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Muhammad Sarwar (2014). Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 108-117. DOI:
Vegetable is an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw, whose fruits, seeds, roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, or flower parts are used as food. Vegetables are relatively cheaper and rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Their consumption gives taste, palatability, fiber for digestion, increases appetite and checks constipation. The objective of this article is to assess the some insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices. Various insects and mites cause damage to vegetable plants at all stages of growth including aphid, thrip, whitefly, leafhopper, two spotted spider mite, squash bug, pumpkin beetles, flea beetles, hadda or epilachna beetles, eggplant shoot and fruit borer, cutworms, hornworms, tomato fruit borer, tobacco caterpillar and melon fruit fly. Most of the vegetables are susceptible to pest damage, and their seeds, roots, stems, leaves as well as fruits are all subjected to injury. Vegetables damage ranges from reduced plant vigor to plant death and ultimately heavy crop losses occur. A combination of pest control strategies is of paramount importance and usually works well to reduce damage and keep the insect population below economic injury level for minimizing the yield loss. Pest identification of the vegetables is the most important step and the correct identification of pest troubles is the beginning of a successful integrated pest management program. The integrated pest management (IPM) include use of mechanical and cultural strategies, use of tolerant plant varieties, growing healthy seedlings, practicing adequate field sanitary measures particularly removing the fallen leaves, buds or debris, undertaking weekly field checking to spot out the presence of the insects, conservation of natural control agents, application of need based insecticides and ensuring of community approach for all the suggested tactics to maximize benefits.
This article is one of very few studies which have looked onto some important insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices for their control. Ultimately, practical vegetable plant protection contains detailed information on pest monitoring; keeping insect infestations below significant levels through preventative measures and specific control of pests which are the core of long-term integrated pest management.
Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
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Abubakar, G. A. , A. Tukur (2014). Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 100-107. DOI:
intensification very little attention has been paid to the soil quality. This research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of abattoir effluent on soil chemical properties in Yola, Adamawa State located on latitude 90201N and longitude 120301E. Discharging abattoir effluent to the surrounding soil had significant (P <0.05) effect on some soil chemical properties. The results revealed significant effects of abattoir effluent on soil pH, percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable sodium and calcium, cation exchange capacity and percentage base saturation. The results showed no significant effects on exchangeable potassium and magnesium. Highest mean values of 6.09, 0.64 Cmolkg-1 and 68.43% were observed on control samples for pH, exchangeable calcium and percentage base saturation respectively. Highest mean values of 1.70%, 2.94%, 2.81gkg-1, 5.28mgkg-1 and 3.17Cmolkg-1 were observed on samples taken from new effluent discharging area for percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable sodium respectively. The highest mean value of 8.70Cmolkg-1 was observed on samples taken from the old effluent discharging area for cation exchange capacity.
This study contributes in the existing literature, uses new estimation methodology, originates new formula and one of the very few studies which have investigated the impact of abattoir effluents on soil chemical properties and contributes the first logical analysis which documents that the quality of the soil is negatively affected by the activities of the abattoir.
Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
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Dauda Z , M. M. Degri , U. N. Gadzama , M. Hassan (2014). Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 93-99. DOI:
Farmers, households as well as grain merchants have to contend with infested stored cowpea grain once attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). They could be compelled to consume, sale at low economic value or find other way of salvaging the grains from total damage and loss. This paper reports the curative effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) in mitigating C. maculatus damage and loss to freshly infested cowpea grains in storage. Ten grams cowpea grains of three varieties (Gwalam, Borno brown, and Banjara) were each weighed into a 200 ml bottle in three replicates for un-treated and four levels of MSO treatments (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml). Three pairs of opposite sex adult C. maculatus 0-48 hrs old were used to infest grains in each replicate. Insects were removed five days after infestation and the number of eggs laid on grains in each replicate counted. MSO treatments were carried out at five and eight days after infestation. The number of adults that emerged was counted daily throughout the first filial generation (F1). All data were subjected to analysis of variance at 5% level of probability. Significantly different means were determined using Least Significant Difference. Results indicated statistical significances (P<0.05) between treated and un-treated infested grains of each variety. This implied that MSO is effective in mitigating C. maculatus damage to cowpea grain in storage. Grains infested with 1-8 days old cowpea bruchid eggs could be salvage from total damage and loss. Control was achieved mainly through ovicidal action and / or adverse effect of the oil on early larval instars thereby reducing and / or eliminating the damaging effect of C. maculatus.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of moringa seed oil to control C. maculatus in freshly infested stored cowpea. The oil was effective in reducing and / or inhibiting damage and loss in cowpea grains infested with freshly laid eggs.