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This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of 17 Libyan banks during the period 2004 - 2010. According to the relevant literature, there are few studies that measure both technical efficiency and Malmquist productivity index approach using non – parametric approach (DEA) for the banking sector in Libya. In this study, we used the DEA technique to calculate technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of sampled banks by using DEAP software. The findings showed that higher mean technical efficiency of specialized banks comparing with commercial and private banks. This paper concludes with some policy implications of the results. The results for total factor productivity (TFP) showed 11 of 17 Libyan banks decline because TFP levels of banks drawn by negative technical efficiency change (less than 1) or by negative technological change, or both of them are negative.
This study contributes in the existing literature and to provide practical contribution to practitioners who implement financial initiatives in Libya such as financial managers, policy makers, strategists and financial specialists and analysts. Also, this study is one of very few studies which have investigated in Arab Countries particularly in Libya.
Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
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This paper presents findings of a research that was carried out to establish the buying behavior of low density households in Zimbabwe and how they are influenced by the various forms of advertising. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 75 respondents representing 75 households in Marlborough, Harare. The results of the study showed that 50% of the respondents strongly agreed that their decision to purchase a product was influenced by advertisements. They also indicated that they understood and preferred outdoor media more than television and print media which came second and third respectively in the order of preference. More than 75% of the respondents agreed that they bought advertised products more than those which are not advertised. The results also showed that consumers in Zimbabwe are slow in accepting and adopting the internet as a form of advertising. It can be concluded from this study that it definitely pays to advertise one’s products. It is also important that an advert should carry a strong message that is convincing to the consumers as indicated by 50% of the respondents. It can also be concluded that the Zimbabwean market has not yet fully embraced online advertising. The study recommends that outdoor media should be used more than any other forms of advertising in low density areas as it is the most preferred and most understood media choice. It is also recommended that since more women than men do the purchases for households in low density areas advertisements should target women more than men.
This study contributes to existing literature on consumer buying behavior. It shows that the most preferred and understood media choice for advertising products among high income earners in countries like Zimbabwe is outdoor media. Since women more than men do the purchases for households advertisements should target women more.