Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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No. 4

Hidden Motivation for Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Organizational Recognition: The Moderating Role of Need for Status

Pages: 493-504
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Hidden Motivation for Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Organizational Recognition: The Moderating Role of Need for Status

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.493.504

Zhao Li , Shalendra S. Kumar , Rohit Kishore , Bimal Krishna , Shiu Lingam

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Zhao Li , Shalendra S. Kumar , Rohit Kishore , Bimal Krishna , Shiu Lingam (2020). Hidden Motivation for Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Organizational Recognition: The Moderating Role of Need for Status. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 493-504. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.493.504
This study aims to examine the relationship between the hidden motives for sharing knowledge, organizational recognition and the moderating role of the need for status. The survey data was collected from 798 employees through convenient sampling from public sector organizations in Fiji. The findings revealed that the need for status significantly moderated the relationship between hidden motives to share knowledge and organizational recognition. In congruence with the costly signaling theory (CST), the study identified an underlying motive that can motivate individuals to proactively engage in sharing valued resources to gain social prestige and self-recognition. The findings also revealed that by sharing highly valued resources individuals maintained social status and at the same time earned preferential treatment in the organization. As such, this became our major contribution to the existing literature on knowledge management. Finally, this study brings a new dimension to unleashing the hidden motivation of knowledge sharing behavior through the individual need for status and the real benefit of managing individuals in an organization. Organizations can effectively create a work context that would encourage more proactive knowledge sharing behavior and also set a platform for the fulfillment of the individual need for status. Moreover, it becomes the responsibility of leaders to elicit belief in individuals that efforts made to share knowledge is highly valuable and distinguishable, and any cost incurred will not be wasted. The limitations and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the few studies that sheds light on costly signaling theory to explain how an individual's hidden motivation to share knowledge can be unleashed through the need for status beyond self-sacrificing behavior.

Utilization of Health Care Services among Migrant Workers in Malaysia

Pages: 481-492
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Utilization of Health Care Services among Migrant Workers in Malaysia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.481.492

Md. Sayed Uddin , Rulia Akhtar , Muhammad Mehedi Masud , Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye

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Md. Sayed Uddin , Rulia Akhtar , Muhammad Mehedi Masud , Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye (2020). Utilization of Health Care Services among Migrant Workers in Malaysia. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 481-492. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.481.492
The underutilization of formal health services is a common scenario among migrants that leads to the development of serious medical conditions. This study aims to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors on the use of health services among Bangladeshi migrant workers in Malaysia. It employed Andersen’s ‘population characteristics framework’ behavioral model, which is based on a quantitative method. A questionnaire was developed to collect relevant information through face-to-face interviews from respondents involved in the construction, manufacturing, and service sectors. The results revealed that the majority of Bangladeshi workers were not consistent in visiting doctors, hospitals, or clinics when they experienced illness in the past year. The theoretical implication of Andersen’s behavioral model comprising predisposing and need factors was found to be significantly and positively associated with the use of health services. The findings indicated that predisposing factors including marital status and education, and need factors, including self-rated health status, sickness, and chronic illness in the previous year, had the greatest impact on healthcare utilization. However, there was no significant relationship between respondents’ ages and their utilization of healthcare services during their stay in Malaysia. Finally, the study suggests that adequate measures should be taken to provide pre-departure training related to the existing healthcare system in Malaysia, including health insurance cover and extension of services to future migrant workers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the utilization of healthcare services among Bangladeshi migrant workers in Malaysia. This study reveals that marital status and educational level have greater influence and a positive impact on the use of services at various healthcare providers in Malaysia.

Employee Mentoring, Career Success and Organizational Success

Pages: 464-480
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Employee Mentoring, Career Success and Organizational Success

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.464.480

Hyginus Emeka Nwosu , Joy Nonye Ugwu , Bebedeth N. Okezie , Chimeziem C. Udeze , Ngozi U. Azubuike , Linus Adama

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Hyginus Emeka Nwosu , Joy Nonye Ugwu , Bebedeth N. Okezie , Chimeziem C. Udeze , Ngozi U. Azubuike , Linus Adama (2020). Employee Mentoring, Career Success and Organizational Success. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 464-480. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.464.480
This study investigated how employee mentoring relates to career success and organizational success. This is because employee mentoring, employee career success and organizational success are indispensible in the life of every organization. To fill the existing gap in the current literature, this study intends to determine the presence of mentoring in Nigerian firms and the extent to which it has helped in both career success and organizational success. The study employed a survey method of data collection through questionnaires administered to 345 respondents, and descriptive statistics and t-tests were used for the analysis and hypothesis testing. This study proposes that there is a significant presence of mentoring in firms throughout Nigeria, that mentoring has a significant positive effect on career success, and that career success has a significant positive effect on organizational success. The study recommends that organizations should incorporate employee mentoring programmes in their plan, which will lead to employees’ career success and organizational success, and the study concludes that mentoring is invaluable to both career success and organizational success.
Contribution/ Originality
The study revealed that mentoring has a significant positive effect on career success, and that career success has a significant positive effect on organizational success. These findings will help organizations incorporate employee mentoring programmes in their plan, which will lead to employees’ career success and organizational success.

The Influence of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation on Firm Performance: Evidence from Thai Startup Firms

Pages: 450-463
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The Influence of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation on Firm Performance: Evidence from Thai Startup Firms

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.450.463

Worasak Klongthong , Jakkrit Thavorn , Wasapon Thanabodypath , Poksorn Dhammathattariya , Achara Chandrachai

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Worasak Klongthong , Jakkrit Thavorn , Wasapon Thanabodypath , Poksorn Dhammathattariya , Achara Chandrachai (2020). The Influence of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Innovation on Firm Performance: Evidence from Thai Startup Firms. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 450-463. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.450.463
This descriptive case study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and innovation and the business success of digital startup firms. Qualitative data was collected from in-depth interviews with entrepreneur-founders from four leading digital startups. In addition, interviewees completed a questionnaire measuring self-rated ESE and innovation to confirm whether the qualitative interviews were in accordance with the quantitative analysis. The results showed that ESE and innovation has a direct positive relationship to the financial and customer aspects of firm performance. ESE influences innovation, which in turn corresponds to firm performance. As juvenile organizations that are just venturing into entrepreneurship, startup firms inevitably face a unique set of obstacles. The performance of new ventures varied depending on the startup’s stage and type of business. Entrepreneurs should focus on specific goals to survive during the early emerging stages. This study extends current research by investigating the relationships between types of innovation and ESE as a component of individual personality, as well as how these variables interact to contribute to the performance of early-stage startup firms. The findings present new insights concerning factors related to business success, which can inform supportive policies and programs to enhance ESE and innovation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated all aspects of firm performance using balanced scorecard (BSC) of Thai startup firms through the exploration of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and types of innovation.

Higher Education Leadership Competency Framework in Malaysia: A Refinement

Pages: 438-449
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Higher Education Leadership Competency Framework in Malaysia: A Refinement

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.438.449

Ismie Roha Mohamed Jais , Nordin Yahaya , Erlane K Ghani

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Ismie Roha Mohamed Jais , Nordin Yahaya , Erlane K Ghani (2020). Higher Education Leadership Competency Framework in Malaysia: A Refinement. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 438-449. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.438.449
This paper proposes a leadership competency framework for higher education institutions in Malaysia. It presents a two-year development process on the leadership competency in order to address the issues in identifying competent leaders in higher education institutions in Malaysia. This study utilizes a qualitative approach to achieve the research objectives. Specifically, an exploratory case study of a small unit under the Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia is the focus of this paper. The study demonstrates that the existing leadership framework in higher education institutions needs to be refined to accommodate the demand changes. The practical implication of this paper is to provide an understanding on possible alternatives to the existing leadership competency framework in promoting excellence in all spheres of higher education, and academic excellence in particular. This paper provides a refined leadership competency framework specifically for higher education institutions in Malaysia.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on leadership competency frameworks, specifically for higher education institutions in Malaysia. This study provides a refined framework that can be used to assess the abilities of a leader.

Forecasting Production and Export of Thailand’s Durian Fruit: An Empirical Study using the Box–Jenkins Approach

Pages: 430-437
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Forecasting Production and Export of Thailand’s Durian Fruit: An Empirical Study using the Box–Jenkins Approach

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.430.437

Paisan Rueangrit , Chalermpon Jatuporn , Vasu Suvanvihok , Apinya Wanaset

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Paisan Rueangrit , Chalermpon Jatuporn , Vasu Suvanvihok , Apinya Wanaset (2020). Forecasting Production and Export of Thailand’s Durian Fruit: An Empirical Study using the Box–Jenkins Approach. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 430-437. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.430.437
This research aims to forecast the production and export of Thailand’s durian fruit using the Box–Jenkins procedure. The export of Thailand’s durian focuses on the Chinese market and the world market. The monthly time series from January 2005 to June 2020 is modeled using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA). The empirical results revealed that the models of SARIMA(2,1,1)(0,1,1)12, SARIMA(2,1,1)(0,1,0)12, and SARIMA(4,1,1)(0,1,0)12 were selected as the most suitable models to forecast the durian production of Thailand, durian export to the Chinese market, and durian export to the world market, respectively. The findings indicated that the durian production of Thailand will increase by 2.419% in the second half of 2020, and by 13.480% in 2021. This is in line with the forecasts for durian exports to the Chinese and world markets that predict growth in the second half of 2020 by 43.398% and 0.542%, respectively, and in 2021 by 31.299% and 6.023%, respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
Thailand is a significant durian producer and exporter to the world market. This study is one of the very few studies that have investigated the seasonal forecasting of Thailand’s durian production and export using the Box–Jenkins procedure, also known as SARIMA(p,d,q)(P,D,Q)s.

College Readiness and Adjustment of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Focus on Persons with Disabilities

Pages: 418-429
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College Readiness and Adjustment of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Focus on Persons with Disabilities

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.418.429

Rudolf T. Vecaldo , Maria T. Mamba , Antonio I. Tamayao , Febe Marl G. Paat , Jay Emmanuel L. Asuncion , Editha S. Pagulayan

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Rudolf T. Vecaldo , Maria T. Mamba , Antonio I. Tamayao , Febe Marl G. Paat , Jay Emmanuel L. Asuncion , Editha S. Pagulayan (2020). College Readiness and Adjustment of Filipino K-12 Graduates: A Focus on Persons with Disabilities. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 418-429. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.418.429
This study attempted to fill in the gaps on the dearth of literature exploring the college readiness and adjustment of PWD K-12 graduates as they transition from basic to tertiary education. These two constructs were measured using the College Readiness Test (CRT) and the College Adjustment Scales (CAS) test. The data were obtained from 74 PWD in a public university in Northern Philippines. The employment of the descriptive correlation design revealed that most of the respondents were college unready. However, they manifested favorable adjustment to developmental and psychological problems except for depression and suicidal ideation. With the use of Kendall's tau-b analysis, the results show that PWD K-12 graduates who are more college ready tend to adjust better regarding substance abuse (the use of drugs, alcohol, inhalants, and solvents). Thus, it is highly recommended that college readiness be enhanced in basic education because it is a critical factor in the college adjustment of students with disabilities. Higher education institutions (HEIs) also need to craft and implement specific interventions, with a focus on depression management, to address the high depression and suicidal ideation among PWD students as they are cardinal signals of maladjustment that may lead to serious behavioral problems.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the first attempts to document the college readiness and college adjustment of PWD K-12 graduates in the Philippines. It provides education policymakers with viable insights for carrying out interventions that may enhance the college readiness and adjustment of PWD, ensuring their seamless transition from basic to tertiary education.

Assessment of Internal Revenue Generation Techniques of Public Secondary School Managers in Cross River State, Nigeria

Pages: 407-417
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Assessment of Internal Revenue Generation Techniques of Public Secondary School Managers in Cross River State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.407.417

Francisca N. Odigwe

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Francisca N. Odigwe (2020). Assessment of Internal Revenue Generation Techniques of Public Secondary School Managers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 407-417. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.407.417
The poor funding of education in many developing nations, including Nigeria, is widely acknowledged in national and international literature. This indicates the need for alternative approaches to be adopted regarding the supplementation of funds from government and non-government sources. This study takes an empirical approach to evaluate the internal revenue generation strategies adopted by school managers, and how they influence the level of school finance. Quantitative data were obtained from a random sample of 407 secondary school managers (136 principals and 271 vice-principals) selected from 136 schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Findings showed that prevalent internal revenue generation techniques adopted by principals include PTA levies, the sale of art and craft materials, alumni support, and funds from parents. Aside from these four, there were seventeen other strategies not utilized by the majority of secondary school principals. It was also revealed that the extent of school finance depended on the level of principals' generation of internal revenue. Based on these findings relevant policy implications are discussed for future school financing and development. It was recommended that workshops should be organized for secondary school managers to learn innovative approaches to generate internal revenue to assist with the smooth running of schools.
Contribution/ Originality
This study used a new estimation approach to assess the techniques adopted by educational managers in generating funds internally for secondary schools. The study also used a rigorous technique to examine various internally generated revenue (IGR) techniques and the extent to which they are utilized for school-based funding.

Employment Relations in the Informal Sector: A Need for Redefinition

Pages: 397-406
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Employment Relations in the Informal Sector: A Need for Redefinition

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.397.406

Norhidayah Hasbullah , Dzurizah Ibrahim

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Akorsu, A. D. (2013). Labour standards application in the informal economy of Ghana: The patterns and pressures. Economic Annals, 58(196), 157-175. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2298/eka1396157a.

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Norhidayah Hasbullah , Dzurizah Ibrahim (2020). Employment Relations in the Informal Sector: A Need for Redefinition. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 397-406. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.397.406
The International Labor Organization (ILO) in the 'Report of the Committee on Employment Relationship' states that current employment relationships are increasingly complex and there is no acceptable definition to define 'employment relationships'. Thus, this paper aims to investigate whether employment relations exist in the informal sector. By using Goss’ framework, this can be understood by two related dimensions. First, the extent to which employers are dependent on his or her employees, and vice versa, and second, the extent to which employees have the capacity, individually or collectively, to challenge the power of their employer. Based on these two dimensions, four distinct categories have been identified that reveal the complexity and diversity of the nature of employment relationships in the informal sector: fraternalism, paternalism, benevolent autocracy, and passive acquiescence. In-depth interviews with four employers and four workers in the informal sector in Lawas, Malaysia were conducted. The findings indicate that the nature of employment relations in the informal sector is benevolent autocracy as employers are less dependent on their employees, resulting in limited labor capacity to challenge the employer's power. A characteristic of the informal sector (such as a family-based business and not legally registered) is the lack of protection for workers, which is the main reason for shaping employment relations in this sector. It is recommended, therefore, to have policy reforms to protect the rights of workers in the informal sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few that has investigated the nature of employment relations in the informal sector by using Goss’ framework. The findings contribute to the redefinition of employment relations that can be used in the informal sector.

The Brain Drain in Egypt and its Impact on Economic Growth

Pages: 380-396
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The Brain Drain in Egypt and its Impact on Economic Growth

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.380.396

Sally Mohamed Farid Mahmoud

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Sally Mohamed Farid Mahmoud (2020). The Brain Drain in Egypt and its Impact on Economic Growth. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 8(4): 380-396. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2020.84.380.396
This study aimed to assess the “brain drain” of Egypt and measure its impact on the country’s economic growth during the period 2000–2018, as well as explore specific policies that Egypt could adopt to reduce the phenomenon of brain drain. The results show there is an inverse relationship between the brain drain variable and gross domestic product (GDP), as an increase in talent migration by 1% leads to a 5.7% decrease in GDP, and this relationship is incredibly important. Capital accumulation positively affects GDP, as a 1% increase in the variable of capital accumulation leads to an increase of 3.2% in GDP, and human capital also positively affects the GDP, as a 1% increase in the human capital variable leads to an increase of 4.4% in GDP. These results are consistent with the economic theory that increased capital leads to an increased rate of economic growth. The study concludes that there are positive and negative effects associated with the brain drain in Egypt. The positive aspects are the increased remittances of workers abroad and the transfer of technology and investments through migrants who continue to have an association with Egypt, while the negative aspects are a decrease in human capital and decreased economic growth and productivity due to the migration of talents.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the brain drain phenomenon. The study uses new estimation methodology to fill the research gap regarding the impact of brain drain on economic growth; this study is one of few that have investigated the brain drain in Egypt using econometrics methodology.