C.C. Wokocha, 2010. Land resource inventory and ecological vulnerability; assessment of Onne Area in Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Science, 3(5): 438-447.

Kponee, K.Z., A. Chiger, I.I. Kakulu, D. Vorhees and W. Heiger-Bernays, 2015. Petroleum contaminated water and health symptoms: A cross-sectional pilot study in a rural Nigerian community. Environmental Health, 14(1): 1-8.Available at:

Luginaah, I.N., S.M. Taylor, S.J. Elliott and J.D. Eyles, 2000. A longitudinal study of the health impacts of a petroleum refinery. Social Science & Medicine, 50(7-8): 1155-1166.Available at:

Luginaah, I.N., S.M. Taylor, S.J. Elliott and J.D. Eyles, 2002. Community responses and coping strategies in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery in Oakville, Ontario. Health & Place, 8(3): 177-190.Available at:

Meinzan-Dick, R.S. and A.R. Quniscunbing, 2011. Empowering women to achieve food security: Overview. Washington D. C: International Food Policy Research Institute.

National Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Nigerian population census results. National Bureau of Statistics, Annual abstract of statistics. Abuja: Federal Republic of Nigeria. pp: 33.

Ndinwa, C.C.G., A.S. Akpafun and O.-n.N. P., 2012. Waste disposal methods and participation among residents of Abraka, Southern Nigeria. Journal of Social and Management Science, 7(1): 123-133.

Ndinwa, G.C.C. and S. Akpafun, 2012. Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. In In Five decades of oil production in Nigeria Edited A. S. Akpotor, S.H. Egboh, A. I. Ohwona, C. O. Orubu, S. B. Olabaniyi and R. O. Oloma, 2012. pp: 333-360.

Nkwocha, E.E. and E.C. Pat-Mbano, 2010. Effect of gas flaring on buildings in the oil producing rural communities of River State, Nigeria. African Research Review, 4(2): 90-102.Available at:

Nriagu, J., E.A. Udofia, I. Ekong and G. Ebuk, 2016. Health risks associated with oil pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(346): 2-23.Available at:

Nwanya, S.C., 2011. Climate change and energy implications of gas flaring for Nigeria. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 6(3): 193-199.Available at:

Obia, A.E., H.E. Okon, S.A. Ekum, E.E. Eyo-Ita and E.A. Ekpeni, 2011. The influence of gas flare particulates and rainfall on the corrosion of galvanized steel roofs in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2: 1341-1346.Available at:

Odigure, J., A. Abdulkareem and O. Adeniyi, 2003. Computer simulation of soil temperature due to heat radiation from gas flaring. Journal of Association Advancement of Modelling and Simulation Enterprises, 72(1): 1-10.

Oghenejobh, K.M., 2005. The impact of acid rain deposition resulting from natural gas flaring on the socio-economic life of the people of Afieser community in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Journal of Industrial Pollution and Control, 21(1): 83-90.

Oghenejoboh, K., A. Babatunde and C. Nwaukwa, 2007. Effects of air pollution arising from associated gas flaring on the economic life of the people of oil producing communities in Nigeria. I Control Pollution, 23(1): 1-9.

Ogunfiditimi, I.A., 2005. Socio-economic analysis of poverty level among rural dwellers in gas flaring communities, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. M. Phil, PhD Agric-Econs Dept. Theses U. I. Ibadan.

Olaniyi, O.A., O.D. Adebayo, A.R. Ayoade and M.A. Okoma, 2008. Women perception on effect of oil spillage on farming activities in South Eastern Nigeria. Implication for Household Food Security. Agricultural Formal, 3(5): 357-361.

Oniero, S.B.R. and I. Abroibo, 2000. Environmental pollution: The hidden hand of death in Warri Milieu. In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Petroleum and Environmental Degradation. Department of Economic, Delta State University, Abraka: 14-26, October 2000.

Opafunso, Z.O., 2005. Environmental impacts of gas flaring in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 4(1): 52-61.

Orimoogunje, O., A. Ayanlade, T. Akinkuolie and A. Odiong, 2010. Perception on effect of gas flaring on the environment. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 2(4): 188-193.

Oseh, J.O., I.A. Oguamah, O.O. Oluwagbenga and A.A. Adeyi, 2015. The environmental implication of gas flaring in sapele community of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering, 3(5): 55-61.Available at:

Ovadia, J.S., 2013. The Nigerian “one percent” and the management of national oil wealth through Nigerian content. Science & Society, 77(3): 315-341.Available at:

Shultz, J.M., L. Walsh, D.R. Garfin, F.E. Wilson and Y. Neria, 2015. The 2010 deepwater horizon oil spill: The trauma signature of an ecological disaster. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(1): 58-76.Available at:

Tolulope, A.O., 2004. Oil exploration and environmental degradation: The Nigerian experience. Environmental Informatics Archives, 2(3): 387-393.

Tzimas, E., A. Mercier, C.-C. Cormos and S.D. Peteves, 2007. Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture. Energy Policy, 35(8): 3991-3998.Available at:

Udofia, O., 2005. Effects of oil spillage on small scale fisheries farmers in Akwa Ibom State. M.Sc Thesis Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria. Unpublished.

Ugonna, E.A., 2014. Air pollution, noise pollution and control laws: Nigeria as a case study. A Term Paper for Environmental law (LPI 402), Department of Law, Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria: 6.

Ukala, E., 2011. Gas flaring in Nigeria‘s Niger Delta: Failed promises and reviving community voices. Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate and the Environment, 2(4): 97-122.

Ukegbu, O.D. and A.P. Okeke, 1987. Flaring of associated gas in oil industry: Impact on growth, productivity and yield of selected farm corps. In: Proceedings of International Seminar on Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment, Lagos, Nigeria. pp: 81-109.

Uyigue, E. and M. Agho, 2007. Coping with climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta of Southern Nigeria. Community research and development centre (CREDC) Benin, Nigeria. Benin: CREDC Press. pp: 45-62.

World Bank, 2008. Global gas flaring reduction (GGR) Report on consultations with stakeholders. World Bank Group in collaboration with the Government of Norway. Available from [Accessed 05.09.2015].

Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa , Solomon A. Akpafun , Charity O. Chukumah (2020). Perceived Environmental and Health Impacts of Gas Flaring on Residents in Kwale Communities, Southern Nigeria. Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation, 4(1): 1-21. DOI: 10.18488/journal.81.2020.41.1.21
This study was designed to examine the perceived environmental effects of gas flaring and its associated health impact on residents in Kwale communities, Southern Nigeria. Three research objectives guided the study. Descriptive survey design and purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study. 750 household respondents from five different communities in Kwale axis were used for the study and an 18 item self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The instrument for data collection was administered to the respondents in the communities. The study revealed that gas flaring impact on the social, economic and environmental quality of the communities as 79.6% of the respondents positively affirmed the finding. A reasonable percentage (89.6%) of the sampled household respondents consent that gas flaring impact on the environmental activities as well as health of residents in the study area. Furthermore, 68% of the respondents confirm that gas flaring has a devastating effects on the vegetation and agricultural activities of the residents as some of them reported cases of stunted growth of crops, withered crop leaves, defoliation of plant and wrinkling of plant leaves. A higher percentage of respondents confirmed cases of critical gas flaring health related sick suffered by either themselves or family members and some of the respondents as well complained of excessive heat radiation and increase in temperature. Based on the findings, sustainable strategy for natural gas utilization was recommended in order to curtail the negative impacts and convert the excessive gas for economic and environmental benefits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the perceived environmental effects of gas flaring and its associated health impact on residents in Kwale communities, Southern Nigeria.