International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-6477
Print ISSN: 2313-0393
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No. 4

Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices

Pages: 108-117
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Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices

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Citation: 14

Muhammad Sarwar

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  1. Ahmad, N. and M. Sarwar, 2013. The cotton bollworms: Their survey, detection and management through pheromones: A review. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 2 (3): 5-8.
  2. Alam, S.N., M.A. Rashid, F.M.A. Rouf, R.C. Jhala, J.R. Patel, S. Satpathy, T.M. Shivalingaswamy, S. Rai, I. Wahundeniya, A. Cork, C. Ammaranan and N.S. Talekar, 2003. Development of an integrated pest management strategy for eggplant fruit and shoot borer in South Asia. Shanhua, Taiwan. AVRDC- the world vegetable centre. Technical Bulletin No. 28. AVRDC Publication No. 03-548. 13: 23.
  3. Gruda, N., 2005. Impact of environmental factors on product quality of greenhouse vegetables for fresh consumption. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24 (3): 227-247.
  4. Mohamad, B.D., R.C. Bhagat and Q. Ajaz, 2011. A survey of insect pests damaging vegetable crops in Kashmir valley (India), with some new records. Journal of Entomological Research, 35 (1): 85- 91.
  5. Rahman, M.M., 2006. Vegetable IPM in Bangladesh, In: E. B. Radcliffe and W. D. Hutchison [Eds.]. Radcliffe's IPM world textbook. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. USA.
  6. Rajotte, E.G., 2004. Integrated management of cucurbit fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett in Bangladesh. IPM CRSP Bangladesh Site Technical Bulletin No.1: 16.
  7. Riaz, M. and M. Sarwar, 2013. A new record of fruit fly Trupanea amoena (Frauenfeld) within genus Trupanea schrank of subfamily Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Pakistan.  Journal of Zoological Sciences, 1 (2): 7-12.
  8. Riaz, M. and M. Sarwar, 2014. A New Record of Safflower Fly Acanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi) of Genus Acanthiophilus Becker in Subfamily Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Fauna of Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 3 (1): 39-44.
  9. Ronald, J.B. and W. Celeste, 2009. Integrated pest management for the home vegetable garden. Agriculture and Natural Resources, HYG-2205-09. The Ohio State University. p 5.
  10. Sarwar, M., 2004. Some observations on the management of turnip insect pests. Economic Review- 11/12, 35(4): 48-50.
  11. Sarwar, M., 2005. Insect pests management stratagem for carrot production. Economic Review- 4, 36 (4): 28-30.
  12. Sarwar, M., 2012. Frequency of insect and mite fauna in chilies Capsicum annum L., Onion Allium cepa L. and Garlic Allium sativum L. Cultivated areas, and their integrated management. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 3 (5): 173-178.
  13. Sarwar, M., 2013. Integrated pest management (IPM) - A constructive utensil to manage plant fatalities. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 4 (3): 1-4.
  14. Sarwar, M., 2014 a. The propensity of different larval stages of lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to control aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) evaluated on Canola Brassica napus L. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 36 (2): 143-148.
  15. Sarwar, M., 2014 b. Knowing About Identify and Mode of Damage by Insect Pests Attacking Winter Vegetables and Their Management. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2 (4): 1-8.
  16. Sarwar, M., M. Hamed, B. Rasool, M. Yousaf and M. Hussain, 2013. Host preference and performance of fruit flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) for various fruits and vegetables. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 1 (8): 188-194.
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Muhammad Sarwar (2014). Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 108-117. DOI:
Vegetable is an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw, whose fruits, seeds, roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, or flower parts are used as food. Vegetables are relatively cheaper and rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Their consumption gives taste, palatability, fiber for digestion, increases appetite and checks constipation. The objective of this article is to assess the some insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices. Various insects and mites cause damage to vegetable plants at all stages of growth including aphid, thrip, whitefly, leafhopper, two spotted spider mite, squash bug, pumpkin beetles, flea beetles, hadda or epilachna beetles, eggplant shoot and fruit borer, cutworms, hornworms, tomato fruit borer, tobacco caterpillar and melon fruit fly. Most of the vegetables are susceptible to pest damage, and their seeds, roots, stems, leaves as well as fruits are all subjected to injury. Vegetables damage ranges from reduced plant vigor to plant death and ultimately heavy crop losses occur. A combination of pest control strategies is of paramount importance and usually works well to reduce damage and keep the insect population below economic injury level for minimizing the yield loss. Pest identification of the vegetables is the most important step and the correct identification of pest troubles is the beginning of a successful integrated pest management program. The integrated pest management (IPM) include use of mechanical and cultural strategies, use of tolerant plant varieties, growing healthy seedlings, practicing adequate field sanitary measures particularly removing the fallen leaves, buds or debris, undertaking weekly field checking to spot out the presence of the insects, conservation of natural control agents, application of need based insecticides and ensuring of community approach for all the suggested tactics to maximize benefits.
Contribution/ Originality
This article is one of very few studies which have looked onto some important insect pests of summer vegetables, their identification, occurrence, damage and adoption of management practices for their control. Ultimately, practical vegetable plant protection contains detailed information on pest monitoring; keeping insect infestations below significant levels through preventative measures and specific control of pests which are the core of long-term integrated pest management.

Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Pages: 100-107
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Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

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Citation: 1

Abubakar, G. A. , A. Tukur

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  1. Abattoir Acts, 1985. Slaughter house cleaning and sanitation. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 53. Rome, Italy.
  2. Akindawa, A.B., A. Hassan and S.K. Balla, 2009. An assessment of the impact of abattoir effluents on river Chouchi, Yola Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture, (11): 178-184.
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  15. Neboh, H.A., O.A. Ilusanya, C.C. Ezekoye and F.A. Orj, 2013. Assessment of ijebu-igbo abattoir effluent and its impact on the ecology of the receiving soil and river. Journal of Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 7(5): 2319-2402.
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  18. Osibanjo, O. and G.U. Adie, 2007. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream in Ibadan city, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(5): 11806-11811.
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  20. Rabah, A.B., S.B. Oyeleke, S.B. Manga, L.G. Hassan and U.J. Ijah, 2010. Microbiological and physicochemical assessment of soil contaminated with abattoir effluents in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 5(3): 1-4.
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  25. Zaku, S.G., 2006. Quality assessment of soil in Donga, Ibi and Wukari local government areas in Taraba State. M. Tech Dissertation. Federal University of Technology, Yola.
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Abubakar, G. A. , A. Tukur (2014). Impact of Abattoir Effluent on Soil Chemical Properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 100-107. DOI:
intensification very little attention has been paid to the soil quality. This research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of abattoir effluent on soil chemical properties in Yola, Adamawa State located on latitude 90201N and longitude 120301E. Discharging abattoir effluent to the surrounding soil had significant (P <0.05) effect on some soil chemical properties. The results revealed significant effects of abattoir effluent on soil pH, percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable sodium and calcium, cation exchange capacity and percentage base saturation. The results showed no significant effects on exchangeable potassium and magnesium. Highest mean values of 6.09, 0.64 Cmolkg-1 and 68.43% were observed on control samples for pH, exchangeable calcium and percentage base saturation respectively. Highest mean values of 1.70%, 2.94%, 2.81gkg-1, 5.28mgkg-1 and 3.17Cmolkg-1 were observed on samples taken from new effluent discharging area for percentage organic carbon and organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable sodium respectively. The highest mean value of 8.70Cmolkg-1 was observed on samples taken from the old effluent discharging area for cation exchange capacity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, uses new estimation methodology, originates new formula and one of the very few studies which have investigated the impact of abattoir effluents on soil chemical properties and contributes the first logical analysis which documents that the quality of the soil is negatively affected by the activities of the abattoir.

Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage

Pages: 93-99
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Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage

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Dauda Z , M. M. Degri , U. N. Gadzama , M. Hassan

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  3. Dauda, Z., Y.T. Maina and B.I. Richard, 2012a. Insecticidal activity of garlic (Alium Sativum (L.) oil on callosobruchus maculatus (F.) In post-harvest cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2(3): 28-35.
  4. Dauda, Z., J.W. Wabekwa and D. M.M., 2012b. Efficacy of sesame (Sesamum Indicum (L.) seed oil  in the management of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infesting stored cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp. International Journal of Crop Science, 4(1): 21-26.
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  6. Ilesanmi, J.O. and D.T. Gungula, 2010. Preservation of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp. Grains against cowpea bruchids (Callosobruchus Maculatus) using Neem and moringa seed oils. International Journal of Agronomy. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/235280.
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  10. Maina, Y.T., 2006. Evaluating the efficacy of three insecticidal spice oils for the control of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Journal of Arid Agriculture, 16: 43-47.
  11. Maina, Y.T., Z. Dauda and D.M. Mailafiya, 2012. Efficacy of aging stored neem seed oil and varietal resistance for the management of C. maculatus (F.) infesting stored cowpe (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp. In storage. International Journal of Crop Science, 4(1): 79-83.
  12. Maina, Y.T. and N.E.S. Lale, 2005. Influence of duration of storage of insecticidal plant oil after extraction and oil-treated seeds prior to infestation on the efficacy of nee (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) seed oil in controlling callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infesting stored cowpea. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 22: 54-63.
  13. Okunola, C.O. and T.I. Ofuya, 2007. Effect of some essential plant oils on insect infestation of stored maize and cowpea. Proceedings of African Crop Science, 8: 1003-1007.
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Dauda Z , M. M. Degri , U. N. Gadzama , M. Hassan (2014). Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(4): 93-99. DOI:
Farmers, households as well as grain merchants have to contend with infested stored cowpea grain once attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). They could be compelled to consume, sale at low economic value or find other way of salvaging the grains from total damage and loss. This paper reports the curative effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) in mitigating C. maculatus damage and loss to freshly infested cowpea grains in storage. Ten grams cowpea grains of three varieties (Gwalam, Borno brown, and Banjara) were each weighed into a 200 ml bottle in three replicates for un-treated and four levels of MSO treatments (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml). Three pairs of opposite sex adult C. maculatus 0-48 hrs old were used to infest grains in each replicate. Insects were removed five days after infestation and the number of eggs laid on grains in each replicate counted. MSO treatments were carried out at five and eight days after infestation. The number of adults that emerged was counted daily throughout the first filial generation (F1). All data were subjected to analysis of variance at 5% level of probability. Significantly different means were determined using Least Significant Difference. Results indicated statistical significances (P<0.05) between treated and un-treated infested grains of each variety. This implied that MSO is effective in mitigating C. maculatus damage to cowpea grain in storage. Grains infested with 1-8 days old cowpea bruchid eggs could be salvage from total damage and loss. Control was achieved mainly through ovicidal action and / or adverse effect of the oil on early larval instars thereby reducing and / or eliminating the damaging effect of C. maculatus.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of moringa seed oil to control C. maculatus in freshly infested stored cowpea. The oil was effective in reducing and / or inhibiting damage and loss in cowpea grains infested with freshly laid eggs.