Journal of Food Technology Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-3796
Print ISSN: 2312-6426
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No. 2

Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites

Pages: 156-163
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Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.156.163

Ivan Svec, Marie Hruskova

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Ivan Svec, Marie Hruskova (2014). Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 156-163. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.156.163
Technological quality changes of wheat flour were studied in relation to its partial replacement (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30%) by white rice flour (RF). In dependence on level added, RF lowered water absorption up to about 10%. Dough stability was multiplied reversely as well as its overmixing tolerance – softening degree of dough lessened from 60 Brabender units (BU) for wheat flour to 20 BU for wheat-rice flour blend 70:30. Baking quality of flour composites was worsened owing to changes in dough elasticity and extensibility (i.e. dough machinability), summarised by extensigraph energy (as an area under curve) decrease from 140 cm2 to 70 cm2 comparing the same samples. Gelatinisation temperatures and amylograph maxima reversely increased – optimal values were recorded for wheat:rice composite 80:20 yet (viscosity between 575 – 790 BU). Fermentation process was affected equivocally – gases volumes had increased up to about 11% because of glucosidase present in RF, but dough volumes lowered due to gluten net weakening. It resulted into lowering of control bread volume to a half for the bread containing 30% of RF (from 319 to 154 ml/100 g, respectively). Bread crumb chewiness was affected seriously; bread samples higher level of RF than 20% were less acceptable (fall of crumb penetration from 10.6 mm to 2.2 mm). Quality changes of biscuits containing RF were of smaller extent – the substitution of 5% caused specific volume increase about ca 15% (from 143 to 203 ml/100 g). Sizes of other fortified biscuits were gradually diminished to level of the wheat control ones.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents white rice flour effect on chemical composition and rheological behaviour of wheat flour. Within Europe, laboratory prepared wheat-rice bread and biscuits represent innovation in bakery products manufacturing. Study brings knowledge of 15% and 10% of rice flour in bread and biscuits recipe should be accepted by consumers.

Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

Pages: 146-155
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Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.146.155

Citation: 2

Shaoying Zhang , Qin Li , Yulan Mao

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Shaoying Zhang , Qin Li , Yulan Mao (2014). Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 146-155. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.146.155
 To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in fruit were measured. The results indicated that a little of CO could exhibit positive physiological effect on controlling senescence of winter jujube during storage. The study further showed that fumigating jujube fruit with 10 μmol/L CO could reduce increase of MDA content and the relative membrane permeability, effectively inhibit oxidative damage to lipids, decrease H2O2 and O2•− content and maintain high activities of SOD, CAT and POD. The present data suggest that exogenous CO treatment might delay the jujube fruit senescence by regulating active oxygen metabolism.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on H2O2, O2•− content and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and POD) in relation to active oxygen metabolism during senescence of postharvest jujube.

Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria

Pages: 133-145
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Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.133.145

Citation: 7

Bachir Bey Mostapha , Louaileche Hayette , Mouhoubi Zina

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Bachir Bey Mostapha , Louaileche Hayette , Mouhoubi Zina (2014). Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 133-145. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.133.145
The harmful effects of the free radicals on human organism could be inhibited by antioxidants of fruits and vegetables such as tomato. In the present work, the antioxidant contents as well as the antioxidant activity of eight tomato varieties grown in Algeria are evaluated. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents are assessed using spectrophotometric methods.The phenolic compounds extracted using solvents with different polarities (methanol, 50% methanol, ethanol, and 50% ethanol) have been determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activities have been evaluated using the DPPH scavenging activity and the reducing power assays. Ascorbic acid content ranged between 7 and 16.7mg/100g while carotenoid concentration varied from 5.7 to 9.57mg/100g. The phenolic content varies according to the variety and the extraction solvent; pure alcohols (ethanol and methanol) allow better extraction than the diluted ones (50% ethanol and 50% methanol). Linear correlations are noted between the antioxidant activity and phenolic, carotenoid and lycopene contents. The results indicate that the samples present variations in their antioxidant substance amounts and antioxidant activity; this could be attributed to the varietal factor. The hybridisation between Joker and Marmande varieties, which present the highest phenolic and carotenoid amounts, respectively, could give another variety with a high antioxidant activity. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the phytochemical content (ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, lycopene and total phenolics) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power) of some tomato varieties grown in Algeria.

Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia

Pages: 122-132
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Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.122.132

Citation: 5

Eyassu Seifu , Asaminew Tassew

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Eyassu Seifu , Asaminew Tassew (2014). Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 122-132. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.122.132
This study was conducted to assess processing, utilization and marketing of traditional dairy products produced in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha districts in Northwestern Ethiopia. A single-visit-multiple-subject formal survey was conducted to collect data. A total of 150 households (75 households from each district) were individually interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The major dairy products produced in the study area include butter, ghee, Ayib, Arera (defatted sour milk), Ergo (naturally fermented sour milk), Zure and Metata Ayib. Among these, two of the traditional dairy products, Zure and Metata Ayib, are unique to the area and have never been reported before. The respondents interviewed claim that these products are of high nutritional values and have therapeutic properties. Many aspects of Zure and Metata Ayib such as physico-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory qualities are unknown. Thus, detailed scientific investigation needs to be conducted in order to verify the claimed nutritional and medicinal properties of these products. 
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Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite

Pages: 111-121
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.111.121

Citation: 22

Onabanjo O.O , Ighere Dickson A

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Onabanjo O.O , Ighere Dickson A (2014). Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 111-121. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.111.121
Sweet potato was processed into flour and it was used to substitute wheat flour at different ratios (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50), and was used to prepare biscuits. The nutritional, functional and sensory properties of biscuits produced from different ratios of wheat-sweet potato composite flour was investigated. The results reveal that, the value of protein ranged between 4.50g/100g and 8.92g/100g, and value of fat (10.97g/100g to 18.93g/100g) in the biscuits decreased as the quantity of potato flour used in supplementing wheat flour increased. The crude fiber value ranged between 3.16g/100g and 5.10g/100g, the highest value of crude fiber was present in the sample with ratio 50:50 wheat-potato flour. Moisture content and carbohydrate values increased as more sweet-potato flour was introduced into the biscuits. The mineral values of calcium (26.20mg/100g to 28.10mg/100g), magnesium (7.30mg/100g to 9.60mg/100g), potassium (4.60mg/100g to 6.20mg/100g), sodium (9.77ppm to 11.564ppm) and phosphorus (49.675ppm to 56.322ppm) were higher in biscuits produced from ratio 90:10, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 wheat-sweet potato composite flour than biscuits produced from ratio 100:0 of wheat-sweet potato composite flour. Sensory analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in taste between biscuits produced from ratio 100:0, 90:10 and 70:30 of wheat-potato flour, but there were significant differences in taste between biscuits made from ratio 100:0 and biscuits made from ratio 60:40 and 50:50 wheat-potato composite flour. The experiments produced biscuits of acceptable qualities from all ratios of wheat-potato flour that was used. 
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Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil

Pages: 96-110
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Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.96.110

Shaker M. Arafat , Mohamed E. EL-Sayed

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Shaker M. Arafat , Mohamed E. EL-Sayed (2014). Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil. Journal of Food Technology Research, 1(2): 96-110. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2014.1.2/58.2.96.110
The objective of this work was study that the effect using one treatment of (Girdling at first week of January and Kaolin sprayed at rate 5% mid December) and chemical (Calcium carbonate, sprayed at rate 5% mid December, Naphthalene acetic acid at 100ppm mid December and Boric acid (17.50%) at 300ppm in first week of March) on oil yield, quality indices, minor components and fatty acids composition of olive Picual cv. during seasons 2012-2013. Yield/tree, fruit weight, seed weight, flesh weight, flesh/fruit weight, flesh/stone, moisture and oil contents (%) were determined. Quality indices (acid value, peroxide value, absorbance at K232nm, K270 nm and ∆k, value), sensory evaluation, total polyphenol, tocopherol, bitter index at K225, pigments content, oxidative stability and Fatty acid composition were determined. Results indicated that the treated tree (Picual cv.) by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin gave a higher content in oil percentage/tree. Also, same the treatments gave best values in quality indices, total polyphenol, tocopherol and oxidative stability compared with untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate. On the other hand, the treated trees by Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin surpassed on untreated and treated samples with calcium carbonate in oleic acid levels. Generally, can be used (Girdling, Boric acid, Naphthalene acetic acid and Kaolin) to increase the productivity of olive trees Picual cv. and also improve the quality attributes of the oil extracted. Also these treatments increased the oleic acid more than untreated sample. 
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