Review of Plant Studies

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-2970
Print ISSN: 2412-365X
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 1

Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts

Pages: 1-11
Find References

Finding References

Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.69.2021.81.1.11

Abdulnabi Abbdul Ameer Matrood , Abdelhak Rhouma

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

[1]          K. A. Wheeler, B. F. Hurdman, and J. I. Pitt, "Influence of pH on the growth of some toxigenic species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium," International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 12, pp. 141-150, 1991. Available at:

[2]          M. K. Wyatt and M. E. Parish, "Spore germination of citrus juice related fungi at low temperatures," Food Microbiology, vol. 12, pp. 237-243, 1995. Available at:

[3]          R. Nagappan, "Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector," Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, pp. 707-711, 2012. Available at: .

[4]          K. L. Pang, M. W. L. Chiang, S. Y. Guo, C. Y. Shih, H. U. Dahms, and J. S. Hwang, "Growth study under combined effects of temperature, pH and salinity and transcriptome analysis revealed adaptations of Aspergillus terreus NTOU4989 to the extreme conditions at Kueishan Island Hydrothermal Vent Field, Taiwan," PLoS ONE, vol. 15, pp. 1-24, 2020. Available at:

[5]          A. Ahmed and M. Naresh, "Influence of physiological factors on growth, sporulation and ochratoxin A/B production of new Aspergillus ochraceus grouping," World Mycotoxin Journal, vol. 2, pp. 429- 434, 2009. Available at:

[6]          A. J. Deshmukh, B. P. Mehta, A. N. Sabalpara, and V. A. Patil, "In vitro effect of various nitrogen, carbon sources and pH regimes on the growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. and Sacc causing anthracnose of Indian bean," Journal of Biopesticides, vol. 5, pp. 46-49, 2012. Available at: .

[7]          A. Abubakar, H. A. Suberu, I. M. Bello, R. Abdulkadir, O. A. Daudu, and A. A. Lateef, "Effect of pH on mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus parasiticus," Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 64-67, 2013. Available at:

[8]          A. Rhouma, I. Ben-Salem, M. M’hamdi, and N. Boughalleb-M’hamdi, "Relationship study among soils physico-chemical properties and Monosporascus cannonballus ascospores densities for cucurbit fields in Tunisia," European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 53, pp. 65-78, 2019. Available at:

[9]          N. Bellí, S. Marín, V. Sanchis, and A. J. Ramos, "Influence of water activity and temperature on growth of isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri obtained from grapes," International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 96, pp. 19-27, 2004. Available at:

[10]        M. David, B. Neus, M. Sonia, A. David, S. Vicente, and M. Naresh, "Water relations of germination, growth and ochratoxin ‘A’ production by Aspergillus carbonarius isolates from wine and table grapes from the Northern Mediterranean Basin, Ecophysiology of ochratoxigenic moulds," Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 98, pp. 839-844, 2005. Available at:

[11]        C. Cao, R. Li, Z. Wan, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Qiao, and R. Calderone, "The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity on the growth and dimorphism of Penicillium marneffei," Medical Mycology, vol. 45, pp. 401-407, 2017. Available at:

[12]        J. Lacey, "Pre and post harvest ecology of fungi causing spoilage of foods and other stored products," Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 67, pp. 11-25, 1989. Available at: .

[13]        K. N. Anith, N. V. Radhakrishnan, and T. P. Manomohandas, "Screening of antagonistic bacteria for biological control of nursery wilt of black pepper (Piper nigrum)," Microbiological Research, vol. 158, pp. 91-97, 2002. Available at:

[14]        W. Iram, T. Anjum, R. Jabeen, and M. Abbas, "Isolation of stored maize mycoflora, identification of aflatoxigenic fungi and its inhibition using medicinal plant extracts," International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 20, pp. 2149-2160, 2018. Available at:

[15]        O. O. Akinmusire, I. O. Omomowo, and I. M. Usman, "Evaluation of the phytochemical properties and antifungal activities of ethanol extract of Allium sativum," International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 143-149, 2014. Available at:,%20et%20al.pdf .

[16]        J. A. Koka, A. H. Wani, M. Y. Bhat, and S. Parveen, "Antifungal activity of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Taraxicum officinale and Mentha arvensis on the growth of some selected fungal species under in vitro conditions," International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience, vol. 5, pp. 1170-1176, 2017. Available at: .

[17]        T. Saranya, C. M. Noorjahan, and S. A. Siddiqui, "Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of tulsi plant," International Research Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 10, pp. 52-57, 2019. Available at:

[18]        R. Irkin and M. Korukluoglu, "Control of aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 1, pp. 57-59, 2013. Available at: 10.5897/AJB2007.000-2018.

[19]        K. Rizwana, "Antifungal activity test by aqueous solution of Ocimum sanctum [tulsi]," International Journal of Advances in Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, pp. 71-72, 2018.

[20]        A. Rhouma, I. Ben Salem, M. M’Hamdi, and N. Boughalleb-M’Hamdi, "Antagonistic potential of certain soil-borne fungal bioagents against Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of watermelon and promotion of its growth," Novel Research in Microbiology Journal, vol. 2, pp. 85-100, 2018. Available at:

[21]        A. Rhouma, I. Ben Salem, N. Boughalleb-M’Hamdi, and J. I. R. G. Gomez, "Efficacy of two fungicides for the management of phytophthora infestans on potato through different applications methods adopted in controlled conditions," International Journal of Applied and pure Science and Agriculture, vol. 2, pp. 39-45, 2016.

[22]        M. Rosfarizan, A. B. Ariff, M. A. Hassan, and M. I. Karim, "Influence of pH on kojic acid fermentation by Aspergillus flavus," Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 977-982, 2000. Available at:

[23]        A. M. Elizabeth and A. P. J. Trinci, "Effect of pH and temperature on morphology of batch and chemostat cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum," Transactions of the British Mycological Society, vol. 81, pp. 193-200, 1983. Available at:

[24]        N. Boughalleb-M’Hamdi, A. Rhouma, I. Ben Salem, and M. M’Hamdi, "Screening and pathogenicity of soil-borne fungal communities in relationship with organically amended soils cultivated by watermelon in Tunisia," Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management, vol. 4, pp. 1-16, 2017.

[25]        Y. A. Y. Gibriel, A. S. Hamza, A. Y. Gibriel, and S. M. Mohsen, "In vivo effect of mint (Mentha viridis) essential oil on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored corn," Journal of Food Safety, vol. 31, pp. 445-451, 2011. Available at:

[26]        V. B. Manoorkar and B. D. Gachande, "Evaluation of antifungal activity of some medicinal plant extracts against some storage seed borne fungi of Groundnut," Scientific Research Report, vol. 4, pp. 67-70, 2014.

[27]        S. T. Pai and M. W. Platt, "Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis," Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 1, pp. 14-18, 1995. Available at:

[28]        S. Chohan, R. Perveen, M. Anees, M. Azeem, and M. Abid, "Estimation of secondary metabolites of indigenous medicinal plant extracts and their in vitro and in vivo efficacy against tomato early blight disease in Pakistan," Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 126, pp. 553-563, 2019. Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Abdulnabi Abbdul Ameer Matrood , Abdelhak Rhouma (2021). Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts. Review of Plant Studies, 8(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.69.2021.81.1.11
In this study, nine fungal species belonging to genus Aspergillus (6) and Penicillium (3), which were found on whiteflies cadavers adults collected from cucumber cultivation fields in Basra Iraq, are characterized regarding mycelial growth rate at different culture media, pH levels and temperature degrees, and their sensitivity under in vitro assay to aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Mentha arvensis and Allium sativum at different concentrations. Aspergillus and Penicillium species showed a wide range of tolerance to different culture media, pH levels and temperature degrees which decrease significantly there mycelial growth rate, although no of these parameters were able to inhibit them completely. This study has demonstrated further information on conditions favoring mycelial growth of Aspergillus and Penicillium species (at pH 6 and temperature between 25 and 30°C). In sensitivity assays, all tested species were susceptible to the aqueous extracts. The mycelial growth inhibition was significantly higher with the high concentrations of aqueous extract. The aqueous M. arvensis extracts at 150 mg/mL succeed to decrease the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus (82.5%) and A. fumigatus (81.67%). It appears that the growth rates of A. parasiticus (94.17%) and A. fumigatus (93.38%) was significantly inhibited by the aqueous A. sativum extracts at 150 mg/mL. A. fumigatus (80.83%) and A. parasiticus (76.67%) were high significantly inhibited by the aqueous extracts of O. sanctum at 150 mg/mL. The response of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. to natural situations and aqueous extracts is important to understand their behaviour and to predict fungal spoilage on crops fruits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the evaluation of the aqueous extracts efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Mentha arvensis and Allium sativum against Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their sensitivity to culture media, pH and temperature under laboratory conditions.