International Journal of Education and Practice

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No. 4

The Influence of Government Policy, Principle Leadership, and Participation of Parents on Strengthening Teacher Organizations (KKG/MGMP) and Development of Problem Solving in Students: Indonesia Case

Pages: 479-493
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The Influence of Government Policy, Principle Leadership, and Participation of Parents on Strengthening Teacher Organizations (KKG/MGMP) and Development of Problem Solving in Students: Indonesia Case

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.479.493

Lucia H Winingsih , Iskandar Agung , Agus Amin Sulistiono

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Lucia H Winingsih , Iskandar Agung , Agus Amin Sulistiono (2019). The Influence of Government Policy, Principle Leadership, and Participation of Parents on Strengthening Teacher Organizations (KKG/MGMP) and Development of Problem Solving in Students: Indonesia Case. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 479-493. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.479.493
This study aims to determine the effect of government policy, school principal leadership, and parental participation on the strengthening of KKG/MGMP teacher organizations and developing students' problem solving abilities. This paper is part of a field study on KKG (elementary school) and MGMP (Junior/senior high school) in DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, with a total sample of 120 teachers. Data collection was carried out using questionnaire techniques, interviews, and conducting focus group discussions (FGD). The distribution of questionnaires to test the relationship between variables was analyzed with the help of the LISREL 8.80 program. The results showed that the three exogenous latent variables had a positive influence on the endogenous latent variables in the strengthening of the KKG/MGMP teacher organization, reinforcing that the teacher organization had a positive influence in developing students' problem solving ability. The influence of parental participation had a considerable effect and it made an important contribution in supporting teachers to participate in KKG/MGMP activities. It is recommended that the government revoke the regulations on prohibiting schools from collecting funding from parents, in order to let the school design school improvement programs with strict supervision and control to prevent deviations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of KKG/MGMP empowerment, so that action can be taken to improve teacher competence and its impact on student learning outcomes, especially in building creative power, critical thinking, collaborative, and conveying thought in an effort to improve problem solving skills.

The Effect of Student Cultural Enculturation on Student Art Appreciation

Pages: 469-478
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.469.478

Edwita . , Desy Safitri , Arifin Maksum , Haswan Yunaz , Arita Marini , Iskandar Muda

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Edwita . , Desy Safitri , Arifin Maksum , Haswan Yunaz , Arita Marini , Iskandar Muda (2019). The Effect of Student Cultural Enculturation on Student Art Appreciation. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 469-478. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.469.478
This research investigates how student cultural enculturation affects student art appreciation. In this research, a model was proposed. Through this model, students’ art appreciation can be improved by encouraging the cultural acquisition, cultural merging, and cultural internalization of the students. Data were collected from 585 students representing grades four to six from five elementary schools in the DKI Jakarta province. The students answered cultural enculturation and art appreciation questionnaires. In this research, the structural equation model (SEM) was tested. The results was that student cultural enculturation, through student cultural acquisition, student cultural merging, and student cultural internalization, had predictive effects on student art appreciation described by the variables for The Student Aesthetic Pleasure, The Student Emotional Appreciation, The Student Cognitive Appreciation, The Student Aesthetic Fascination and The Student Art Awareness.
Contribution/ Originality
The results of this study indicated that elementary schools need to focus on enhancing student cultural enculturation in order to improve student art appreciation.

The Feasibility and Expediency of Gamification Activities in Higher Education

Pages: 459-468
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The Feasibility and Expediency of Gamification Activities in Higher Education

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.459.468

Mikhail V. Vinichenko , Taridi K. Ridho , Peter Karacsony , N. P. Li , Gundeea S. Narrainen , Oхana L. Сhulanova

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Mikhail V. Vinichenko , Taridi K. Ridho , Peter Karacsony , N. P. Li , Gundeea S. Narrainen , Oхana L. Сhulanova (2019). The Feasibility and Expediency of Gamification Activities in Higher Education. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 459-468. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.459.468
This study aimed to identify the feasibility and expediency of gamifying activities in higher education institutions, for which an original methodology was used. However, gamification is complex and carries a high degree of risk in achieving organizational efficiency. It is therefore advisable to adopt a fragmented approach and selectively gamify individual processes and features, focusing on educational and research activities. When introducing gamification, top management should provide conceptual and regulatory support and HR specialists coordination. Using a distribution model of managerial functions for gaming activities and determining priorities, taking the use of artificial intelligence into account, is shown to be expedient.
Contribution/ Originality
For the first time, this study is investigates the adoption of modern gamification technologies to increase the effectiveness of educational organizations. In particular, the most suitable areas of activity and management levels for gamification in higher education institutions are proposed.

The Potential Use of Social Media on Malaysian Primary Students to Improve Writing

Pages: 450-458
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The Potential Use of Social Media on Malaysian Primary Students to Improve Writing

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.450.458

Melor Md Yunus , Sakinah Zakaria , Ashairi Suliman

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Melor Md Yunus , Sakinah Zakaria , Ashairi Suliman (2019). The Potential Use of Social Media on Malaysian Primary Students to Improve Writing. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 450-458. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.450.458
English has always been the second language taught in both primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. Students need to master English for communication, job requirements, advancement in science and technology and many other reasons. One of the most difficult components to master is the writing skill. As it requires knowledge in grammar, spelling, punctuation and vocabulary to produce a good piece of writing, students must be fully equipped with all the essential abilities. Henceforth, this study aims to investigate the potential use of social media in improving the writing skill among primary students. The respondents of this research comprised of 47 ESL primary school students from a rural area in one of the states in Malaysia. The students’ perceptions were measured through a questionnaire comprising a survey and open-ended questions. The finding of this study indicated that most respondents have access to social media and that they perceived social media as beneficial for the ESL educators to incorporate ICT into their teaching repertoire. It is concluded that incorporating social media in the classroom breaks the barriers in learning and converts it into a constructive learning environment.
Contribution/ Originality
The study has investigated the use of social media in improving the writing skill. Much has been said about its potential but limited studies have examined the perspective of young students at the age of ten in a rural area. Therefore, this adds to the current existing literature on this issue.

Supporting STEM in Higher Education

Pages: 438-449
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Supporting STEM in Higher Education

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.438.449

Simeon Slovacek , Vivian Miu , Karibian Soto , Hengchun Ye

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Simeon Slovacek , Vivian Miu , Karibian Soto , Hengchun Ye (2019). Supporting STEM in Higher Education. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 438-449. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.438.449
Although there is much interest in pursuing a STEM career, many students choose not to or drop out prior to completing their STEM degrees for numerous reasons. In this research study, the focus is on supports that may increase overall STEM retention as well as underrepresented minority (URM) retention in STEM degrees consequently leading to a more robust and diverse pool of researchers and scientists within the US. The purpose of the current research was to assess the benefits of extra-curricular (outside traditional coursework) student workshops and other strategies provided by DIRECT-STEM, a university program emphasizing STEM-related career pursuits. Results indicate that program participation increased students’ interest level in graduate school and a career in STEM. Student confidence in succeeding and completing their current degrees also increased and students developed a sense of community through exposure to research culture within the university. Differences between funded, partially-funded, and non-participant groups are noted.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by demonstrating how student research activities and workshop components beyond traditional academic courses can increase student interest in STEM-related graduate school programs and/or careers as well as increase student confidence levels in succeeding and completing their degrees.

User Perceptions of Technology Integration in Schools: Evidence from Turkey’s Fatih Project

Pages: 430-437
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.430.437

Asli Cazorla Milla , Ozge Kurt , Leonardo Jose Mataruna-Dos-Santos

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Asli Cazorla Milla , Ozge Kurt , Leonardo Jose Mataruna-Dos-Santos (2019). User Perceptions of Technology Integration in Schools: Evidence from Turkey’s Fatih Project. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 430-437. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.430.437
This study aims to provide insights into and evidence on technology integration in Turkish schools, particularly in high schools, through analyzing the effectiveness of the FATIH Project. The primary purpose attempts to determine whether teachers would accept this new technology and the barriers preventing its use. The frequently used technology acceptance model is used as a theoretical framework to highlight the integration process and behavioral aspects of acceptance. The results of the unstructured interviews are presented using tag cloud methodology. The findings reveal that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are two key factors affecting the use of technology in the classrooms. The proposed model can be applied to both secondary and higher education institutions; however, the methodology could be improved by including more participants in the focus groups.
Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this study is finding that perceived usefulness and ease of use are the main factors affecting the use of technology in the Turkish classroom. The analysis supports previous research on the FATIH Project and adds a new perspective from the viewpoint of technology acceptance .

Investigation into Information Literacy and the Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in a Faculty of Architecture

Pages: 418-429
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Investigation into Information Literacy and the Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in a Faculty of Architecture

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.418.429

Derya Bakbak

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Derya Bakbak (2019). Investigation into Information Literacy and the Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in a Faculty of Architecture. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 418-429. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.418.429
Following a rapid development in technology, many information sources are now digitized. Consequently, individuals are expected to demonstrate the skills needed to critically evaluate, synthesize, and effectively use those sources. In this context, information literacy and information technology, especially skills with Web 2.0 tools, have become concepts that directly affect each other’s development. This study investigated the information literacy self-efficacy and use of Web 2.0 tools among architectural students in particular. A t-test and ANOVA were performed on the data collected through a questionnaire survey. The results revealed that there was no difference in information literacy self-efficacy according to the participants’ gender or duration of internet use but did vary with the level of their knowledge of foreign languages and Web 2.0 tools. In addition, instant messaging systems were the most preferred of the Web 2.0 tools to use for educational purposes. Ranked from most to least preferred, other Web 2.0 tools included Facebook–Twitter, video sharing platforms, blogs, wikis, and podcasts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on social media and information literacy as follows: adds to the few studies of information literacy among architectural students; examines information literacy in the context of social media; and provides information on how students use social media for educational purposes.

Key Challenges of Work-Based Learning Application in Teaching and Learning Strategies for Accounting Programs

Pages: 404-417
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Key Challenges of Work-Based Learning Application in Teaching and Learning Strategies for Accounting Programs

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.404.417

Zuraeda IBRAHIM , Nur Ashikin ISHAK , Zafiruddin BAHARUM , Noorlaila GHAZALI , Rozainun Hj AB. AZIZ

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Zuraeda IBRAHIM , Nur Ashikin ISHAK , Zafiruddin BAHARUM , Noorlaila GHAZALI , Rozainun Hj AB. AZIZ (2019). Key Challenges of Work-Based Learning Application in Teaching and Learning Strategies for Accounting Programs. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 404-417. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.404.417
Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning (IHLs) are expected to provide effective and innovative teaching and learning practices. Academics are to be of high quality and equipped with vital knowledge and skills to assist the IHLs in producing holistic and work-ready graduates. In order to meet these expectations, the implementation of a work-based learning (WBL) strategy is a possible significant learning strategy. However, obstacles and challenges accompany any implementation process. Hence, the purpose of this study is to identify and understand the key challenges faced by a group of academics who have incorporated a work-based learning (WBL) strategy into their teaching and learning activities. In an attempt to reach an inductive conclusion, the researchers used observations as main research strategy, supported with indirect oral interviews as additional sources of evidence. The research processes observed those people who were directly or indirectly involved in implementation of WBL at the Teaching Accountancy Firm Salihin – UiTM, Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA. Their observations and indirect oral interviews regarding the WBL implementation started on 1 March 2017, and data gathering processes were conducted during the first half of the second year of the WBL implementation. The main findings revealed that academic acceptance, industries’ acceptance, operationalization, and talent are the key challenges faced by participants. In conclusion, smooth and effective implementation of the WBL can be achieved if these four key challenges can be resolved in advance.
Contribution/ Originality
The findings of this study contribute significantly to the development of knowledge in the field of accounting education, and will benefit other institutions of higher learning that may be planning to adopt WBL as a Teaching and Learning (T&L) strategy. Additionally, the findings constitute new knowledge and do not simply confirm previous findings; therefore this new knowledge would prove useful for understanding problematic intangibles.

A Case Study of Helping In-Service Science Teacher to Teach with the Science-Technology-Society Approach and its Influence on Students’ Scientific Argumentation

Pages: 391-403
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A Case Study of Helping In-Service Science Teacher to Teach with the Science-Technology-Society Approach and its Influence on Students’ Scientific Argumentation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.391.403

Jirutthitikan Pimvichai , Khajornsak Buaraphan

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Jirutthitikan Pimvichai , Khajornsak Buaraphan (2019). A Case Study of Helping In-Service Science Teacher to Teach with the Science-Technology-Society Approach and its Influence on Students’ Scientific Argumentation. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 391-403. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.391.403
This study aims to develop a training workshop to promote the in-service science teachers’ ability to teach the topic of Force and Motion to grade 10 students by using the Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and explore its impacts on students’ scientific argumentation patterns. The research methodology was a case study with one participating science teacher, who fully attended the STS workshop designed by the authors. After finishing the workshop, the researchers followed up the teacher by observing his teaching and students’ learning with the STS approach and collected all related artefacts. The students’ scientific argumentation patterns were analyzed by using the Toulmin’s Argument Pattern (TAP) framework. The findings showed that the training workshop helped the participating teacher design the STS-based learning unit in Force and Motion. Also, most of the learning stages in the STS approach promoted the students to generate high quality of scientific argumentation. The study concludes by suggesting further methods of enhancing high quality scientific argumentation in a STS-based training workshop for in-service science teachers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by showing how to design a training workshop for promoting in-service science teachers’ ability to teach a specific topic in science for grade 10 students by using the STS approach. The STS approach subsequently enhances students’ high quality of scientific argumentation.

Building a Project Culture through Research and Innovation Training of Future PhDs in Ukraine

Pages: 377-390
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.377.390

Viktoriia Meniailo , Olexandr Gura

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Viktoriia Meniailo , Olexandr Gura (2019). Building a Project Culture through Research and Innovation Training of Future PhDs in Ukraine. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 377-390. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.377.390
Ever since the European model of training of PhD students has been introduced in Ukraine in 2016, the issue of finding effective forms and methods of doctoral studies has been raised in the national education system. The aim of this study is to present a strategy for creating a project culture in which PhD students develop and implement real projects and solve regional problems as a basis of their preparation for research and innovation activities. The main methods used in this study are the theoretical description of the program of research and innovation training of postgraduates using project-based learning and its application in practice. This program includes the following stages of project activities: preparatory, initiation, formation of the project team, analysis of the situation, development of the project concept, ?s well as: fundraising, implementation and concluding of the project. The effectiveness of training and its results were tested through empirical and statistical processing methods. The results of the experiments show the positive impact of the developed training program in building of the project culture and developing transferable skills of the future PhDs (instrumental, systemic, and interpersonal), as well as gaining of the pre-professional experience in the process of working on real projects. The study also reiterates the role and importance training in bringing effectiveness of research and innovation of postgraduates.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution lies in finding a proposed curriculum for the training of the PhD students: implementation of research and innovation projects; formation of transferable skills; and involving of PhD-students in the solution of regional problems within the framework of the “third mission” of universities.

Social Studies Teachers' Performance in the Context of the Knowledge Society at Saudi Arabian Schools

Pages: 363-376
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Social Studies Teachers' Performance in the Context of the Knowledge Society at Saudi Arabian Schools

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.363.376

Hoash Almelweth

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Hoash Almelweth (2019). Social Studies Teachers' Performance in the Context of the Knowledge Society at Saudi Arabian Schools. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 363-376. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.363.376
This study investigated social studies teachers’ teaching practices in the knowledge society framework at Saudi Arabian schools as viewed by educational supervisors and teachers using the descriptive analytical approach. The study used a questionnaire. The study’s sample consisted of 33 randomly selected educational supervisors and 62 social studies teachers. Only 95 questionnaires were complete and statistically analyzed Results revealed that the means of the social studies teachers’ performance were viewed as being above average. The study recommends training teachers on the modern educational experiences imposed by the knowledge society.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by investigating social studies teachers’ teaching practices in the light of knowledge society at Saudi Arabian schools as viewed by educational supervisors and teachers.

Customs Administration Students Usage of Metacognitive Knowledge in their Internships

Pages: 347-362
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.347.362

Romer C. Castillo , Marie Faye D. Cabatay , Ronnelyn F. Ronquillo , Mary Suzene B. Seva

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Romer C. Castillo , Marie Faye D. Cabatay , Ronnelyn F. Ronquillo , Mary Suzene B. Seva (2019). Customs Administration Students Usage of Metacognitive Knowledge in their Internships. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 347-362. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.347.362
Educators have the responsibility of assessing their students’ metacognitive knowledge and identifying students who may need support in developing effective metacognitive skills and providing them with necessary learning intervention. This study assessed the customs administration students’ metacognitive knowledge and its usage in their internships. The dimensions, declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and conditional knowledge were correlated to academic performance. Differences in metacognitive knowledge and its dimensions and their usage were also ascertained. The study used the descriptive-survey method, using a questionnaire for data gathering. The respondents were 99 randomly selected final year BS in Customs Administration students. The results showed that the majority of students were female, had a capital city based internship and had an average academic performance. The majority of high performers had an internship in a capital city while the majority of low performers had an internship in their home city. Male and female students had similar performance while capital city internship students had better performance than home city internship students. The declarative, procedural and total metacognitive knowledge and their usage were high while conditional knowledge and its usage were very high. The dimensions of metacognitive knowledge and usage, except procedural knowledge had significant relationships with academic performance. Statistical differences in the responses of students when they were grouped according to sex were found only with procedural knowledge and its usage but when they were grouped by internship location – on declarative, procedural and total metacognitive knowledge usage; and when grouped by academic performance – on declarative knowledge, total metacognitive knowledge, conditional knowledge usage and total metacognitive knowledge usage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated metacognitive knowledge as used in internship programs and thereby provides a unique contribution to the existing literature on metacognition.

Investigating Attitude towards Role Play and its Subjective Value in Predicting Arabic Language Proficiency among UiTM Students

Pages: 334-346
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Investigating Attitude towards Role Play and its Subjective Value in Predicting Arabic Language Proficiency among UiTM Students

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.334.346

Azman Che Mat , Azarudin Awang , Ahmad Zulfadhli Nokman , Nor Shaifura Musilehat , Ahmad FakrulaziziAbu Bakar , Muhammad Saiful Anuar Yusoff

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Azman Che Mat , Azarudin Awang , Ahmad Zulfadhli Nokman , Nor Shaifura Musilehat , Ahmad FakrulaziziAbu Bakar , Muhammad Saiful Anuar Yusoff (2019). Investigating Attitude towards Role Play and its Subjective Value in Predicting Arabic Language Proficiency among UiTM Students. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 334-346. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.334.346
Role play activities contribute to learners’ performance if they actively participate in a group. Learners may gain confidence when given a proper and clear role in role play which enhances their motivation levels. This study adopts Byram (2004) resultative and motivational hypothesis and Eccles et al. (1983) Expectancy-Value theory as underlying theories to investigate the relationship between attitude toward role play and subjective role play value to account for Arabic language proficiency. The data were analyzed using more recent confirmatory analysis which is now available in SmartPLS 3.2.6 called consistent PLS (PLSc). Using a sample of 331 students from UiTM campuses at Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang, the analysis showed that these theories support a sound framework for predicting Arabic language proficiency. Additionally, Arabic language proficiency was significantly influenced by attitude towards role play and subjective role play value. Attitude toward role play and subjective role play value are found to be positively influencing Arabic language proficiency. The R2 was measured as 0.308 for Arabic language proficiency. Therefore, it is believed that these findings will be considered as a useful source of information to lecturers, teachers, institutions, and management in supporting role play practices and thus enhancing Arabic language proficiency among UiTM students.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few that have investigated motivational factors regarding Arabic language proficiency through active participation in role play activities. The application of recent confirmatory analysis in SmartPLS 3.2.6 provides more reliable results, contributing to the existing body of literature with empirical evidence on language proficiency.

The Power of Role-Playing in Counseling Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Schools of Indonesia

Pages: 324-333
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The Power of Role-Playing in Counseling Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Schools of Indonesia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.324.333

Asrowi . , Gunarhadi . , Muhammad Hanif

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Asrowi . , Gunarhadi . , Muhammad Hanif (2019). The Power of Role-Playing in Counseling Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Schools of Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 324-333. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.324.333
This research was conducted to measure the impact of counseling among children with learning difficulties in terms of motivation and self-confidence. This study is an action research. The research took place in an inclusive school in Indonesia conducted in collaboration between special education teacher, counselor and practitioners. The subjects were 30 learners in mainstream classroom setting where seven children with learning difficulties were included. Data was collected through pretest and posttest and observation. The tests were used to measure their academic achievement, and observation was carried out to see the learning motivation of children with learning difficulties during the respective classroom instruction that employed role play and educational games. The data were analyzed by using SPSS 16 by comparing test scores obtained before and after the cycles of instruction. The results showed that the use of educational games or role play can overcome the problem of motivation and self-confidence of children with learning difficulties. It was also proven by the acquisition of t value which was greater than the value of t-table at the level of significance of 5%, i.e. 8.789> 2.045. It also proved that the average score before treatment was 123.97 and after treatment was 133.03 with an average increase of 3.622%.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the use of role plays to solve problem of lack of motivation and self-confidence in inclusive school. It highlights the effect of combination of counseling and role plays to achieve social interaction, engagement and learning achievement of students with disabilities.

The Profile of Professional Standards for Secondary School Principals in Vietnam

Pages: 310-323
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The Profile of Professional Standards for Secondary School Principals in Vietnam

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.310.323

Thao Phuong Thi Trinh , Thuan Van Pham , Ha Thi Cao , Tien-Trung Nguyen , Thanh Thi Nghiem , Trung Tran

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Thao Phuong Thi Trinh , Thuan Van Pham , Ha Thi Cao , Tien-Trung Nguyen , Thanh Thi Nghiem , Trung Tran (2019). The Profile of Professional Standards for Secondary School Principals in Vietnam. International Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4): 310-323. DOI: 10.18488/journal.61.2019.74.310.323
Gathering information on the performance of school principals and acting on the information about their effectiveness as leaders is an essential part of improving school performance. This paper reports part of the findings from an initiative conducted to sustain and improve management quality at secondary schools in Vietnam. An evaluation tool was developed based on Vietnam’s professional standards for school leaders and was used by school principals and teachers to provide more insight into their professional practices and training needs. 593 principals and 1647 teachers from 16 provinces across the eight regions of the country participated in the survey and 110 follow-up interviews were conducted. The results indicated that there were certain socio-cultural factors that conditioned the practices of Vietnamese school leaders, including demanding them to be politically, ethically and professionally fit, and to assume many peripheral roles. School principals in Vietnam generally met state standards in terms of qualifications and management expertise, and were perceived to have adequate competencies in handling school management, especially in promoting teachers’ teaching capacity and ensuring educational quality. However, Vietnamese school principals found it challenging to manage school resources and assets and to instruct teachers on leadership; areas that they have hitherto received little training in.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provides insight into the professional practices and training needs of school principals in Vietnam. There were certain socio-cultural factors that influenced their practices. Generally, they met state standards in qualifications and management expertise. However, they found it challenging to manage school resources and assets.