Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh

Pages: 84-99
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On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.84.99

Mobarak Hossain , Mahfuza Begum , Richard Bell

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Mobarak Hossain , Mahfuza Begum , Richard Bell (2020). On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 84-99. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.84.99
On account of rural labour shortages, smallholder farms in South Asia are seeking labour saving strategies for planting and weed control. To overcome this challenge, conservation agriculture practices involving mechanized planting and crop residue retention together with the application of herbicides are being developed. But their effectiveness for weed control is still uncertain. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of residue retention relative to herbicides and hand weeding for weed control and yield of wheat in strip planted soil in northern Bangladesh. The on-farm experiment was conducted during November-March in 2014-2016, with wheat cv. BARI Wheat 26 grown after monsoon rice under two tillage types combined with the six weed control practices [P1: conventional tillage (CT)+three hand weedings (HW) (Control), P2: Glyphosate (Gly)+strip planting (SP)+one HW, P3: Gly+SP+pre-emergence (PE) herbicide, P4: Gly+SP+post-emergence (PO) herbicide, P5: Gly+SP+PE+PO, P6: Gly+SP+weed-free (WF); and two levels of rice residue retention, R0: no-residue and R50: 50% residue (by height). The CT consisted of two primary tillage operations by a two-wheel tractor, anwhiled SP had done by a Versatile Multi-crop Planter in a single-pass process. A pre-plant herbicide (glyphosate), a PE herbicide (pendimethalin) and PO herbicide (carfentrazon-ethyl) was applied at recommended doses. The combination of applied glyphosate, SP, followed by sequential application of PE and PO herbicides and the retention of 50% of rice straw achieved the highest weed control efficacy. Furthermore, this practice produced the 24% higher yield and 40% higher economic returns relative to control without exerting any phyto-toxicity in wheat.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies in Bangladesh which have investigated the effect of conservation agriculture principles on weed and crops. Results highlighted the impact of herbicides together with crop residue mulching on weed control and yield of wheat in strip planted soil.

Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone

Pages: 64-83
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Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.64.83

Moses Fayiah , Shikui, Dong , Sanjah Singh , Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan , Kadijatu Sheriff , Ibrahim Robinson Kargbo , Abdulai Barrie

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Moses Fayiah , Shikui, Dong , Sanjah Singh , Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan , Kadijatu Sheriff , Ibrahim Robinson Kargbo , Abdulai Barrie (2020). Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 64-83. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.64.83
Protected areas (PAs) around the globe are considered a reservoir for biodiversity conservation and an engine for ecosystem function and services. The regeneration potential of tropical forests in (PAs) is crucial to plant diversity survival and conservation, amid climate change in the 21st century. The PAs conservation and management status of Sierra Leone is uncertain. This study assessed the seedlings, saplings, and trees species diversity, abundance, richness and regeneration status of tropical forests in four PAs across Sierra Leone. We sampled 60 quadrats in total with each having a dimension of 20m × 20m. We found only a few new species with good regeneration potential in all the forest PAs were assessed, indicating that the resilience of these forests is quite low in the face of anthropogenic activities especially shifting cultivation and logging. Plant diversity index and soil factors were positively correlated, indicating that a decrease or increase in soil physical and chemical properties could affect speciation. The results show that diameter class distribution mainly falls within the 0-30cm category. Furthermore, abiotic factors (like precipitation and temperature), species richness, ecosystem complexity and over story were predicted to have influenced the regeneration and flora diversity of the PAs forests significantly. The results imply that PAs in Sierra Leone are going through serious exploitation and as such, plant diversity and richness is low and the regeneration ability is poor due to weak conservation strategies and approaches. It recommended that strategic planning and forest enrichment policies be instituted to mitigate future PAs forest exploitation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies that investigate plant diversity, regeneration and soil properties across PAs in Sierra Leone. The research contributes to the existing literatures in PAs and their ecosystem characteristics. The article concludes that; PAs in Sierra Leone plant diversity and richness and regeneration ability is low.

Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment

Pages: 58-63
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Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.58.63

Muhammad Hafeez , Zia Ahmad Chatha , Allah Bakhsh , Abdul Basit , Alamgir Akhtar Khan , Fatima Tahira

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[1]           H. Muhammad, A. C. Zia, A. K. Alamgir, B. Allah, B. Abdul, and T. Fatima, "Estimating reference evapotranspiration by hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle methods in humid subtropical conditions," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 15-22, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.15.22.

[2]           Z. A. Chatha, M. Arshad, A. Bakhah, and A. Shakoor, "Statistical analysis for lining the watercourses," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 53, pp. 109-118, 2015.

[3]           R. G. Allen, L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-fao irrigation and drainage paper 56. Rome: FAO, 1998.

[4]           L. Feng, T. Li, and W. Yu, "Cause of severe droughts in southwest china during 1951–2010," Climate Dynamics, vol. 43, pp. 2033-2042, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2026-z.

[5]           H. Muhammad, B. Allah, B. Abdul, A. C. Zia, A. K. Alamgir, A. M. Muhammad, and T. Fatima, "Penman and thornwait equations for estimating reference evapotranspiration under semi-arid environment," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 6-14, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.6.14.

[6]           A. Berti, G. Tardivo, A. Chiaudani, F. Rech, and M. Borin, "Assessing reference evapotranspiration by the hargreaves method in north-eastern italy," Agricultural Water Management, vol. 140, pp. 20-25, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.03.015.

[7]           M. Hafeez and A. A. Khan, "Assessment of Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle methods to estimate reference evapotranspiration under coastal conditions," American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 65-72, 2018.

[8]           R. Bachour, W. R. Walker, A. F. Torres-Rua, and M. McKee, "Assessment of reference evapotranspiration by the hargreaves method in the bekaa valley, lebanon," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 139, pp. 933-938, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ir.1943-4774.0000646.

[9]           G. H. Hargreaves and R. G. Allen, "History and evaluation of Hargreaves evapotranspiration equation," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 129, pp. 53-63, 2003. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9437(2004)130:5(447.2).

[10]         H. R. Fooladmand, H. Zandilak, and M. H. Ravanan, "Comparison of different types of Hargreaves equation for estimating monthly evapotranspiration in the south of Iran," Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, vol. 54, pp. 321-330, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340701793603.

[11]         S. Gough and W. Scott, Higher education and sustainable development: Paradox and possibility. London: Routledge, 2007.

[12]         G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, "Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature," Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 96-99, 1985. Available at: https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26773.

[13]         A. Majeed, S. Mehmood, K. Sarwar, G. Nabi, and M. A. Kharal, "Assessment of Reference Evapotranspiration by the Hargreaves Method in Southern Punjab Pakistan," European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 64-70, 2017.

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Muhammad Hafeez , Zia Ahmad Chatha , Allah Bakhsh , Abdul Basit , Alamgir Akhtar Khan , Fatima Tahira (2020). Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 58-63. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.58.63
The Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) ETo equation is considered as the standard ETo equation to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo) under all the weather conditions of the world. But there are many regions of the globe where all the climatic data is not available to evaluate FAO-56 PM ETo equation. So, Hargreaves (HG) ETo equation can be used which required very small number of weather data. The HG ETo equation requires only air temperature as input data which is available at most of the weather stations of the world. But the major drawback of HG ETo equation is that it overestimates or underestimates FAO-56 PM ETo equation. So it becomes necessary to modify HG ETo Equation according to the local climatic conditions before it is being applied. The HGorg and modified HG ETo equations are assessed for ETo estimation under cold and hot semi-arid climatic conditions of Quetta and Zhob weather stations by using 9 years meteorological data of each weather station against FAO-56PM ETo equation. The original HG ETo equation overestimates FAO-56 PM ETo equation at Zhob weather station by giving percentage error of 15.82% and underestimate at Quetta weather station by giving percentage error of 35.02%. The coefficient of original HG ETo equation was modified by using a simple mathematical logic. The overestimation at Zhob weather station reduced to 1.89% and underestimation at Quetta station reduced to 0.87% by using modified HG ETo equation. The variations of original HG ETo equation with FAO-56 PM ETo equation has RMSE of 0.89 mm/day at Zhob weather station and 1.74 mm/day at Quetta weather station. The variations of modified HG ETo equation with FAO-56 PM ETo equation has RMSE of 0.27 mm/day at Zhob weather station and 0.29 mm/day at Quetta weather station.
Contribution/ Originality
The objective of this research is to modify the Hargreaves (HG) ETo equation according to the regional semi-arid conditions of Quetta and Zhob weather stations of Baluchistan Province.

Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions

Pages: 52-57
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Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.52.57

Muhammad Hafeez , Zia Ahmad Chatha , Alamgir Akhtar Khan , Allah Bakhsh Gulshan , Abdul Basit , Fatima Tahira

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[1]           H. F. Blaney and W. D. Criddle, "Determining water requirements in irrigated areas from climatological and irrigation data." USDA Conservation Service. SCS-TP-96, Washington, DC, 1950.

[2]           Z. A. Chatha, M. Arshad, A. Bakhsh, and A. Shakoor, "Statistical analysis for lining the watercourses," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 53, pp. 109-118, 2015.

[3]           H. Muhammad, A. C. Zia, A. K. Alamgir, B. Allah, B. Abdul, and T. Fatima, "Estimating reference evapotranspiration by hargreaves and blaney-criddle methods in humid subtropical conditions," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 15-22, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.15.22.

[4]           A. H. Azhar and B. Perera, "Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration estimation methods under southeast Australian conditions," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 137, pp. 268-279, 2011. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ir.1943-4774.0000297.

[5]           V. J. da Silva, H. d. P. Carvalho, C. R. da Silva, R. d. Camargo, and R. Teodoro, "Performance of different methods of estimating the daily reference evapotranspiration in Uberlandia, MG," Bioscience Journal, vol. 27, pp. 95-101, 2011.

[6]           H. Tabari, M. E. Grismer, and S. Trajkovic, "Comparative analysis of 31 reference evapotranspiration methods under humid conditions," Irrigation Science, vol. 31, pp. 107-117, 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-011-0295-z.

[7]           K. C. DeJonge, M. Ahmadi, J. C. Ascough II, and K.-D. Kinzli, "Sensitivity analysis of reference evapotranspiration to sensor accuracy," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 110, pp. 176-186, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2014.11.013.

[8]           M. Hafeez and A. A. Khan, "Assessment of hargreaves and blaney-criddle methods to estimate reference evapotranspiration under coastal conditions," American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 65-72, 2018.

[9]           M. Hafeez., A. B. ., A. Basit., Z. A. Chattha., A. A. Khan., M. A. Majeed., and F. Tahira., "Penman and thornwait equations for estimating reference evapotranspiration under semi-arid environment," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 6-14, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.6.14.

[10]         A. Majeed, S. Mehmood, K. Sarwar, G. Nabi, and M. A. Kharal, "Assessment of reference evapotranspiration by the hargreaves method in Southern Punjab Pakistan," European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 64-70, 2017.

[11]         R. G. Allen, L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-fao irrigation and drainage paper vol. 56. Rome: FAO, 1998.

[12]         G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, "Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature," Appl. Eng. Agric, vol. 1, pp. 96-99, 1985.

[13]         G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, "Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature," Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 96-99, 1985. Available at: https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26773.

[14]         G. H. Hargreaves and R. G. Allen, "History and evaluation of Hargreaves evapotranspiration equation," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 129, pp. 53-63, 2003.

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Muhammad Hafeez , Zia Ahmad Chatha , Alamgir Akhtar Khan , Allah Bakhsh Gulshan , Abdul Basit , Fatima Tahira (2020). Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 52-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.52.57
There are various equations for calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), but the Penman-Monteith (PM FAO-56) equation has been considered as the standard ETo equation. The key problem of PM FAO-56 equation is that it uses large number of weather parameters like air temperature, wind velocity, humidity and sun radiation as input. These weather parameters are not accessible at all weather stations of the world especially in developing countries. So, ablatives ETo equations like Hargreaves (HG) and Blaney-Criddle (BC) equations are used for estimation of ETo which required very small number of weather parameters that are readily available at most of the weather stations of the world. A research is conducted to compare HG and BC ETo equations for estimation of monthly ETo under semi-arid climatic regions of Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar, Pakistan. The PM FAO-56 ETo equation is considered as reference ETo equation for the assessment of HG ETo and BC ETo equation. The statistical results indicate that HG ETo equation overestimates PM FAO-56 ETo method by 7.91% at Lahore weather station, 5.59 % at Faisalabad weather station and 11.95% at Peshawar weather station. The BC ETo equation overestimates PM FAO-56 ETo equation by 34.345% at Lahore weather station, 28.637% at Faisalabad weather station and 21.44% at Peshawar weather station. The variation of HG ETo equation with PM FAO-56 ETo equation with RMSE of 0.487 mm/day at Lahore weather station, 0.521 mm/day at Faisalabad weather station and 0.985 at Peshawar weather station is noted. The variation of BC ETo equation with PM FAO-56 ETo equation having RMSE of 3.03 at Lahore weather station, 2.58 at Faisalabad weather station and 1.96 at Peshawar weather station is noted.
Contribution/ Originality
The objectives of this study is to compare the HG ETo and BC) ETo equations against FAO-56 PM ETo equation in semi-arid climatic conditions.

The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution

Pages: 40-51
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The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.40.51

Konstantinos Demestichas , Theodoros Alexakis , Nikolaos Peppes , Evgenia Adamopoulou

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Konstantinos Demestichas , Theodoros Alexakis , Nikolaos Peppes , Evgenia Adamopoulou (2020). The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 40-51. DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.40.51
The domain of agriculture is constantly evolving in terms of means and tools used. The rapid evolution in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and drone technology has facilitated a series of applications in the field of agriculture. The use of drones, combined with advanced ICT technologies as well as connected analytics methods, provides great potential in supporting and resolving some of the most challenging issues faced by the agricultural domain especially in real time data acquisition, monitoring and decision-making processes, triggering the so-called 4th agricultural revolution. The present paper provides an overview of the application of drones in the agriculture domain worldwide. Initially, the paper presents some introductory information concerning the technological evolution in the agricultural domain with special focus on the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. It then conducts a research concerning different applications of UAVs in agriculture. It proceeds with discussing relevant existing research initiatives, highlighting the relevant advantages and the prospects in using drone technology in agriculture.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the role of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones in the Agriculture 4.0. The study summarizes, in a reader-friendly way, the contribution of drones to several aspects of the agriculture sector as well as commercial products and research projects in this domain.