Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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No. 2

Towards Achieving Food Security in Nigeria: A Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Organic Fertilizers

Pages: 110-127
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Towards Achieving Food Security in Nigeria: A Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Organic Fertilizers

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.110.127

Hammed Adeniyi Salami , Saheed Matemilola , Sulaiman Akorede Fasasi , Musa Opeyemi Ahmed , Ismail Adebayo Adigun , Akeem Adelabu Adeleke , Segun Michael Fashina , Oluwashina Olowosokedile

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Hammed Adeniyi Salami , Saheed Matemilola , Sulaiman Akorede Fasasi , Musa Opeyemi Ahmed , Ismail Adebayo Adigun , Akeem Adelabu Adeleke , Segun Michael Fashina , Oluwashina Olowosokedile (2021). Towards Achieving Food Security in Nigeria: A Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Organic Fertilizers. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 110-127. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.110.127
In the quest towards achieving the Zero hunger agenda of the sustainable development goals by 2030, the utilization of organic fertilizers, for soil amendment purposes, has been posited as a feasible alternative for overcoming the negative impacts of inorganic fertilizers. Despite its manifold benefits, the use of untreated and improperly treated organic materials in agricultural production is however capable of introducing toxic metals in the soil-plant systems causing health and agro-environmental impacts. In this study, available organic fertilizers use by Nigerian farmers were selected and analyzed for nutrient values and most importantly, heavy metal contamination. The degree of contamination in each sample was modeled using fuzzy comprehensive assessment. The manure samples possessed optimum nutritional values; the nitrogen, phosphate, and potash contents ranged from 0.91 – 7.44, 0.06 – 1.61, 0.14 – 0.58% respectively. The fuzzy algorithm results categorized all the organic fertilizers as pristine, with a membership degree ranging from 35 to 99%. However, an excessive level of toxic contamination, with a membership function between 3 to 33% was observed. The major contaminants were identified as Zn, Cr, and Cd with an individual contribution of 16, 29, and 33% respectively. Adequate remediation techniques and good management practices that reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the organic fertilizers especially that of Zn, Cr, and Cd, should therefore be promoted among the producers and users of these soil improvers in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study adopted fuzzy comprehensive assessment to model the degree of heavy-metal contamination in organic fertilizers that are available to subsistence farmers in Nigeria. The model ranked Cd, Cr, and Zn as the pollutants with the highest contribution to the high level of heavy-metal contamination in the studied organic fertilizers.

Coconut Growers Knowledge, Perception and Adoption on Impacts of Climate Change in Gampaha and Puttalam Districts in Sri Lanka: An Index-Based Approach

Pages: 97-109
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Coconut Growers Knowledge, Perception and Adoption on Impacts of Climate Change in Gampaha and Puttalam Districts in Sri Lanka: An Index-Based Approach

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.97.109

Ruvani Subhathma Wickramarathna Godage , Bandara Gajanayake , Udith K. Jayasinghe-Mudalige

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Ruvani Subhathma Wickramarathna Godage , Bandara Gajanayake , Udith K. Jayasinghe-Mudalige (2021). Coconut Growers Knowledge, Perception and Adoption on Impacts of Climate Change in Gampaha and Puttalam Districts in Sri Lanka: An Index-Based Approach. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 97-109. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.97.109
Climate change and food security are critical topics in sustainable agricultural development. Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic and social impacts on Sri Lanka. Coconut growers’ knowledge, perception level and adoption for climate change adaptation measures have influenced productivity of the coconut cultivation. The study investigated the coconut growers’ knowledge gap, knowledge and perception levels regarding impacts of climate change in Gampaha and Puttalam districts. Further, this study investigated their adoption of different adaptation measures. A stratified random sampling technique was applied for selecting 240 respondents from two different districts. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to elicit information from the respondents and data was analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Adoption rate of the climate change adaptation measures is significantly influenced by coconut growers’ knowledge and perception level at varying degrees. The study revealed that most of the growers in two study areas have better knowledge (> 70%) and perceptions (>60%) regarding the gradual changes in the climate and its impact on their coconut cultivation. However, their adaptation behavior is fairly poor (< 50%) in both districts. Hence government policies should more focused on to coconut growers to have access to affordable credit to increase their ability and flexibility to change adaptation strategies in response to the changing climatic conditions. Increasing growers’ access to agricultural extension services and access to information on weather forecasting are very important. In addition, government should improve and promote off-farm income-earning opportunities during dry seasons.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which use novel index-based approach to investigate coconut growers’ knowledge, perception and adoption on impacts of climate change in Gampaha and Puttalam districts.

Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java

Pages: 90-96
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Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.90.96

Reginawanti Hindersah , Betty Natalie Fitriatin , Mieke Rochimi Setiawati , Rara Rahmatika Risanti

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Reginawanti Hindersah , Betty Natalie Fitriatin , Mieke Rochimi Setiawati , Rara Rahmatika Risanti (2021). Effect of Beneficial Soil Microbes on Growth and Yield of Celery in Volcanic Soil of West Java. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 90-96. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.90.96
Soil beneficial microbes have a critical role in plant growth. Inoculating biofertilizer is suppose essential for supporting the plant performance and hence plant yield. The objective of field experiment was to verify the growth and production of celery (Apium graveolens L.) after biofertilizers application. The experiment had been performed in a plastic house in the mountainous area of tropical volcanic soil of West Java, Indonesia. The field trial was carried out in a Completely Randomized Block Design to test two microbial-coated urea formulas and a mixed biofertilizer. The control treatment was Nitrogen-Phosphorous-Potassium (NPK) compound fertilizer. All treatments were replicated three times. The celery was growing in low Nitrogen but high Phosphor and Potassium soil during the dry season. The field trial verified that plant height and biomass as well as yield of celery didn’t depend on fertilizer treatments. Nonetheless, this trial founded that both microbial-coated urea and mixed biofertilizer can replace the NPK fertilizer to produce a same yield of celery.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literatures of biofertilizer application of celery productivity in the tropical mountainous area. The field experiment performed in shading field showed the increase of celery productivity in tropical area under either fertilizer or biofertilizer application.

Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Pages: 80-89
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Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.80.89

Saroj Koirala , Santosh Shrestha , Prashanta Raut , Bikram Pandey , Arbindra Timilsina

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Saroj Koirala , Santosh Shrestha , Prashanta Raut , Bikram Pandey , Arbindra Timilsina (2021). Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 80-89. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.80.89
Soil chemical properties plays a crucial role in crop yield. In this study, we evaluated the chemical properties of soils under three different cropping systems practiced for more than five years in Changunarayan municipality of Bhaktapur district of Nepal. The cropping systems includes- (i) cultivation inside polyhouse (Treatment A: polyhouse), (ii) paddy-wheat rotation (Treatment B: P-W), and (iii) paddy-wheat-vegetable rotation (Treatment C: P-W-V). Thirty-nine composite samples (13 replicates from each site) were taken from the area based on variation in landforms. Soil pH, organic matter (%), total nitrogen (%), available phosphorus (mgkg-1), and available potassium (mgkg-1) were evaluated for each sample. The study revealed that the soil pH was acidic and ranges between 4.71 and 5.39, organic matter (1.6-2.39%), total nitrogen (0.091-0.13%), phosphorus (4.48-29.24mg kg-1) and potassium (88.04-109.52 mg kg-1). A significant lower mean pH (4.71), and higher mean organic matter (2.39%), total nitrogen (0.13%) and available phosphorus (29.24 mgkg-1) were observed in cultivation under polyhouse. Incorporation of vegetable in paddy-wheat system gave significant (p<0.05) higher accumulation of soil phosphorus and consistently raised other nutrient status. Moreover, cultivation under polyhouse raised C:N ratio (10.55) significantly than other system. This finding can be relevant to wide range of readers that focus on soil chemical properties and can be used in developing future research strategy and sustainable soil management system in the area.
Contribution/ Originality
In this paper we analyzed the impact of different cropping system over soil quality.

Adaptability of Soil pH through Innovative Microbial Approach

Pages: 71-79
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.71.79

Aqarab Husnain Gondal , Qammar Farooq , Sidra Sohail , Shamal Shasang Kumar , Muhammad Danish Toor , Asma Zafar , Bushra Rehman

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Aqarab Husnain Gondal , Qammar Farooq , Sidra Sohail , Shamal Shasang Kumar , Muhammad Danish Toor , Asma Zafar , Bushra Rehman (2021). Adaptability of Soil pH through Innovative Microbial Approach. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 71-79. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.71.79
Soil pH is a critical characteristic that regulates the abundance of essential nutrients in the soil system. Low soil pH reduces the supply of secondary macronutrients, whereas higher pH restricts soil micronutrient availability. In addition, soil nutrient sources such as organic and inorganic fertilizers by plants require an adequate pH for optimum plant growth and productivity. The soil pH is regarded as the “master of soil indices", which has a role to play in controlling biogeochemical cycles that influence plant growth. It also has an enormous influence on microbial biodiversity in the soil. Various approaches have been used to alter the soil pH, demonstrating that it is not easy to adjust soil pH. Therefore, a suitable but practical approach is required to control or change the pH of the rhizosphere. Microbial breeding technique such as genome replication may be an appropriate option to alter the pH of the rhizosphere. Genetically engineered microbes may have the exceptional ability to release sufficient acidic or basic compounds that could increase or decrease the pH levels in the rhizosphere. In recent years, this view has helped answer some common evolutionary concerns regarding how bacteria and their host species have evolved from their early ancestors. Greater exploitation of microbes in this respect would be necessary for sustainable crop production and helping to resolve issues related to soil-plant interactions for nutrients. To breed the microbes selectively for optimal nutritional interaction with plants, the genetic components of different traits must first be explored.
Contribution/ Originality
The present review describes the importance of microbes towards pH and their role in altering pH in the rhizosphere. This study is one of the very few studies that have investigated microbial genetics and if the genetic approaches become beneficial, it will lead towards the next revolution.

Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables

Pages: 65-70
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Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.65.70

Okoye N. M

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Okoye N. M (2021). Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 65-70. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.65.70
A field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of constructed wetland effluent irrigation on the yield and productivity of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). The Telfairia occidentalis were planted in 12 beds (6 beds per treatment) measuring 1m wide, 3m long and 0.2m high. The plants were grown for 8 weeks before they were harvested. The experimental plots were irrigated with secondary treated effluent from an experimental constructed wetland treating slaughterhouse wastewater. The control treatment involved the irrigation with tap water. The results show that the effluent used in the study was rich in nutrients and organic content. The result also revealed that the mean biomass yield of 146.14g, mean leaf length of 10.10cm, mean height of 97.50cm, mean leaf width of 5.36cm and mean number of branches of 16.24 were significantly higher for the secondary treated slaughterhouse effluent irrigated plots compared to the values obtained for the control plots, indicating that effluent irrigation has a great potential to serve as not only a water source for vegetable cultivation, but also as a nutrient source for increased productivity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of secondary treated constructed wetland effluent irrigation on the yield and productivity of Telfairia occidentalis.

Reliability of Morphological Characters in Identification of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Varieties in Ex-Situ Conditions

Pages: 56-64
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Reliability of Morphological Characters in Identification of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Varieties in Ex-Situ Conditions

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.56.64

Fathi Ben Amar , Hana Souabni , Olfa Saddoud-Debbabi , Mohamed Ali Triki

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Fathi Ben Amar , Hana Souabni , Olfa Saddoud-Debbabi , Mohamed Ali Triki (2021). Reliability of Morphological Characters in Identification of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Varieties in Ex-Situ Conditions. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 8(2): 56-64. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.56.64
The study of the morphological characters of olive fruit and endocarp was carried out for 48 varieties planted in the collection of Boughrara (Sfax, Tunisia) and was compared to their characterization in the Tunisian catalog in their centers of origin. The study interested 8 characters for the fruit and 7 characters for the endocarp. The similarity rate was 73.3% for fruit characters and 64.6% for endocarp characters and eight characters of the two organs had similarity rates greater than 70%, particularly the weight, the apex shape and the presence of the nipple. Most varieties had similar identification for a total number of characters between 8 to 14 characters. The data revealed that the fruit contributed with 5 to 6 characters in the similarity of the varieties in the two databases against 4 to 5 characters for the endocarp. The results obtained showed a relatively strong discriminating power of the morphological characters in the identification of the different olive varieties in-situ and ex-situ conditions with an advantage for the fruit characters.
Contribution/ Originality
In the present work, we used morphological characterization in situ conditions compared to in-situ conditions for 48 olive varieties. The comparison of endocarp and fruit characters allowed to see how much is the importance of these characters in the characterization of varieties in different environments.