Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-4318
Print ISSN: 2312-5659
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No. 4

Psychological Reactions in a Sample from Saudi Arabia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Pages: 351-361
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Psychological Reactions in a Sample from Saudi Arabia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.351.361

Rasis A. Alanazi , Aljawharah Aljubilah

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Rasis A. Alanazi , Aljawharah Aljubilah (2021). Psychological Reactions in a Sample from Saudi Arabia During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(4): 351-361. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.351.361
The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised many concerns regarding people’s physical and mental health. The aim of the study is to examine the levels of depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Demographic variables were examined (gender, age, educational level, and work) in relation to depression, anxiety, and insomnia. An online survey was sent to individuals who voluntarily participated in the study anonymously, and a total of 531 people were recruited from Saudi Arabian society (355 females, 176 males). Several analyses were used to detect the levels of depression, anxiety, and insomnia and results revealed low levels of depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Anxiety levels in females were higher compared to males; educational level was negatively correlated to depression and anxiety; there was a negative correlation between age and the levels of depression and anxiety; and younger participants reported higher levels of depression and anxiety. In addition, students were more likely to suffer from insomnia compared to employees in both public and private sectors, unemployed participants had higher anxiety levels compared to employees; and finally, a statistically significant difference was found between levels of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Predictions for insomnia can be detected from depression and anxiety variables.
Contribution/ Originality
The papers primary contribution is finding the psychological impact of COVID-19 on participants’ mental health and well-being at early stages in Saudi Arabia. The study examined three aspects of mental health – depression, anxiety and insomnia – in relation to participants’ age, gender educational level, and work status. The study examined individuals’ mental well-being during governmental lock down across Saudi in an attempt to better understand the changes on one’s overall mental health.

The Influence of Chinese University Students' Reinforcement Sensitivity on Cyber Violence

Pages: 341-350
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The Influence of Chinese University Students' Reinforcement Sensitivity on Cyber Violence

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.341.350

Juntao Zhang , Zhongwu Li

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Juntao Zhang , Zhongwu Li (2021). The Influence of Chinese University Students' Reinforcement Sensitivity on Cyber Violence. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(4): 341-350. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.341.350
With the popularity of the internet in China increasing, especially among young people and college students, it has become an indispensable part of life. However, Chinese college students either engage in violence via the internet or are targeted by online violence, causing major concern within Chinese society. Currently, the adverse consequences of online violence conducted by Chinese college students have attracted the attention of domestic college student affairs managers. This study, with the influence of reinforcement sensitivity on cyber violence as the starting point, analyzes punishment sensitivity and cyber violence and the relationship between the two by building a structural equation model. It was found that reward sensitivity is prominently related to cyber violence, and that punishment sensitivity have no obvious relevance to cyber violence. On this basis, it is proposed that university student administrators should pay attention to the high reward sensitivity of college students' satisfaction acquisition channels; college students with high reward sensitivity who participate in cyber violence for a sustained period need proper intervention. Improvements are needed in students' cognition and they should be taught how to deal with online violence.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that reward sensitivity is prominently related to cyber violence, and punishment sensitivity have no obvious relevance to cyber violence. Suggestions are proposed on the prevention of cyber violence on the basis on the results.

A Performance Model of the Indonesian National Police: The Role of Communication Apprehension, Servant Leadership, Group Cohesiveness, and Silence Behavior

Pages: 326-340
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A Performance Model of the Indonesian National Police: The Role of Communication Apprehension, Servant Leadership, Group Cohesiveness, and Silence Behavior

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.326.340

Wing Ispurwanto , Tri Ratna Murti , Kuncono Teguh Yunanto , Juneman Abraham , Togiaratua Nainggolan , Riant Nugroho

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Wing Ispurwanto , Tri Ratna Murti , Kuncono Teguh Yunanto , Juneman Abraham , Togiaratua Nainggolan , Riant Nugroho (2021). A Performance Model of the Indonesian National Police: The Role of Communication Apprehension, Servant Leadership, Group Cohesiveness, and Silence Behavior. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(4): 326-340. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.326.340
In line with the trend of community policing at the global level, the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) is expected to be able to enforce the law fairly and humanely, but in ways that protect people. This present study is aimed at finding a theoretical model of the performance of POLRI members. This model involves under-represented variables in the literature on police performance, namely servant leadership (SL), group cohesiveness (GC), silence behavior (SB), and communication apprehension (CA). To confirm the model, which hypothesizes that CA is the mediator of the relationships between SL, GC and SB and police performance, this study uses a quantitative, correlational predictive design with structural equation modeling (SEM) data analysis techniques. Research on 551 police officers in Greater Jakarta (Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi), Indonesia, found that the theoretical model partially fits the empirical data. Nevertheless, there are unique and counter-intuitive findings: the higher the servant leadership, the higher the communication apprehension; the higher the servant leadership, the lower the performance of POLRI members; group cohesiveness cannot predict communication apprehension; and the higher the group cohesiveness, the lower the performance of POLRI members. These findings are meaningful for drawing up human resource policies within POLRI, including job analysis, recruitment, selection, work culture, performance appraisal, training, and development. This finding is unique because silence behavior has never been investigated within POLRI. This study also proposes a modified practice of servant leadership within the police institution.
Contribution/ Originality
This research is one of the few that has investigated performance models of the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) involving socio-psychological variables. The results will inspire POLRI to formulate an adaptable model of servant leadership and ensure awareness of silence behavior and group cohesiveness within the institution.

The Effect of Knowledge Acquisition on Competitive Advantage: The Mediation Role of Innovation in Indonesia’s Batik SMEs

Pages: 315-325
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.315.325

Ngatno . , Reni Shinta Dewi , Ari Pradanawati

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Ngatno . , Reni Shinta Dewi , Ari Pradanawati (2021). The Effect of Knowledge Acquisition on Competitive Advantage: The Mediation Role of Innovation in Indonesia’s Batik SMEs. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(4): 315-325. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.315.325
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of knowledge acquisition on competitive advantage by examining the mediating effect of innovation. A total of 100 batik small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Central Java were sampled, and the data were analyzed with SPSS AMOS 23 structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that knowledge acquisition does have an effect on innovation. Furthermore, innovation is proven to have an effect on competitive advantage. The mediation test shows that innovation plays a full role in mediating the relationship between knowledge acquisition and competitive advantage. Meanwhile, knowledge acquisition does not have a direct effect on competitive advantage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated the relationship between knowledge acquisition, innovation and competitive advantage, which emphasizes innovation as a mediator between knowledge acquisition and competitive advantage in the context of batik SMEs in Central Java, Indonesia.

The Impact of Smartphone Usage on Students’ Lifestyles from the Perspective of Students’ Learning, Physical Activity, and Social Relationships

Pages: 300-314
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.300.314

Khalid Nasser Al-Zubi

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Khalid Nasser Al-Zubi (2021). The Impact of Smartphone Usage on Students’ Lifestyles from the Perspective of Students’ Learning, Physical Activity, and Social Relationships. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(4): 300-314. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.94.300.314
This study aimed to investigate the impact of students’ use of smartphones on their lifestyles at the university stage. Using an analytical descriptive approach and data collected by self-administered questionnaires comprising 36 items, smartphone usage was measured by determining the type of smartphone, family and environment orientations toward smartphone usage, and the psychological motivations for using smartphones. Students’ lifestyles were estimated by the learning, physical activity, and social relationships of students. The study’s instrument reliability and validity were tested and then the questionnaire was distributed randomly to 285 students enrolled in Princess Rahma College of Al-Balqa Applied University, in different scientific fields. By using simple and multiple regression analyses, the study established that students are psychologically motivated to use smartphones and that their families’ orientations and their environment orientations towards using smartphones significantly affect the students’ lifestyles at the significance level of ? ? 0.05. The type of smartphone device did not significantly affect the students’ lifestyles at the level of ? ? 0.05. According to the study’s results, a set of recommendations were provided that include the responsibility of educational institutions, families and media to create awareness of the negative aspects of excessive smartphone use.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of family orientations, environment orientations, and psychological motivations of students’ usage of smartphones. It also contributes to paving the fundamentals for suitable means and techniques to control behavior to counteract the damage that excessive smartphone use can cause to students' social relationships, their physical activity, and learning.