Journal of Food Technology Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-3796
Print ISSN: 2312-6426
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No. 2

Enriching Tiger Nut Milk with Sodium Caseinate and Xanthan Gum Improves the Physical Stability and Consumer Acceptability

Pages: 40-49
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Enriching Tiger Nut Milk with Sodium Caseinate and Xanthan Gum Improves the Physical Stability and Consumer Acceptability

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.82.40.49

Nazir Kizzie-Hayford , Jerry Ampofo-Asiama , Susann Zahn , Doris Jaros , Harald Rohm

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Nazir Kizzie-Hayford , Jerry Ampofo-Asiama , Susann Zahn , Doris Jaros , Harald Rohm (2021). Enriching Tiger Nut Milk with Sodium Caseinate and Xanthan Gum Improves the Physical Stability and Consumer Acceptability. Journal of Food Technology Research, 8(2): 40-49. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.82.40.49
Tiger nut milk (TNM) shows limited colloidal stability, which affects consumer acceptability in many parts of the world where tiger nut is cultivated. In this study, addition of proteins and hydrocolloids was used for improving the stability, and the impact on physical properties and consumer acceptance is reported. Enriching TNM by 3 g/100 g sodium caseinate and 0.1 g/100 g xanthan gum successfully impeded creaming and serum formation and resulted in a decrease of the instability index from 0.408 ± 0.023 to 0.015 ± 0.00 after applying forced sedimentation at 3000 x g for 2 h. After TNM enrichment, the viscosity of TNM increased from 3.0 ± 0.10 mPa.s to 285 ± 18 mPa.s which remained stable at elevated storage temperature. Flash profiling of TNM resulted in emerging descriptors namely sweet, sediment, watery, raw. Hedonic assessment by 82 consumers showed that plain TNM had the lowest rating concerning particular sensory attributes and acceptance. Enrichment resulted in more viscous, sweet and thick TNM products, leading to higher consumer ratings of attributes and acceptability. Thus, enriching TNM by sodium caseinates and xanthan gum is promising for improving the dispersion stability and consumer acceptance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature strategies for improving tiger nut milk stability and consumer acceptance. We show that by enrichning with sodium caseinate and xanthan gum, more viscous, sweet, thick and physically stable tiger nut milk products with higher consumer ratings of attributes and acceptability can be achieved.

A Mathematical Model for Dehydration by Successive Pressure Drops: Simulation of Discarded Potatoes Dehydration

Pages: 26-39
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A Mathematical Model for Dehydration by Successive Pressure Drops: Simulation of Discarded Potatoes Dehydration

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.82.26.39

Sebastian Gutierrez-Pacheco , Joahnn H Palacios , Alfonso Parra-Coronado , Stephane Godbout

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Sebastian Gutierrez-Pacheco , Joahnn H Palacios , Alfonso Parra-Coronado , Stephane Godbout (2021). A Mathematical Model for Dehydration by Successive Pressure Drops: Simulation of Discarded Potatoes Dehydration. Journal of Food Technology Research, 8(2): 26-39. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2021.82.26.39
Dehydration by Successive Pressure Drops (SPD) is a process with high potential for treating heat-sensitive materials; this includes agro-industry by-products. However, the response of drying kinetics to operating conditions of SPD is not fully understood. The present manuscript refers to mathematical simulations to describe drying kinetics of discarded potatoes using SPD. While there are numerous theoretical, semi-theorical and empirical mathematical models, the selection of the appropriate model is a rigorous process. In this paper, the Thompson thin-layer semi-theoretical model was chosen since the assumptions for this model (e.g., product is arranged in thin layers) are fulfilled for the SPD. As a result of mathematical simulation, it was possible to describe the drying kinetics in terms of the major parameters of SPD namely pressurizing level (Pa) and the Frequency of Pressure Drop (FPD). The dehydration by SPD allows the removal of water from the material, mainly at the pressure drop. If this stage occurs more frequently, the drying rate increases. The model developed describes at less 91% of the variability of the experimental data. It is recommended to use high FPD and Pa equals to 0.50 MPa.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies explaining the application of a thin-layer model for Successive Pressure Drops drying of agro-industry by-products. This study originates new formula for drying kinetics of discarded potatoes based on the major parameters of Successive Pressure Drops drying namely pressurizing level and pressure drop frequency.