Journal of Food Technology Research

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2312-3796
Print ISSN: 2312-6426
Quick Submission    Login/Submit/Track

No. 1

Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri

Pages: 125-135
Find References

Finding References

Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.125.135

Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu , Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abbey, B. W., & Ibeh, G. (1988). Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (vigna unguiculata, walp) flour. Journal of Food Science, 53(6), 1775-1777.Available at:

Achinewhu, S., Barber, L., & Ijeoma, I. (1998). Physicochemical properties and garification (gari yield) of selected cassava cultivars in rivers state, Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 52(2), 133-140.

Agbara, G., & Ohaka, S. (2018). Evaluation of the quality of melon (citrullus colocynthis) seed meal enriched gari produced from cassava (manihot esculenta), sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) and Irish potato (solanum tuberosum). International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3(6), 36-42.

Agbara, G. I., Masaya, F. A., Igwegbe, A. O., Bade, A., & Mohammed, U. I. (2018). Production and evaluation of the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of sweet potato garri as affected by soybean mash inclusion. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 7(3).Available at:

Ajifolokun, O. M., & Adeniran, H. A. (2018). Proximate and mineral composition of co-fermented breadfruit and cassava garri analogue. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 8(1).Available at:

Anigo, K., Ameh, D., Ibrahim, S., & Danbauchi, S. (2007). Microbiological analyses of commonly used local complementary foods in North Western Nigeria. Journal Of Medical Sciences, 7(5), 875-879.Available at:

AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed. Vol. 2). Washington, DC: Association of American Chemists.

APHA. (1992). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (18th ed.). Washington DC USA: American Public Health Association.

Bamidele, O. P., Ogundele, F. G., Ojubanire, B. A., Fasogbon, M. B., & Bello, O. W. (2014). Nutritional composition of gari analog produced from cassava (manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (colocasia esculenta) tuber. Food Science & Nutrition, 2(6), 706-711.Available at:

Banaszkiewicz, I. (2011). Nutritional values of soybean meal, and nutrition. Prof Hany El-Shemy (Ed.), In Tech. Retrieved from . [Accessed 29th June, 2019].

Bankole, Y., Tanimola, O., Odunukan, R., & Samuel, D. (2013). An assessment of the functional properties, proximate composition, sensory evaluation and rheological value of gari fortified with bambara groundnut flour (voandzeia subterranean thouars). Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 17-27.

El-Sharkawy, M. A. (2003). Cassava biology and psychiology. Plant Molecular Biology, 53, 621 - 624.Available at:

FAO. WHO. (1999). Joint FAO/WHO food standard programme (pp. 12.45). Rome: Codex Alimentarious Commission FAO.

Gurudeeban, S., Satyavani, K., & Ramanathan, T. (2010). Bitter apple (citrullus colocynthis): An overview of chemical composition and biomedical potentials. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(7), 394-401.Available at:

ICMSF. (1996). Microorganisms in foods 5-microbiological specifications of food pathigen (2nd ed.). London: Blackie Academic and Professional.

IITA. (2019). Cassava. Retrieved from>cropnews>cassava. [Accessed 17th May, 2020].

IITA. (1989). Lower cyanide levels in cassava. International institute of tropical agriculture. Research Breefs, 9(3), 1-3.

Jacobs, A. G., Efong, D. I., & Tijjanni, A. (2015). Proximate, mineral and antinutritional compositions of melon (citrullus lanatus) seeds. British Journal of Research, 2(5), 142-151.

Komolafe, E., & Arawande, J. (2010). Evaluation of the quantity and quality of gari produced from three cultivars of cassava. Journal of Research in National Development, 8(1), 2027-2039.

Koubala, B. B., Kansci, G., Enome, E., Ndjidda, V. Y., & Essame, M. A. Z. (2014). Effect of fermentation time on the physiochemical and sensorial properties of garri from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). Britist Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(24), 3430 -3444.Available at:

Montagnac, J. A., Christopher, K. D., & Sherry, A. T. (2009). Nutritional value of cassava for use as a staple food and recent advances for improvement. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Safety, 8(3), 181-194.Available at:

Nweke, F. I., Spencer, D. S. C., & Lynam, J. K. (2002). The cassava transformation: Africas best kept secret (pp. 273). USA: Michigan State University Press East Lansing.

Olaoye, O., Lawrence, I., Cornelius, G., & Ihenetu, M. (2015). Evaluation of quality attributes of cassava product (gari) produced at varying length of fermentation. American Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(1), 1-7.

Sanni, L. A., Odukogbe, O. O., & Faborode, M. O. (2016). Some quality characteristics of gari as influenced by roasting methods. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 18(2), 388-394.

Sosulski, F. W., Garatha, M. O., & Slinkard, A. E. (1976). Functional properties of ten legume flours. International Journal of Food Science Technology, 9(2), 66-69.

Tope, A., Oseni, O. B. O., & Taiwo, S. (2017). Inconsistency in the physicochemical properties of garri produced in the South-Western Nigeria. A proposal for appropriate technology. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(5), e12526.Available at:

Williams, H. J., & Edwards, T. G. (1980). Estimation of cyanide with alkaline picrate. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 31(1), 15-22.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu , Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili (2020). Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 125-135. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.125.135
In this present study, completely peeled (CP) and Incompletely peeled (IP)cassava roots were used to produce garri, other portions were supplemented with soybean (S) or Melon seed (MS) meals at 10% level and garri were produced, a total of nine which were subjected to physicochemical and sensory analysis using standard procedures and the results presented as mean±SE. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P<0.05) from 9.75-15.16%, 1.40-9.71%, 0.70-3.35%, 1.60-2.36%, 2.13-3.45% and 68.97-81.03% respectively. Significance increase was observed in ash, fibre, protein and fat contents of IP garri especially the seed meal treated. Calcium (45-87mg/100g), Phosphorous, Iron and Zinc contents were generally low but Calcium, Potassium and Phosphorous were greater in the IP garri than in the Cp garri, and the values of all the mineral elements were enhanced in the treated garri. The bacteria counts, fungi counts, coliform and staphylococcus aureus load were far below the approved permissible safe limits for ready-to-eat foods however, the E.coli observed in two garri samples could be attributed to post-toasting cross contamination. CP garri had the highest water absorption capacity (4.51%), the swelling index of CP (5.78%), IP (5.90%), and CP+IP (5.76%) were relatively high, and decreased on supplementation with seed meal. The PH of the various garri were slightly acidic especially the untreated garri. The cyanide contents of the various garri (0.11-0.34mg/100g) were low perhaps due to sweet cassava variety used in this study. The sensory properties of the either eba or soaked garri were well appreciated, however the texture of all eba made from IP were softer and stickier. This study has proved that complete removal of the cassava peel for garri production leads to nutrient depletion in a nutrient deficient staple and the waste accumulation constitutes environmental hazard.
Contribution/ Originality
The study proved conclusively wasteful peeling away of the cassava root cortex before garri production is unnecessary, increases cost of labour and create environmental pollution and it also depletes the mineral and the dietary fiber contents of the garri; moreover fortification with seed oil meal enhanced the nutrient density of all types of garri however higher oil contents of modified garri reduced water absorption and swelling capacities which are not desired by consumers.

Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso

Pages: 110-124
Find References

Finding References

Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.110.124

Tarnagda Bakary , Zongo Oumarou , Traore Korotimi , Nikiema Fulbert , Sourabie Bernadette Pane , Drabo Koine Maxime , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

No any video found for this article.
Tarnagda Bakary , Zongo Oumarou , Traore Korotimi , Nikiema Fulbert , Sourabie Bernadette Pane , Drabo Koine Maxime , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly (2020). Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 110-124. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.110.124
Babenda is a national dish that has become famous in food habits and production without adequate knowledge of its nutritional and energy potential. It is made with leafy vegetables and cereals. This study aimed to determine the risk assessement of some heavy metals and physico-chemical characteristics of leafy vegetables and Babenda consumed in five cities in Burkina. The samples of 120 leafy vegetables and 60 Babenda were collected. The analyzes focused on the total levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) and were carried out using standard methods. The moisture content varied between 86.82 ± 2.51 and 88.57 ± 1.19. The lipid content varied from 13.89 ± 0.22g/100g to 19.91 ± 0.41g/100g, the carbohydrate content ranged from 60.91 ± 0.2 g/100g to 77.35 ± 0.22 g/100g; the protein content between 9.76 ± 0.09g / 100g and 23.56 ± 0.02g / 100g. The energy potential was between 469.45 kcal and 499.57kcal with an average value of 480.766 Kcal 100g of dry matter. Babenda is a source of calcium (129.52 ± 2.38mg / 100g), sodium (12.92 ± 0.29mg / 100g). Babenda has a good nutritional value and its consumption can help fight against food insecurity and malnutrition.
Contribution/ Originality
This study assesses the contamination risk and the Babenda composition. These are necessary valorization steps this local resource and fight malnutrition and improve food security. Besides, its consumption should be recommended, especially among the low-income population with little access to products with high nutritional value and the human health benefits.

Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk

Pages: 100-109
Find References

Finding References

Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.100.109

Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah , Victor Ephraim Edem , Iniobong Ime Harrison

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

No any video found for this article.
Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah , Victor Ephraim Edem , Iniobong Ime Harrison (2020). Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 100-109. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.100.109
Quality attributes of cheese produced from goat’s milk supplemented with coconut milk was studied. Fresh goat milk was blended with coconut milk at varying proportions of 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; and 50:50. A 100% goat milk was used as control. Result showed that increase in the proportion of coconut milk (10-50%) resulted in significant (p<0.05) effect in quality parameters of cheese. Values ranged from 0.20-0.33% TTA; 6.40-6.69 pH. TSS declined from 1.14% in the control sample to 0.56% at 50% coconut milk substitution. The yield of cheese increased from 22.55 - 30.69% with increased coconut milk. Proximate composition of cheese was also influenced by increased proportion of coconut milk. Protein, ash, fibre and fat contents of cheese ranged from 12.94-14.49%; 1.28-2.08%; 0.03-1.79% and 15-40.41% respectively. Conversely, carbohydrate content of cheese decreased with increased coconut milk. Mineral contents of cheese showed maximum value of 74.03 mg/100g potassium, 41.60 mg/100g sodium and declined with decrease in coconut milk content, while magnesium content was highest (8.10 mg/100g) in cheese produced using 10% coconut milk supplementation. Potassium content of cheese was least (59.27 mg/100g) in control sample, but increased with increase coconut milk content. Microbial analysis showed that the product was safe for consumption. The blend of 90:10% of goat milk and coconut milk substitution was most preferred by panelists in terms of sensory parameters.
Contribution/ Originality
Substitution of coconut milk in cheese production had significant effect on quality parameters of cheese studied. Physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, mineral content of cheese supplemented with coconut milk were determined. The acceptable level of coconut milk and goat milk blends for cheese production was established.

Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours

Pages: 88-99
Find References

Finding References

Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.88.99

Ani, J.C , Onwurafor, E.U , Ogunseye, Y. Y.

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Ahmed, Z., Chishti, M. Z., Johri, R. K., Bhagat, A., Gupta, K. K., & Ram, G. (2009). Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Dioscorea bulbifera tubers. Diabetologia Croatica, 38(3), 63-72.

Akubor, P. I., & Eze, J. I. (2012). Quality evaluation and cake making potential of sun and oven dried carrot fruit. International Journal of Biosciences, 2(10), 19-27.

Alaise, C., & Llinden, G. (1999). Food biochemistry. Maryland: Chapman and Hall. food Science Book Aspen Publishers Inc.

AOAC. (2010). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.). Maryland, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemist.

Ayo, J., Ojo, M., & Obike, J. (2018). Proximate composition, functional and phytochemical properties of pre-heated aerial yam flour. Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3(1), 1-8.Available at:

Boham, A., & Kocipai, A. (1994). Flavonoid and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawiian Vaccinum vaticulum and vicalycimum. Pacific Science, 48(4), 458-463.Available at:

Bukola, B. (2018). Nutritional evaluation of whole root and tuber crops as livestock feed. Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 1(5), 1-10.

Celestine, A. A., & David, O. I. (2015). Comparative nutritional and phytochemical evaluation of the aerial and underground tubers of air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) available in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 11(4), 1-7.Available at:

Chandra, S., Saklani, S., Mishra, P. A., & Bamrara, A. (2012). Nutritional profile and phytochemical screening of Garwal Himalaya medicinal plant, Dioscorea bulbifera. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(5), 289-294.

Christie, D. D., Girgis, C., & Gunton, J. (2014). Effects of vitamins C and D in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, 7, 21-28.Available at:

Coffman, C. W., & Garcia, V. V. (1977). Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mungbean flour. International Journal of Food Science Technology, 12(5), 473-484.Available at:

Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., & Patil, R. (2012). Dietary fibre in foods: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(3), 255-266.

Eka, O. U. (1998). Root and tubers. In: Osagie AU, Eka OU (eds) Nutritional quality of plant foods (pp. 1–31). Benin: Post Harvest Research Unit University of Benin Nigeria.

Ezeocha, V. C., Ojimelukwe, P. C., & Onwuka, G. I. (2012). Effect of cooking on the nutritional and phytochemical components of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum). Global Advanced Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 1(2), 26-30.

Fellows, P. J. (2005). Food processing technology, principles and practice (2nd ed.). London: Wood Head Publishing.

Harborne, J. B. (1976). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (pp. 40-96). London, UK: Chapman and Hall.

Hegazi, S. M., Ahmed, S. S., Mekkawy, A. A., Mortagy, M. S., & Abdelkadder, M. (1992). Supplementation on serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-6-phosphatase and mineral levels in diabetics. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 12(3), 209-215.

Jimoh, K. O., Olurin, T. O., & Aina, J. O. (2009). Effect of drying methods on the rheological characteristics and colour of yam flours. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(10), 2325-2328.

Kao, W. L., Folsom, A. R., Nieto, F. J., Mo, J.-P., Watson, R. L., & Brancati, F. L. (1999). Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(18), 2151-2159.Available at:

Kataria, A., Chauhan, B. M., & Sunita, G. (1989). Effect of domestic cooking and processing on antinutrient of Black Gram. Food Chemistry, 30(2), 149-156.

Kay, D. E. (1987). Roots crops. London: Tropical Development and Research Institute.

Kohnhorst, A., Uebersax, M., & Zabik, M. (1990). Production and functional characteristics of protein concentrates. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 67(5), 285-292.Available at:

Liener, I. E., & Kakade, M. L. (1980). Protease inhibitors. New York: Academic Press.

Loos, P., Hood, L., & Graham, H. (1981). Isolation and characterization of starch from breadfruit [Artocarpus communis]. Cereal Chemistry, 58(4), 282 - 286.

Lopez, R. R., Willet, W. C., Rimm, E. B., Liu, S., Stamper, M. J., Manson, J. E., & Hu, F. B. (2004). Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care, 27(1), 134-140.Available at:

Mafalda, J., Ana, P. J., Martins, E. G., & Samuel, S. (2016). Diosgenin: Recent highlights on pharmacology and analytical methodology. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 1-16.Available at:

Mamta, S., Ghosh, R., & Pande, S. (2013). Occurrence of Alternaria alternata causing Alternaria blight in pigeonpea in India. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4(6), 702-705.Available at:

Martin, F. W. (1979). Composition, nutritional value and toxic substances of the tropical yams. Tropical Food: Chemistry and Nutrition, G.E. Inglett and G. Charalambous(Eds) (pp. 249-263): Elsevier Inc.

McWilliams, M. (1979). Food fundamentals. New York U.S.A: John Wiley and sons Inc.

Ming-Hua, Y., & Sen-Rong, H. (2010). A simple cryopreservation protocol of Dioscorea bulbifera L. embryogenic calli by encapsulation-vitrification. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 101(3), 349-358.Available at:

Ngoddy, P. O. (1985). Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. London and Basin Sloke: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Obadoni, B. O., & Ochuko, P. O. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure Applied Science, 8(2), 203-208.Available at: 10.4314/gjpas.v8i2.16033.

Ocloo, F., Bansa, D., Boatin, R., Adom, T., & Agbemavor, W. (2010). Physico-chemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour produced from Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5), 903-908.Available at:

Ogunseye, Y. Y. (2020). Effects of processing methods on the chemical composition and hypoglycaemic potentials of two cultivars of Dioscorea bulbifera (Aerial Yam). An MSc. Dissertation Submitted to Department of Food Science and Technology of the University of Nigeria Nsukka.  

Ojinnaka, M., Odimegwu, E., & Ilechukwu, R. (2016). Functional properties of flour and starch from two cultivars of aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) in South East Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 9(8), 22-25.Available at:

Okaka, J. C., & Potter, N. N. (1977). Functional and storage properties of cowpea powder-wheat flour blends in breadmaking. Journal of Food Science, 42(3), 828-833.Available at:

Okonkwo, S., & Opara, M. (2010). The analysis of bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranean (L.) Thouars) for sustainability in Africa. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(6), 394-396.Available at:

Okwu, D., & Ndu, C. (2006). Evaluation of the phytonutrients, mineral and vitamin contents of some varieties of yam (Dioscorea sp.). International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science, 2(2), 199-203.

Olokodona, F. A. (2005). Analysis of fruit drinks and fruit juices (Vol. 6): Institute of Public Analysis of Nigeria (IPAN) News.

Onimawo, A. I., & Akubor, P. I. (2012). Food chemistry. Nigeria: Ambik Press Ltd.

Opara, E. C. (2004). Role of oxidative stress in the etiology of type 2 diabetes and the effect of antioxidant supplementation on glycemic control. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 52(1), 1-22.Available at:

Pham, P.-C. T., Pham, P.-M. T., Pham, S. V., Miller, J. M., & Pham, P.-T. T. (2007). Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2(2), 366-373.

Price, M. L., & Butler, L. G. (1997). Rapid visual examination and spectrophotometric determination of tannin content of sorghum grain. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 25(6), 1268-1273.Available at:

Princewill-Ogbonna, I., & Ibeji, C. (2015). Comparative study on nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of three cultivars (red, green and yellow) of aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 9(5), 79-86.

Princewill-Ogbonna., I. L., & Ezembaukwu, N. C. (2015). Effect of various processing methods on the pasting and functional properties of aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 9(5), 517-526.Available at:

Roger, G. D. P. (1999). New life style, Enjoy It.  S. L. Safeliz (Eds) (pp. 75-76). Spain.

Roos, N., Sørensen, J. C., Sørensen, H., Rasmussen, S. K., Briend, A., Yang, Z., & Huffman, S. L. (2013). Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 9, 47-71.Available at:

Sanful, R., Oduro, I., & Ellis, W. (2013). Proximate and functional properties of five local varieties of aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) in Ghana. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 14(7), 947-951.

Sathe, S., & Salunkhe, D. (1981). Functional properties of the great northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins: Emulsion, foaming, viscosity, and gelation properties. Journal of Food Science, 46(1), 71-81.Available at:

Shah, H., & Lele, S. (2012). Extraction of diosgenin, a bioactive compound from natural source Dioscorea alata var purpurea. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques, 3(4), 1-3.Available at:

Shahidi, F., Chavan, U., Bal, A., & McKenzie, D. (1999). Chemical composition of beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) plant parts. Food Chemistry, 64(1), 39-44.Available at:

Shanthakumari, S., Mohan, V. R., & De Britto, J. (2008). Nutritional evaluation and elimination of toxic principles in wild yam (Dioscorea spp.). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 8, 319-325.

Sodipo, O., Akiniyi, J. A., & Ogunbameru, J. (2000). Studies on certain characteristics of extracts of bark of Pausinystalia johimbe and Pausinystalia macroceras (K Schum) Pierre ex Beille. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(1), 83-88.Available at:

Song, Y., Manson, J. E., Buring, J. E., & Liu, S. (2004). Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care, 27(1), 59-65.Available at:

Subhash, C., Sarla, S., & Jaybardhan, S. (2012). Phytochemical screening of Garhwal Himalaya wild edible tuber Colocasia esculenta. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(3), 181-186.

Takahashi, S., & Seib, P. (1988). Paste and gel properties of prime corn and wheat starches with and without native lipids. Cereal Chemistry, 65(6), 474-483.

Udensi, A., & Eke, O. (2000). Proximate composition and functional properties of flour produced from Mucuna cochinensis and Mucuna utilis. Paper presented at the 1st Annual Conference of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Abia State University.

Van, D. R. M., Hu, F. B., Rosenberg, L., Krishnan, S., & Palmer, J. R. (2006). Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Diabetes Care, 29(10), 2238-2243.Available at:

Wink, M., Schmeller, T., & Latz-Brüning, B. (1998). Modes of action of allelochemical alkaloids: Interaction with neuroreceptors, DNA, and other molecular targets. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 24(11), 1881-1937.

Yoshikawa, Y., Ueda, E., Miyake, H., Sakurai, H., & Kojima, Y. (2001). Insulinomimetic bis (maltolato) zinc (II) complex: Blood glucose normalizing effect in KK-Ay mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 281(5), 1190-1193.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Ani, J.C , Onwurafor, E.U , Ogunseye, Y. Y. (2020). Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 88-99. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.88.99
Two cultivars (green and red) of Dioscorea bulbifera were processed individually by boiling (100oC, 25 min) or roasting (175oC, 60 min) into flour. The processed and unprocessed samples were evaluated for nutrients, phytochemical and functional properties. The results revealed that the raw green cultivar had higher values (12.94, 8.19 and 3.06%) of moisture, protein, and ash, respectively than the red cultivar with 12.94, 8.19 and 3.06%, respectively. The red cultivar contains more fat (3.92%) and carbohydrate (75.05%) compared to the green cultivar with 3.20 and 69.16% values, respectively. The green cultivar contains more Mg and Zn contents (362.30 mg/100g and 1476.27 µg/100g, respectively) than the values (344.43 mg/100g and 1288.50 µg/100g, respectively) of the red cultivar. The phytochemicals; alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, and diosgenin (3.27, 1.91, 0.29 and 176.42 mg/100g, respectively) were more in red cultivar than the green cultivar (3.06, 1.74, 0.26 and 162.24 mg/100g) while higher content of saponins (10.07 mg/100g) was observed in red cultivar than green cultivar (7.43 mg/100g). Boiling and roasting led to a reduction in Mg, Zn, vitamin C contents and all the proximate parameters in both cultivars except carbohydrates. The water absorption capacity, bulk density, swelling capacity of both treated cultivars increased, but roasting had a lower effect than boiling. Boiling and roasting reduced the alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin contents except diosgenin content of the two cultivars, with boiling inducing a greater effect than roasting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the most suitable processing method for Dioscorea bulbifera flour as related to maximizing nutrients and functionality. The potentials of Dioscorea bulbifera cultivars as a functional food ingredient which would encourage its increase in production and further utilization in diverse ways were also highlights.

Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network

Pages: 78-87
Find References

Finding References

Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.78.87

Yeong Nain Chi , Orson Chi

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Fryar, C. D., Hughes, J. P., Herrick, K. A., & Ahluwalia, N. (2018). Fast food consumption among adults in the United States, 2013–2016. NCHS Data Brief, No. 322. 8. Retrieved from: .

Haykin, S. S. (2009). Neural networks and learning machines (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

IBM. (2019). IBM SPSS neural networks 26. Armonk, NY: IBM Corporation.

Lesser, L. I., Kayekjian, K. C., Velasquez, P., Tseng, C.-H., Brook, R. H., & Cohen, D. A. (2013). Adolescent purchasing behavior at McDonald's and Subway. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(4), 441-445.Available at:

McCrory, M. A., Harbaugh, A. G., Appeadu, S., & Roberts, S. B. (2019). Fast-food offerings in the United States in 1986, 1991, and 2016 show large increases in food variety, portion size, dietary energy, and selected micronutrients. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 119(6), 923-933.Available at:

Petimar, J., Ramirez, M., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Linakis, S., Mullen, J., Roberto, C. A., & Block, J. P. (2019). Evaluation of the impact of calorie labeling on McDonald’s restaurant menus: a natural experiment. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 16(1), 1-11.Available at:

Samsudin, A., Jusoff, K., Zaini, Z., Musa, M., Khalid, K., Ngali, N., & Hamid, M. (2011). Customer’s perception towards McDonald’s icon-based nutritional labels. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12, 1-07.

Sheela, K. G., & Deepa, S. N. (2013). Review on methods to fix number of hidden neurons in neural networks. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 425740, 1-11.Available at:

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Yunus, R., Arif, O., Afzal, H., Amjad, M., Abbas, H., Bokhari, H., & Nawaz, R. (2019). A framework to estimate the nutritional value of food in real time using deep learning techniques. IEEE Access, 7, 2643-2652.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Yeong Nain Chi , Orson Chi (2020). Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 78-87. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.78.87
Using data extracted from MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items, this study tried to classify groups exhibiting common patterns of nutrition facts from the targeted popular menu items. The one-way ANOVA results showed that significant differences in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and protein were found with the three types of the targeted popular menu items. In this study, group means were significantly different using the Wilk’s Lambda scores for both discriminant functions, respectively. The canonical correlation results also supported that there were strong relationships between the discriminant score and the group membership. The multilayer perceptron neural network model was utilized as a predictive model in deciding the classification of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items. The predictive model developed had excellent classification accuracy. From an architectural perspective, it showed a 10-2-2-3 neural network construction. Results of this study may provide insight into the understanding of the importance of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu for consumer references.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have classified groups of nutrition facts from McDonalds popular menu items. This study also addresses that discriminant analysis and multilayer perceptron neural network model can be utilized to detect the classification of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items.

Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

Pages: 69-77
Find References

Finding References

Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.69.77

Roland Monday Kayode , Victor Ephraim Edem , Niyi Julius Ogundun , Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola , Bukola Idowu Kayode

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Adams, M. L., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.-J., & McGrath, S. P. (2002). Evidence of low selenium concentrations in UK bread-making wheat grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82(10), 1160-1165.Available at:

Adebowale, Y., Adeyemi, I., & Oshodi, A. (2005). Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(12), 1461-1468.

Ajala, L. (2009). The effect of boiling on the nutrients and anti-nutrients in two non-conventional vegetables. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(9), 1430-1433.Available at:

Amando, C., Maythe, S., & Beatriz, N. P. (1997). Antioxidant activity of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77(4), 463-467.

Anderson, J. W., Baird, P., Davis, R. H., Ferreri, S., Knudtson, M., Koraym, A., & Williams, C. L. (2009). Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutrition Reviews, 67(4), 188-205.

AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed. Vol. 2). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.). Gaithersburg MD: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

AOAC. (2010). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.). Washington, D.C, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Cerda, J., Robbins, F., Burgin, C., Baumgartner, T., & Rice, R. (1988). The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle. Clinical Cardiology, 11(9), 589-594.Available at:

Emojorho, E. E., & Akubor, P. I. (2016). Effect of debittering methods on the proximate composition, sensory and functional properties of orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10(9), 9-16.Available at:

Fellers, P., Nikdel, S., & Lee, H. (1990). Nutrient content and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice products. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90(8), 1079-1084.

Frazier, W. C., & Westhoff, D. C. (1995). Food microbiology (4th ed., pp. 10). New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

Ihekoronye, A., & Ngoddy, P. O. (1985). Integrated food science and technology for the tropics (pp. 285). United Kingdom: Macmillan Publishers.

Ikegwu, O., Okechukwu, P., & Ekumankana, E. (2010). Physico-chemical and pasting characteristics of flour and starch from achi Brachystegia eurycoma seed. Journal of Food Technology, 8(2), 58-66.Available at:

Ishiwu, C., Nkwo, V., Iwouno, J., Obiegbuna, J., & Uchegbu, N. (2014). Optimization of taste and texture of biscuit produced from blend of plantain, sweet potato and malted sorghum flour. African Journal of Food Science, 8(5), 233-238.Available at:

Iwe, M. O. (2001). Handbook of sensory methods and analysis (pp. 32-78). Enugu, Nigeria: Rojoint Communication Services Ltd.

Lee, H. S. (2000). Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(5), 1507-1511.Available at:

Marangoni, F., & Poli, A. (2008). The glycemic index of bread and biscuits is markedly reduced by the addition of a proprietary fiber mixture to the ingredients. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 18(9), 602-605.Available at:

Matz, S. A. (1996). Chemistry and technology of cereals as food and feed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Newport Scientific. (1988). Applications manual for the rapid viscotmanalyzer using thermocline for windows (pp. 2-26). Austrialia: Newport Scientific Pty Ltd.

Onimawo, A. I., & Egbekun, K. M. (1998). Comprehensive science and nutrition (pp. 103-208). Benin City, Nigeria: Ambik Press Ltd.

Platt, R. (2000). Current concepts in optimum nutrition for cardiovascular disease. Preventive Cardiology, 3(2), 83-87.Available at:

Shewry, P. R., Powers, S., Field, J. M., Fido, R. J., Jones, H. D., Arnold, G. M., & Barro, F. (2006). Comparative field performance over 3 years and two sites of transgenic wheat lines expressing HMW subunit transgenes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 113(1), 128-136.Available at:

Shimelis, A. E., Meaza, M., & Rakshit, S. (2006). Physico-chemical properties, pasting behavior and functional of flours and starches from improved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in East Africa. Agricultural Engineering International. The International Council on Large Electric Systems Journal, 8, 18 –36.

Spiller, G. A. (2001). CRC handbook of dietary fiber in human nutrition (3rd ed., pp. 363 - 365). Raton. Florida: CRC Press Boca.

Stone, P. J., & Savin, R. (1999). Grain quality and its physical determinants. determination ecology and physiology of wheat yield. (Eds.), Satorre. E. H. and Slafer, G. A (pp. 85-120). New York: Food Products Press.

Ubbor, S. C., & Akobundu, E. N. T. (2009). Quality characteristics of cookies from composite flour of water melon seed, cassava and wheat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(7), 1095-1102.Available at:

Van Soest, P. J. (1982). Nutritional ecology of ruminant. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press.

Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. D., & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3583-3597.Available at:

Wardlaw, G. M. (1999). Perspectives of nutrition (4th ed., pp. 23-40). Boston: WCB/ McGraw-Hill.

No any video found for this article.
Roland Monday Kayode , Victor Ephraim Edem , Niyi Julius Ogundun , Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola , Bukola Idowu Kayode (2020). Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 69-77. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.69.77
Biscuits were produced from the composite flour of grapefruit pulp and wheat flour. The Grapefruit pulp was boiled, fermented and some unfermented separately. Nine composite flours were made from the fermented, boiled and unfermented grapefruit pulp at different ratios of 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70 respectively while the control was 100% wheat flour. The proximate composition ranged from 6.50-8.25% (moisture), 5.46-11.36% (protein), 1.5-9.75% (crude fiber), 0.5-1.75% (ash), 2.93-4.35% (fat), and 62.77-80.04% (carbohydrate). The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.01-1.42 g water/g flour and 0.94- 1.56 g oil/g flour respectively. The values obtained for fiber fraction analysis ranged from 24- 44% (neutral detergent soluble), 11-39.75% (acid detergent fiber), 6.50-34.50% (lignin), 2.75-6.63% (silica), 2.5-7.5% (cellulose) and 5.00-20.50% (hemicellulose). The sensory scores of the biscuits indicated that sample 10BGP had the best overall acceptability among the composite flour pointing out high acceptability at up to 10% inclusion of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour. This research recommended the inclusion of boiled grapefruit pulp flour up to 10% with wheat flour for the production of biscuit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study showed the variations in proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, fibre fraction, and sensory properties of biscuit as affected by different levels of grapefruit inclusion. The acceptable level of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour for biscuit production was established.

An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality

Pages: 59-68
Find References

Finding References

An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.59.68

Esther Korkor Djidjor , Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah , Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu , Joanna-Dzeagu Kudjodji

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Ackah, M., Gyamfi, E., Anim, A., Osei, J., Hansen, J., & Agyemang, O. (2011). Socio-economic profile, knowledge of hygiene and food safety practices among street-food vendors in some parts of Accra-Ghana. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 13, 191-197.

Agyedu, G. O., Donkor, F., & Obeng, S. (2011). Teach yourself research methods. Kumasi Campus,  Ghana: University of Education, Winneba.

Annor, G. A., & Baiden, E. A. (2011). Evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices of food handlers in food business in Accra, Ghana. Food and Nutrition, 2(8), 830-836.Available at:

Baluka, S. A., Miller, R., & Kaneene, J. B. (2015). Hygiene practices and food contamination in managed food service facilities in Uganda. African Journal of Food Science, 9(1), 31-42.Available at:

Campbell, P. T. (2011). Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of street food vendors in the City of Johannesburg regarding food hygiene and safety. Doctoral Dissertation, School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape. Chicago

Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business research methods (9th ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.

Donkor, E. S., Kayang, B. B., Quaye, J., & Akyeh, M. L. (2009). Application of the WHO keys of safer food to improve food handling practices of food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(11), 2833-2842.Available at:

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2005). Street foods: A summary of FAO study. Boston: FAO.

Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. (2003). Understanding FAO/WHO codex alimentarius commission. Retrieved from: . [Accessed October 9, 2013].

Food and Drug Administration. (1997). Food hygiene (6th ed.). Gt. Britain: Edmundsbury Press Ltd.

Foodlink. (2004). Food safety definitions. Retrieved from: . [Accessed June 20, 2014].

Ghana Tourist Board. (1996). Tourism development plan. Accra: Ministry of Tourism.

Ghana Tourist Board. (2003). New harmonized standards for accommodation and catering establishments in Ghana. Paper presented at the Regional Conference Held in Accra, Ghana.

GNA. (2010). Producing unsafe food is unwise. Retrieved from .

Ihekoronye, A. I., & Ngodd, P. O. (1985). Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. Hong Kong: Macimilla Publishers Ltd.

Kinton, R., & Ceserani, V. (1992). The theory of catering (pp. 440-476). London: Butler & Tanner Ltd.

MacArthur, R. L. (2007). Compliance with food safety measures by traditional caterers in the Cape Coast Municipality. Unpublished Master’s Thesis: University of Cape Coast.

Malhotra, N. K., & Birks, D. F. (2007). Marketing researc: An applied approach (5th ed.). New York: Pearson.

Mensah, P., Yeboah-Manu, D., Owusu-Darko, K., & Ablordey, A. (2002). Street foods in Accra, Ghana: How safe are they? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80(7), 546-554.

Mensah., P., Owusu-Darko, K., Yebooh-Manu, D., Ablordey, A., Nkrumah, F., & Kamiya, H. (1999). The  role of street food vendors in the transmission of enteric pathogens. Ghana Medical Jouranl, 33, 19-29.

Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantiative approaches. Toronto: Pearson.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2000). Research method for business students (1st ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

Usfar, A. A., Iswarawanti, D. N., Davelyna, D., & Dillon, D. (2010). Food and personal hygiene perceptions and practices among caregivers whose children have diarrhea: A qualitative study of urban mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 42(1), 33-40.Available at:

Westfall, L. (2008). Sampling methods. In the Westfall Team. Retrieved from: . [Accessed 12 June 2015].

WHO. (2001). Background paper: Developing food safety. Geneva: WHO Strategic Planning Meeting.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2010). Basic steps to improve safety of street vended food. (INFOSAN). Retrieved from:     management/en/streetvend.pdf .

No any video found for this article.
Esther Korkor Djidjor , Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah , Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu , Joanna-Dzeagu Kudjodji (2020). An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 59-68. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.59.68
The study assessed food hygiene practices of food vendors in some selected basic schools in Birim Central Municipality in the Eastern Region-Ghana. A case study approach was used for this research. Questionnaire and an interview guide were the two main instruments used in the data collection. The study was conducted in Birim Central Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana and the large group was the basic schools. Random sampling technique was used to select basic 15 schools for the study. The list of names of all schools in the Municipality was collected from the Ghana Education Service (GES) office. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, ranges and prevalence rates of the study variables. It was found out that most of the vendors (92.3%) had low level of education but this did not affect their food hygiene practices. Also, majority of the vendors (91.39%) were found not to have storage facilities for uncooked food items. It was recommended that in-service training on food safety should be organized for food vendors on regular bases to improve on their food safety skills by their supervisors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by examining the food hygiene practices among food vendors in selected basic schools in Brim Central Municipality.

Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology

Pages: 48-58
Find References

Finding References

Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.48.58

Osunrinade Oludolapo A. , Akinoso R.

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abulude, F. (2004). Effect of processing on nutritional composition, phytate and functional properties of rice (Oryza sativa L) flour. Nigerian Food Journal, 22(1), 97-104.

Adekoyeni, O. O. (2014). Effect of processing conditions on physical, chemical, cooking and sensory properties of Ofada rice(Oryza sativa L.) grain and flakes. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Department of Food Tehnology.  

Adekoyeni., O., Akinoso, R., & Malomo, O. (2012). Some physical properties and yield of Ofada rice. J. Basic Appl. Sci. Res, 2(4), 4098-4108.

Adekoyeni.., O. O., Sogunle, K. A., & Fagbemi, S. A. (2015). Effect of storage and processing parameters on protein and amylose of ofada rice grain. FUDMA Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, 1(1), 21 – 30.

Adeniran, O., Atanda, O., Edema, M., & Oyewole, O. (2012). Effect of lactic acid bacteria and yeast starter cultures on the soaking time and quality of “Ofada” rice. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012(3), 207-211.

Adepoju, O. T., Akinleye, O., & Ajayi, K. (2016). Comparative sudy of nutrient composition and retention of raw and cooked imported and local Rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 16(2), 1-9.

Adeyemi, I., Fagade, S., & Ayotade, K. (1986). Some physicochemical and cooking qualities of Nigeria rice varieties. Nigerian Food Journal, 4(1), 26-33.

Akinoso, R., & Adeyanju, J. A. (2010). Optimization of edible oil extraction from ofada rice bran using response surface methodology. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2010(5), 1372-1378.

Anuonye, J., Daramola, O., Chinma, C., & Banso, O. (2016). Effects of processing methods on physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of Ofada rice. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science, 4(1), 7-14.

AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis. The association of official analytical Chemists (17th ed.). USA: Horowitz W Edition Maryland.

AOAC. (2005). Association of official analytical chemists official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD. USA.

Cruz, N., & Khush, G. S. (2000). Rice grain quality evaluation procedures. In: RK Singh US Singh and GS Khush (Eds). Aromatic rice (pp. 15-28). New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt. Ltd.

Danbaba, N., Anounye, J. C., Gana, A. S., Abo, M. E., & Ukwungwu, M. N. (2011). Grain quality characteristics of ofada rice (Oryza sativa L.): Cooking and eating quality. International Food Research Journal, 2011(18), 629-634.

Doblado-Maldonado, A. F., Pike, O. A., Sweley, J. C., & Rose, D. J. (2012). Key issues and challenges in whole wheat flour milling and storage. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2), 119-126. Available at:

Ebuchi, A. E., & Oyewole, C. O. (2007). Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8), 1016- 1020.

Fagbohun, E. D., & Oluwaniyi, T. T. (2015). Mycoflora, proximate composition and nutritional changes during the storage of Oryza sativa. Food Science and Quality Management, 2015(40), 108-116.

FAO. (2002). Food energy- methods of analysis and conversion factors (pp. 3-6). Report of a Technical Workshop. Rome.

Fennema, O. R. (1996). Food Chemistry (3rd ed., pp. 191-201). New York: Mercel Dekker, Inc.

Futakuchi, K., & Sié, M. (2009). Better exploitation of African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) in varietal development for resource-poor farmers in West and Central Africa. Agricultural Journal, 4(2), 96-102.

Galliard, T. (1989). Rancidity in cereal products, in rancidity in foods, edited by J.C. Allen and R.J. Hamilton. London: Elsevier.

Ibukun, E. (2008). Effect of prolonged parboiling duration on proximate composition of rice. Scientific Research and Essay, 3(7), 323-325.

Jafar, M., Basem, F. D., Maha, M., & Khalil, I. E. (2008). Variation in physio-chemical characteristics, mineral concentrations and cookability of rice marketed in Jordan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(1), 141-145. Available at:

Janaun, J., Kong, V. V., Toyu, C. G., Kamin, N. H., Wolyna, P., & Lee, J. S. (2016). Effect of moisture content and drying method on the amylose content of rice. Paper presented at the International Conference on Chemical Engineering and Bioprocess Engineering: IOP Publishing. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.

Joseph, K. G. (2015). Structural and functional characteristics of African rice (oryza glaberrima) flour and starch. A Thesis Presented to the University of Guelph in Partial fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Science.  

Longtau, S. R. (2003). Nigeria case study report on rice production. Multi-agency partnerships for Technical change in West African agriculture (MAPS). Jos, Nigeria: Eco-Systems Development Organization (EDO) for Overseas Development Institute (ODI).

National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI) & Africa Rice Centre (WARDA). (2007). Definition of Ofada rice qualities through varietal Identification and testing Pro Publication Monograph Series #26. Abuja, Nigeria.

Oko, A., Ubi, B., Efisue, A., & Dambaba, N. (2012). Comparative analysis of the chemical nutrient composition of selected local and newly introduced rice varieties grown in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(2), 16-23. Available at:

Otegbayo, B., Osamuel, F., & Fashakin, J. (2001). Effect of parboiling on physico-chemical qualities of two local rice varieties in Nigeria. Journal of Food Technology in Africa, 6(4), 130-132.

Roy, P., Orikasa, T., Okadome, H., Nakamura, N., & Shiina, T. (2011). Processing conditions, rice properties, health and environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(6), 1957-1976. Available at:

Sanni, S., Okeleye, K., Soyode, A., & Taiwo, O. (2005). Physico-chemical properties of early and medium maturing upland Nigerian rice varieties. Nigerian Food Journal, 23(1), 148-155.

Wireko-Manu, F. D., & Amamoo, C. (2017). Comparative studies on proximate and some mineral composition of selected local rice varieties and imported rice brands in Ghana. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 4(1), 1-7. Available at:

Zhang, Z., Zhao, S., & Xiong, S. (2010). Morphology and physicochemical properties of mechanically activated rice starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79(2), 341-348. Available at:

Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S., & Blanchard, C. (2002). Ageing of stored rice: Changes in chemical and physical attributes. Journal of Cereal Science, 35(1), 65-78. Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Osunrinade Oludolapo A. , Akinoso R. (2020). Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 48-58. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.48.58
Rice (Oryza sativa L. variety OS-6) paddy pre-treatments condition was optimized with respect to proximate, amylose and free fatty acids (FFA) composition. Soaking duration (1, 3 and 5 days), initial soaking temperature (30, 65 and 100 0C), parboiling temperature (80, 100 and 120 0C) and drying temperature (30, 50 and 70 0C) were used as independent factors in D-optimal response surface design methodology. AOAC methods were used for determination of proximate and free fatty acid composition. Amylose content was determined using standard method. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, amylose contents and FFA of the rice were 4.22- 10.24%, 0.24-0.71%, 0.62-1.73%, 7.41-9.57%, 0.60-1.71%, 78.31-84.65%, 17.41-22.34% 25 and 0.70-3.80%, respectively. The R2 for the model fitted ranged from 0.457 to 0.922. The range of R2 and p-value obtained for moisture, carbohydrate, energy, FFA and amylose affirms the degree of fitness of models obtained. The optimum rice paddy pre-treatment condition obtained was 1 day: 4.8 minutes, initial soaking temperature of 35 oC, Parboiling temperature of 98.03 oC and drying temperature of 70 oC.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provided detailed changes that occur in the chemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L. variety OS-6) as affected by paddy pre-treatments. Effect of variation in pre-treatment conditions was reported, while processing conditions for optimum chemical composition of rice was also established.

The Oils Refining Process and Contaminants in Edible Oils: A Review

Pages: 9-47
Find References

Finding References

The Oils Refining Process and Contaminants in Edible Oils: A Review

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.9.47

Souleymane Zio , Hama Cisse , Oumarou Zongo , Flibert Guira , Francois Tapsoba , Namwin Siourime Somda , Fatoumata Hama-Ba , Laurencia Toulsoumde Songre-Ouattara , Cheikna Zongo , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Abalaka, J., 1984. Aflatoxin distribution in edible oil-extracting plants and in poultry feedmills. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 22(6): 461-463.Available at:

Abalaka, J.A. and J.A. Elegbede, 1982. Aflatoxin distribution and total microbial counts in an edible oil extracting plant. I. Preliminary observations. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 20(1): 43-46.Available at:

Abalo, A., 2017. Traditional processing and marketing of palm oil. European University Editions. Available from

Abrunhosa, L., H. Morales, C. Soares, T. Calado, A.S. Vila-Chã, M. Pereira and A. Venâncio, 2016. A review of mycotoxins in food and feed products in Portugal and estimation of probable daily intakes. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56(2): 249-265.Available at:

Adams, R., T. Geissman and J. Edwards, 1960. Gossypol, a pigment of cottonseed. Chemical Reviews, 60(6): 555-574.Available at:

Addis, P. and G. Warner, 1991. The potential health aspects of lipid oxidation products in food. Free Radicals and Food Additives: 77-119. Available from

Addis, P.B., 1986. Occurrence of lipid oxidation products in foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 24(10-11): 1021-1030.Available at:

AFSSA (French Food Safety Agency), 2009. Risk assessment linked to the presence of mycotoxins in the human and animal food chains. Final Report.

Afzali, D., M. Ghanbarian, A. Mostafavi, T. Shamspur and S. Ghaseminezhad, 2012. A novel method for high preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of B1, B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxins in edible oils by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Journal of Chromatography A, 1247: 35-41.Available at:

Agarwal, D.K., P. Singh, M. Chakrabarty, A.J. Shaikh and S.G. Gayal, 2003. Cottonseed oil quality, utilization and processing. Available from

Ali, R.F., 2010. Improvement the stability of fried sunflower oil by using different levels of pomposia (Syzyygium cumini). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 9(2): 396-403.

Alshannaq, A. and J.H. Yu, 2017. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6): 1-20.Available at:

Amini, A. and F. Kamkar, 2005. The effects of gossypol on spermatogenesis in NMRI mice. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences), 29(1): 123-133.

Anjorin, S., H. Makun and H. Iheneacho, 2008. Effect of Lippia Multiflora leaf extract and aspergillus flavus on germination and vigour indices of sorghum Bicolor [L](Moench). International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food System, 2(1): 130-134.

Anon, 1989. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Diesel and engine exhausts and some Nitroarenes. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 33(3): 174.Available at:

ANSES, 2016. Opinion of the national agency for food safety, environment, and labor relating to the analysis of monitoring and control plans for undesirable substances in animal feed. Available from

Asmellash, S. and E. Dagne, 1989. Gossypol levels in cottonseed oil and cottonseed cake produced in Ethiopia. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 3(1): 51-55.

Bahrami, R., Y. Shahbazi and Z. Nikousefat, 2016. Occurrence and seasonal variation of aflatoxin in dairy cow feed with estimation of aflatoxin M 1 in milk from Iran. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 27(3): 388-400.Available at:

Bailey, A.E., 1948. Cottonseed and cottonseed products. Their chemistry and chemical technology. Cottonseed and cottonseed products. Their chemistry and chemical technology. New York: Interscience Publishers.

Bailey, C.A., R.D. Stipanovic, M.S. Ziehr, A.U. Haq, M. Sattar, L.F. Kubena, H.L. Kim and R. de M. Vieira, 2000. Cottonseed with a high (+)-to (−)-gossypol enantiomer ratio favorable to broiler production. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 48(11): 5692-5695.Available at:

Baldi, I., P. Lebailly, B. Mohammed-Brahim, L. Letenneur, J.F. Dartigues and P. Brochard, 2003. Neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to pesticides in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(5): 409-414.Available at:

Band, V., A.P. Hoffer, H. Band, A.E. Rhinehardt, R.C. Knapp, S.A. Matlin and D.J. Anderson, 1989. Antiproliferative effect of gossypol and its optical isomers on human reproductive cancer cell lines. Gynecologic Oncology, 32(3): 273-277.Available at:

Bao, L., M.W. Trucksess and K.D. White, 2010. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil. Journal of AOAC International, 93(3): 936-942.

Bauer, W.J., R. Badoud and J. Löliger, 2010. Food science and technology: Principles of constituent chemistry and process technology. PPUR Polytechnic Presses. Available from

Benabid, H., 2009. Characterization of Algerian olive oil contributions of chemometric methods. Algeria: INATAA. Mentouri University of Constantine.

Benjelloun, N., 2014. Argan oil: Pharmacological properties and implementation of a control process. Doctoral Thesis.

Bennett, J.W. and M. Klich, 2003. Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Review, 16: 497-516.Available at:

Benz, C.C., M.A. Keniry, J.M. Ford, A.J. Townsend, F.W. Cox, S. Palayoor, S.A. Matlin, W.N. Hait and K.H. Cowan, 1990. Biochemical correlates of the antitumor and antimitochondrial properties of gossypol enantiomers. Molecular Pharmacology, 37(6): 840-847.

Benzine, M., 2006. Pesticides: Toxicity, residues and analysis. Laboratory Technologies, 1. Available from

Berthiller, F., C. Hametner, P. Krenn, W. Schweiger, R. Ludwig, G. Adam, R. Krska and R. Schuhmacher, 2009. Preparation and characterization of the conjugated Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone-4 O-β-D-glucopyranoside, α-zearalenol-4 O-β-D-glucopyranoside and β-zearalenol-4 O-β-D-glucopyranoside by MS/MS and two-dimensional NMR. Food Additives and Contaminants, 26(2): 207-213.Available at:

Betina, V., 1994. Bioactive secondary metabolite of microorganisms. Bibliographical Bases Pascal and Francis, 30: 468.

Birnin-Yauri, U.A. and S. Garba, 2011. Comparative studies on some physicochemical properties of baobab, vegetable, peanut and palm oils. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 19(1): 64- 67.Available at:

Blackstaffe, L., M. Shelley and R. Fish, 1997. Cytotoxicity of gossypol enantiomers and its quinone metabolite gossypolone in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma Research, 7(5): 364-372.Available at:

Boland, J., I. Koomen, J. van Lidth De Jeude and J. Oudejans, 2004. Pesticides: Composition, use and risks. Wageningen: Agromisa Foundation.

Bordin, K., M.M. Sawada, C.E. Da Costa Rodrigues, C.R. Da Fonseca and C.A.F. Oliveira, 2014. Incidence of aflatoxins in oil seeds and possible transfer to oil: A review. Food Engineering Reviews, 6(1-2): 20-28.Available at:

Boune, M.V.S., 2019. Valorization in organic synthesis of phytoconstituents (gossypol derivatives) extracted from cienfuegosia digitata. Cav. Doctoral Thesis, University of Normandy and the University of Nouakchott.

Bouvier, G., 2005. Contribution to the evaluation of the exposure of the population of Ile-de-France to pesticides. Doctoral Thesis, René Descartes-Paris V University, France.

Bové, F.J., 1970. The history of ergot. In the story of Ergot. Karger Publishers. pp: 134-165. Available from

Brink, M. and E.G. Achigan-Dako, 2012. Fiber plants. PROTA. Available from,+M.+and+E.G.+Achigan Dako,+2012.+Fiber+plants.+PROTA.&ots=eXY5r3HYp0&sig=ZxSIDJ8v6Bt5iiyS5MrSV_UvVRs#v=onepage&q=Brink%2C%20M.%20and%20E.G.%20Achigan-Dako%2C%202012.%20Fiber%20plants.%20PROTA.&f=false.

Brochard, G. and L.C. Bâcle, 2009. Mycotoxin in the workplace. Documents for the Occupational Physician, 119: 299-323.

Cai, Y., H. Zhang, Y. Zeng, J. Mo, J. Bao, C. Miao, J. Bai, F. Yan and F. Chen, 2004. An optimized gossypol high-performance liquid chromatography assay and its application in evaluation of different gland genotypes of cotton. Journal of Biosciences, 29(1): 67-71.Available at:

Cairns-Fuller, V., D. Aldred and N. Magan, 2005. Water, temperature and gas composition interactions affect growth and ochratoxin a production by isolates of penicillium verrucosum on wheat grain. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99(5): 1215-1221.Available at:

Camard, J.P. and C. Magdelaine, 2001. Phytosanitary products: risks for the environment and health, knowledge of uses in non-agricultural areas. IAU IdF / ORS: 58. Available from

Camin, F., R. Larcher, M. Perini, L. Bontempo, D. Bertoldi, G. Gagliano, G. Nicolini and G. Versini, 2010. Characterization of authentic Italian extra-virgin olive oils by stable isotope ratios of C, O and H and mineral composition. Food Chemistry, 118(4): 901-909.Available at:

Canella, M. and G. Sodini, 1977. Extraction of gossypol and oligosaccharides from oilseed meals. Journal of Food Science, 42(5): 1218-1219.Available at:

Casas, J.S., C.D.M. Gordillo, E.O. Bueno, J.M. Expósito, M.F. Mendoza, T.A. Hierro, L.G. Gonzalez and M.M. Cano, 2009. Characteristics of virgin olive oils from the olive zone of extremadura (spain), and an approximation to their varietal origin. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(10): 933-940.Available at:

Cass, Q.B., E. Tiritan, S.A. Matlin and E.C. Freire, 1991. Gossypol enantiomer ratios in cotton seeds. Phytochemistry, 30(8): 2655-2657.Available at:

Catherine, R.R., 2014. Plant protection products: Innovation and security for sustainable agriculture. Lavoisier. Available from

Cavaliere, C., P. Foglia, C. Guarino, M. Nazzari, R. Samperi and A. Lagana, 2007. Determination of aflatoxins in olive oil by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 596(1): 141-148.Available at:

CEC, 2006. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 fixing maximum levels for certain contaminants in food. Text with EEA relevance. Available from

Chandler, D., A.S. Bailey, G.M. Tatchell, G. Davidson, J. Greaves and W.P. Grant, 2011. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1573): 1987-1998.

Chau, N.T.T., 2008. Total racemic synthesis of structural analogues of gossypol and apogossypol involving aromatic metalation reactions. Doctoral Thesis, University of Maine, France.

Chen, S., X. Yu, X. He, D. Xie, Y. Fan and J. Peng, 2009. Simplified pesticide multiresidues analysis in fish by low-temperature cleanup and solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 113(4): 1297-1300.Available at:

Cherry, J.P. and M.S. Gray, 1981. Methylene chloride extraction of gossypol from cottonseed products. Journal of Food Science, 46(6): 1726-1733.Available at:

Chulze, S.N., 2010. Strategies to reduce mycotoxin levels in corn during storage: A review. Food Additives and Contaminants, 27(5): 651–657.Available at:

Codex, A., 1999. Standard for vegetable oils with a specific name. Codex-stan 210-1999. Adopted 1999. Revisions 2001, 2003, 2009. Amended 2005, 2011, 2013. 1-17. Available from

Codex, A., 2003. Maximum residue limits for processed or ready-to-eat products intended for human and animal consumption. Thirty-Fifth Session Rotterdam (Netherlands), March 13-April 5, 2003. pp: 30.

Compaoré, H., H. Sawadogo-Lingani, S. Samandoulougou, F. Guira, A. Savadogo and A.S. Traore, 2017. Ability of three mold strains to produce extracellular enzymes in solid medium in Burkina Faso. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 110(1): 10776-10782.Available at:

Corbett, J.R., K. Wright and A.C. Baillie, 1984. Compounds interfering with cell division. The biochemical mode of action of pesticides. 2nd Edn., London: Academic Press, 202.

Coumoul, X., 2016. Food contaminants and the risk of cancer. Nutrition and Dietetics Notebooks, 51(2): 104-110.Available at:

Couteux, A. and C. Salaün, 2009. Acta phytosanitary index. 45th Edn.: MAME. Retrieved from:

Creppy, E.E., F.C. Stormer, R. Röschenthaler and G. Dirheimer, 1983. Effects of two metabolites of ochratoxin A, (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha, on immune response in mice. Infection and Immunity, 39(3): 1015-1018.Available at:

CSP, 2018. Global list of pesticides authorized by the Sahelian Pesticides Committee: 47. Available from

Cubero-Leon, E., R. Penalver and A. Maquet, 2014. Review on metabolomics for food authentication. Food Research International, 60: 95-107.Available at:

Cuvelier, M.E. and M.N. Maillard, 2012. Stability of edible oils during storage. Oilseeds, Fats, Lipids, 19(2): 125-132.Available at:

D'Mello, J., 2004. Contaminants and toxins in animal feeds. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper: 107-128. Available from

D'Mello, J.P.F., J.K. Porter and C.M. Placinta, 1997. Fusarium mycotoxins. In: D'MELLO, J.P.F. (Ed.), Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp: 287-301.

Dahlke, K., 1998. An enzymatic process for the physical refining of seed oils. Chemical Engineering & Technology: Industrial Chemistry-Plant Equipment-Process Engineering-Biotechnology, 21(3): 278-281.Available at:<278::aid-ceat278>;2-9.

Damaty, S.M. and B.J. Hudson, 1975. Preparation of low-gossypol cottonseed flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 26(1): 109-115.Available at:

Daniels, J.L., A.F. Olshan and D.A. Savitz, 1997. Pesticides and childhood cancers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(10): 1068-1077.

Dao, V.T., 2002. Gossypol and its new derivatives: Synthesis and study of biological activities. Doctoral Thesis, University of Paris Sud-Paris XI, France.

De Kock, J., W. De Greyt, V. Gibon and M. Kellens, 2005. Recent developments in refining and modifications: Elimination of contaminants in edible oils and reduction in the level of trans fatty acids. Oilseeds, Fats, Fat, 12(5-6): 378-384.Available at:

Deravel, J., F. Krier and P. Jacques, 2013. Biopesticides, supplements and alternatives to chemical plant protection products (bibliographic summary). Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 18(2): 220-232.

Dewailly, É., P. Ayotte, S. Bruneau, S. Gingras, M. Belles-Isles and R. Roy, 2000. Susceptibility to infections and immune status in inuit infants exposed to organochlorines. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(3): 205-211.Available at:

DGAL, 2000. Data on the exposure of the French population to pesticide, lead, cadmium, arsenic and radionuclide residues from food. Our food; 24. Available from

Di Renzo, L., P. Gualtieri, L. Romano, G. Marrone, A. Noce, A. Pujia, M.A. Perrone, V. Aiello, C. Colica and A. De Lorenzo, 2019. Role of personalized nutrition in chronic-degenerative diseases. Nutrients, 11(8): 1-24.Available at:

Diaw, M.T., A. Dieng, G. Mergeai and J.L. Hornick, 2011. Cottonseed co-products in feed for broilers. In Annals of Veterinary Medicine, 155: 61-82.

Dieme, E., R. Fall, I. Sarr, F. Sarr, D. Traore and M. Seydi, 2016. Aflatoxin contamination of cereals in Africa: Review of existing control methods. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(5): 2285-2299.Available at:

Dijkstra, A.J., 1998. Degumming revisited. Oleaginous Corps Gras Lipids, 5(5): 367-370.Available at: https://doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3351-4.

Dikshith, T., S. Kumar, G. Tandon, R. Raizada, P. Ray, J. Woodrow, J. Wong, J. Seiber, A. Bimurzaev and G. Nikonov, 1989. Pesticide residues in edible oils and oil seeds. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42(1): 50-56.Available at:

Diop, A., 2013. Diagnosis of pesticide use practices and quantification in the Niayes area of Dakar (Senegal). Littoral. Available from file:///C:/Users/nghf/Downloads/DIOPAmadou%20(4).pdf.

Diouf, F.B.H., 2015. Analysis of the genetic determinism of the inhibition of gossypol synthesis in the seed in the progeny of the hybrid [(Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. raimondii Ulb.) ² x G. sturtianum Willis]. Doctoral Thesis, University of Liège, Belgium.

Dodou, K., 2005. Investigations on gossypol: Past and present developments. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 14(1): 1419-1434.Available at:

EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2008. Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the European Commission on gossypol as undesirable substance in animal feed. The EFSA Journal, 908: 1-55.

Elzupir, A.O., M.A. Suliman, I.A. Ibrahim, M.H. Fadul and A.M. Elhussein, 2010. Aflatoxins levels in vegetable oils in Khartoum State, Sudan. Mycotoxin Research, 26(2): 69-73.Available at:

Engel, E., M. Meurillon, C. Planche and P. Peyret, 2014. Fate of toxic food contaminants in the digestive environment. Agronomic Innovations, 36: 135-149.

Escobar, J., S. Lorán, I. Giménez, E. Ferruz, M. Herrera, A. Herrera and A. Ariño, 2013. Occurrence and exposure assessment of fusarium mycotoxins in maize germ, refined corn oil and margarine. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 62: 514-520.Available at:

Evrard, J., X.P.X. Pages, C. Argenson and O. Morin, 2007. Processes for obtaining and nutritional compositions of sunflower, olive and rapeseed oils. Nutrition and Diet Books, 1(42): 13-23.Available at:

Fanelli, C. and A.A. Fabbri, 1989. Relationship between lipids and aflatoxin biosynthesis. Mycopathologia, 107(2-3): 115-120.Available at: https://doi:10.1007/BF00707547.

Fangeat, L., 2008. Mycotoxins in cattle. Doctoral Dissertation, Thesis Presented at Claude University.

FAO, 1986. International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp: 28

FAO, 1993. Food codex commission: Codex standards for fats, oils and derived products. Rome: CAC, 8.

Farhoosh, R. and K.R. Esmaeilzadeh, 2009. Anti-rancidity effects of sesame and rice bran oils on canola oil during deep frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(6): 539-544.Available at:

Fellinger, A., 2006. Worldwide mycotoxin regulations and analytical challenges. World Grain Summit: Foods and Beverages: 17-20.

Fenik, J., M. Tankiewicz and M. Biziuk, 2011. Properties and determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30(6): 814-826.Available at:

Ferrer, C., M.J. Gómez, J.F. García-Reyes, I. Ferrer, E.M. Thurman and A.R. Fernández-Alba, 2005. Determination of pesticide residues in olives and olive oil by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1069(2): 83-194.Available at:

Fillatre, Y., 2011. Phytosanitary products: Development of a multi-residue analysis method in essential oils by coupling liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in tandem mode. Doctoral Thesis, University of Angers.

Fine, F., C. Brochet, M. Gaud, P. Carre, N. Simon, F. Ramli and F. Joffre, 2016. Micronutrients in vegetable oils: The impact of crushing and refining processes on vitamins and antioxidants in sunflower, rapeseed, and soybean oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 118(5): 680-697.Available at:

Fink-Gremmels, J., 2008. Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: A review. Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(2): 172-180.Available at:

Firmin, S., 2011. Detoxification efficiency of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A by an organic adsorbent: evaluation by excretion balance and toxicokinetic parameters in rats and dairy sheep. Doctoral Thesis, Blaise Pascal University - Clermont-Ferrand II, NNT.

Frankel, E.N., 1989. The antioxidant and nutritional effects of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in relation to processing of edible oils. Library Nourishment and Diet(43): 297-312.Available at:

Fuentes, E., M.E. Báez and A. Quiñones, 2008. Suitability of microwave-assisted extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction for organophosphorus pesticide determination in olive oil. Journal of Chromatography A, 1207(1-2): 38-45.Available at:

Gamboa, D.A., M.C. Calhoun, S.W. Kuhlmann, A.U. Haq and C.A. Bailey, 2001a. Use of expander cottonseed meal in broiler diets formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. Poultry science, 80(6): 789-794.Available at:

Gamboa, D.A., M.C. Calhoun, S.W. Kuhlmann, A.U. Haq and C.A. Bailey, 2001b. Tissue distribution of gossypol enantiomers in broilers fed various cottonseed meals. Poultry Science, 80(7): 920-925.

Garcia-Reyes, J.F., C. Ferrer, M.J. Gómez-Ramos, A.R. Fernández-Alba and A. Molina-Díaz, 2007. Determination of pesticide residues in olive oil and olives. Trac Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 26(3): 239-251.

Gauthier, A., 2016. Mycotoxins in food and their impact on health PhD. Thesis, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux: France. Available from

Genot, C. and M.C. Michalski, 2010. Metabolic impact of lipid structures and oxidation in food. Agronomic Innovations, 10: 43-67.

Gerrit, V.D., 2008. Industrial experiences with pesticide removal during edible oil refining. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110(11): 982-989.Available at:

Gibon, V. and A. Tirtiaux, 1998. Un raffinage SOFT®: Innovations technologiques. OCL. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 5(5): 371-377.

Greenlee, A.R., T.E. Arbuckle and P.H. Chyou, 2003. Risk factors for female infertility in an agricultural region. Epidemiology, 14(4): 429-436.Available at:

Gromadzka, J. and W. Wardencki, 2011. Trends in edible vegetable oils analysis. Part A. Determination of different components of edible oils-a review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 61(1): 33-43.Available at:

Guardia, R.M., A. Ruiz Medina, D.A. Molina and C.M.J. Ayora, 2006. Influence of harvesting method and washing on the presence of pesticide residues in olives and olive oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 54(22): 8538-8544.Available at:

Guéguen, M., J.C. Amiard, N. Arnich, P.M. Badot, D. Claisse, T. Guérin and J.P. Vernoux, 2011. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: Hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts. Available from

Guerre, P., 1998. Main mycotoxicoses observed in ruminants. The Veterinary Point, 29: 1231-1238.

Guezlane-Tebibel, N., N. Bouras and M. Ould El Hadj, 2016. Mycotoxins: A public health danger. Algerian Journal of Arid Environment, 6(1).

Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K., 2012. Risk of multi-contamination with mycotoxins and means of deactivation by the walls of yeasts and yeasts enriched in glutathione or seleno-methionine. Doctoral Thesis.

Halliwell, B. and J.C. Gutteridge, 1984. Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage, and antioxidant therapy. The Lancet, 323(8391): 1396-1397.Available at:

Hanny, B.W., 1980. Gossypol, flavonoid, and condensed tannin content of cream and yellow anthers of five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28(3): 504-506.Available at:

Harris, B. and C.R. Staples, 1992. The problems of mycotoxins in dairy cattle rations. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Available from

Hassall, K.A., 1982. The chemistry of pesticides: Their metabolism, mode of action and uses in crop protection. Macmillan. Available from

He, Z., Y. Wang, L. Wang, Y. Peng, W. Wang and X. Liu, 2017. Determination of 255 pesticides in edible vegetable oils using QuEChERS method and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 409(4): 1017-1030.Available at:

Henry, M., G. Pesti and T. Brown, 2001. Pathology and histopathology of gossypol toxicity in broiler chicks. Avian Diseases, 45(3): 598-604.Available at:

Hernández-Borges, J., J.C. Cabrera, M.A. Rodríguez-Delgado, E.M. Hernández-Suárez and V.G. Saúco, 2009. Analysis of pesticide residues in bananas harvested in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food Chemistry, 113(1): 313-319.Available at:

Heussner, A.H. and L.E. Bingle, 2015. Comparative ochratoxin toxicity: A review of the available data. Toxins, 7(10): 4253-4282.Available at:

Hodgson, E. and P.E. Levi, 1996. Pesticides: An important but underused model for the environmental health sciences. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(suppl 1): 97-106.Available at:

Holbrook, C.C., B.Z. Guo, D.M. Wilson and C. Kvien, 2004. Effect of drought tolerance on preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress Brisbane, Australia.

Huang, L., Y.-K. Si, G. Snatzke, D.-K. Zheng and J. Zhou, 1988. Absolute configuration of gossypol. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 53(11): 2664-2666.Available at:

Hui, Y.H., 1996. Bailey's industrial oil and fat products. Edible Oil and Fat Products Oils and Oil Seeds (No. L-0332). John Wiley and Sons, 2.

Huybrechts, B., E.K. Tangni, P. Debongnie, J. Geys and A. Callebaut, 2013. Analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins in agricultural products: A review. Cahiers Agricultures, 22(3): 202-215.Available at:

Idris, Y.M., A.A. Mariod, I.A. Elnour and A.A. Mohamed, 2010. Determination of aflatoxin levels in Sudanese edible oils. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8-9): 2539-2541.Available at:

International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Heterocyclic amines and mycotoxins. Lyon, France: IARC, 56.

Iterg, 2019. The technology of fatty substances. Available from

Jaroszewski, J.W., 1998. Compound from the cotton plant. In Cotton. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp: 335-349.

Jayaraj, R., P. Megha and P. Sreedev, 2016. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 9(3-4): 90-100.Available at:

Jayashree, T. and C. Subramanyam, 2000. Oxidative stress as a prerequisite for aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 29(10): 981-985.Available at:

Joseph, A., S. Matlin and P. Knox, 1986. Cytotoxicity of enantiomers of gossypol. British Journal of Cancer, 54: 511-513.Available at:

Jouve, J.L., 1993. The microbiological quality of food. Mastery and criteria. Polytechnica, 7: 124-125.

Judde, A., 2004. Prevention of fatty acid oxidation in a cosmetic product: Mechanisms, consequences, means of measurement, which antioxidants for which applications? Oilseeds, Fat, Lipids, 11(6): 414-418.

Kamal-Eldin, A. and L.A. Appelqvist, 1996. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: Formation, toxicological significance and analysis. Fats and Oils, 47(5): 342-348.Available at:

Kamimura, H., M. Nishijima, S. Tabata, K. Yasuda, H. Ushiyama and T. Nishima, 1986. Survey of mycotoxins contamination in edible oil and fate of mycotoxins during oil-refining processes. Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi), 27(1): 59-63_51.Available at:

Kamimura, H., M. Nishijima, S. Tabata, K. Yasuda, H. Ushiyama and T. Nishima, 1986. Survey of mycotoxins contamination in edible oil and fate of mycotoxins during oil-refining processes. Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi), 27(1): 59 -63_51.

Kanoi, F., 2004. Agri-inputs marketing research. Cotton crop track. Cotton Crop Track, A Report on Seeds. Chennai, 2005.

Keller, S.E., T.M. Sullivan and S. Chirtel, 1997. Factors affecting the growth of Fusarium proliferatum and the production of fumonisin B 1: Oxygen and pH. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 19(4): 305-309.Available at:

Kim, H.J. and D.B. Min, 2008. Tocopherol stability and prooxidant mechanisms of oxidized tocopherols in lipids. Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology, 3: 435-448.

Klere, J., 1992. History of fatty substances. Manual of fatty substances, Ed Lavoisier. Paris.

Koné, S., 2001. Modern small and very small scale oilseed processing units: Performance and limits. Info gate, gtz. 12. Available from

Krieger, R., 2001. Handbook of pesticide toxicology: Principles and agents. Academic Press. Available from

Kubow, S., 1990. Toxicity of dietary lipid peroxidation products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 1: 67-71.Available at:

Kuiper-Goodman, T. and P.M. Scott, 1989. Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2(3): 179-248.

Lacey, J., 1991. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in growing and conserved forage crops. Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Growing and Conserved Forage Crops: 363-397. Available from

Lacoste, F., H. Lechat, X. Pages, J.N. Arnaud, B. E. Brenne, B. Soulet, C. Camisuli, S. Birot, J. Fazeuilh and J. Escabasse, 2005. Control of undesirable compounds in vegetable oils and establishment of observatories. Oilseeds, Fats, Fat, 12(5-6): 372-377. Available from

Laguerre, M., L.J. López-Giraldo, J. Lecomte, M. Pina and P. Villeneuve, 2007. Tools for in vitro evaluation of antioxidant capacity. Oilseeds, Fats, Lipids, 14(5): 278-292.

Lecerf, J.M., 2011. Vegetable oils: Particularities and usefulness: Vegetable oils: Particularities and usefulness. Medicine for Metabolic Diseases, 5(3): 257-262.Available at:

Leng, P., Z. Zhang, G. Pan and M. Zhao, 2011. Applications and development trends in biopesticides. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(86): 19864-19873.Available at:

Lentza-Rizos, C., E. Avramides and F. Cherasco, 2001. Low-temperature clean-up method for the determination of organophosphorus insecticides in olive oil. Journal of Chromatography A, 912(1): 135-142.Available at:

Lerma-García, M.a.J.s., V. Concha-Herrera, J.M. Herrero-Martínez and E.F. Simó-Alfonso, 2009. Classification of extra virgin olive oils produced at la comunitat valenciana according to their genetic variety using sterol profiles established by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(22): 10512-10517.Available at:

Li, L., Z. Zhou, C. Pan, C. Qian, S. Jiang and F. Liu, 2007. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil by low-temperature extraction and GC-FPD. Chromatographia, 66(7-8): 625-629.Available at:

Lindberg, M., R. Naqvi, S. Matlin, R. Zhou, G. Bialy and R. Blye, 1987. Comparative anti-fertility effects of gossypol enantiomers in male hamsters. International Journal of Andrology, 10(4): 619-623.Available at:

Liu, B., 1957. A modest proposal for the use of crude cottonseed oil for antifertility. Shanghai Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 6: 43.

LNE, 2008. Pesticides. 15. Available from

Lordelo, M., A. Davis, M. Calhoun, M. Dowd and N. Dale, 2005. Relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers in broilers. Poultry Science, 84(9): 1376-1382.Available at:

Louis, K., 2013. Synthesis and functionalization of aldehydes resulting from the cleavage of unsaturated fatty esters. Doctoral Thesis, University of Poitiers, France.

Luchese, R.H. and W. Harrigan, 1993. Biosynthesis of aflatoxin—the role of nutritional factors. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 74(1): 5-14.Available at:

Lyman, C.M., B.P. Baliga and M.W. Slay, 1959. Reactions of proteins with gossypol. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 84(2): 486-497.Available at:

Maata, N., B. Kartah, H. Harhar, S. Gharby, E. Benazzouz, D. Guillaume and Z. Charrouf, 2011. Detection of adulteration of argan oil by virgin and refined vegetable oils. First International Congress on the Argan Tree. pp: 15-17.

Magan, N. and D. Aldred, 2005. Conditions of formation of ochratoxin A in drying, transport and in different commodities. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(s1): 10-16.Available at:

Mahmoudi, R. and R. Norian, 2015. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination in cow feeds and milk from Iran. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 26(1): 131-137.Available at:

Mannon, J. and E. Johnson, 1985. Fungi down on the farm. New Scientist, 105: 12-16.

Marasas, W.F.O., T.S. Kellerman, W.C. Gelderblom, P.G. Thiel, J.J. Van der Lugt and J.A. Coetzer, 1988. Leukoencephalomalacia in a horse induced by fumonisin B- isolated from fusarium moniliforme. Available from

Marin, S., A. Ramos, G. Cano-Sancho and V. Sanchis, 2013. Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 60: 218-237.Available at:

Markman, A.L. and V.P. Rzhekhin, 1969. Gossypol and its derivatives (Translated from Russian). Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.

Martin, J., A. Ba, P. Dimanche and R. Schilling, 1999. How to fight aflatoxin contamination of peanuts? Experiments conducted in Senegal. Agriculture and Development, 23: 58-67.

Matlin, S., R. Zhou, G. Bialy, R. Blye, R. Naqvi and M. Lindberg, 1985. (−)-gossypol: An active male antifertility agent. Contraception, 31(2): 141-149.Available at:

Mawussi, G., 2008. Environmental balance of the use of organochlorine pesticides in cotton, coffee and cocoa crops in Togo and search for alternatives by evaluating the insecticidal power of extracts of local plants against the bark beetle (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari). (Doctoral Dissertation, INPT).

Mazet, A., 2005. Ecotoxicological and environmental study of the Drôme river: Application to the survival of the otter. Doctoral Thesis of the Joseph-Fourier-Grenoble I University.

Menegaux, F., A. Baruchel, Y. Bertrand, B. Lescoeur, G. Leverger, B. Nelken, D. Sommelet, D. Hémon and J. Clavel, 2006. Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood acute leukaemia. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(2): 131-134.Available at:

Mirghani, M. and M.Y. Che, 2003. A new method for determining gossypol in cottonseed oil by FTIR spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 80(7): 625-628.Available at:

Monbaliu, S., C. Van Poucke, C.l. Detavernier, F. Dumoulin, M. Van De Velde, E. Schoeters, S. Van Dyck, O. Averkieva, C. Van Peteghem and S. De Saeger, 2010. Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed as analyzed by a multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(1): 66-71.Available at:

Moreno-González, D., J.F. Huertas-Pérez, A.M. García-Campaña and L. Gámiz-Gracia, 2014. Determination of carbamates in edible vegetable oils by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry using a new clean-up based on zirconia for QuEChERS methodology. Talanta, 128: 299-304.Available at:

Murphy, P.A., S. Hendrich, C. Landgren and C.M. Bryant, 2006. Food mycotoxins: An update. Journal of Food Science, 71(5): R51-R65.Available at:

Nabizadeh, S., S. Shoeibi, G. Jahed-Khaniki, R. Nabizadeh-Nodeh and E. Shokoohi, 2015. Validation of simultaneous analysis method for determination of aflatoxins in olive oil by high performance liquid chromatographyfluorescence detector. Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene, 1(2): 63-68.

National Cancer Institute, 2014. Pesticides and risks of cancer. State of knowledge as of April 2014: 12. Available from

Njobeh, P.B., M.F. Dutton and H.A. Makun, 2010. Mycotoxins and human health: Significance, prevention and control. In Smart Biomolecules in Medicine. VBRI Press India. pp: 132-177. Available from file:///C:/Users/nghf/Downloads/Chapter_6Njobehetal..pdf.

Nolen, G.A., J.C. Alexander and N.R. Artman, 1967. Long-term rat feeding study with used frying fats. The Journal of Nutrition, 93(3): 337-348.Available at:

Nomeir, A. and M. Abou-Donia, 1982. Gossypol: High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis and stability in various solvents. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 59(12): 546-549.Available at:

Nwanguma, B.C., A.C. Achebe, L.U.S. Ezeanyika and L.C. Eze, 1999. Toxicity of oxidized fats ii: Tissue levels of lipid peroxides in rats fed a thermally oxidized corn oil diet. Food and chemical Toxicology, 37(4): 413-416.Available at:

Nzikou, J.M., L. Matos, J.E. Moussounga, C.B. Ndangui, N.P. Pambou-Tobi, E.M. Bandzouzi, A. Kimbonguila, M. Linder and S. Desobry, 2009. Study of oxidative and thermal stability of vegetable oils during frying. Research Journal of Applied Science, 4(2): 94-100.

Oatley, J.T., M.D. Rarick, G.E. Ji and J.E. Linz, 2000. Binding of aflatoxin B1 to bifidobacteria in vitro. Journal of Food Protection, 63(8): 1133-1136.Available at:

Oliva, A., A. Spira and L. Multigner, 2001. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility. Human Reproduction, 16(8): 1768-1776.Available at:

Oliver, C.L., M.B. Miranda, S. Shangary, S. Land, S. Wang and D.E. Johnson, 2005. (−)-Gossypol acts directly on the mitochondria to overcome Bcl-2-and Bcl-XL-mediated apoptosis resistance. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 4(1): 23-31.

Ollivier, D., 2003. Research on adulteration in vegetable oils: Application to the quality of virgin oils and in particular olive oil. Oilseeds, Fat, Lipids, 10(4): 315-320.

Pages, X., O. Morin, C. Birot, M. Gaud, S. Fazeuilh and M. Gouband, 2010. Refining of oils and fatty substances and elimination of contaminants. Oilseeds, Fats, Fats, 17(2): 86-99.

Panigrahi, S., V.E. Plumb and D.H. Machin, 1989. Effects of dietary cottonseed meal, with and without iron treatment, on laying hens. British Poultry Science, 30(3): 641-651.Available at:

Papachristou, A. and P. Markaki, 2004. Determination of ochratoxin A in virgin olive oils of Greek origin by immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Additives and Contaminants, 21(1): 85-92.Available at:

Park, D., L. Lee, R. Price and A. Pohland, 1988. Review of the decontamination of aflatoxins by ammoniation: Current status and regulation. Journal-Association of official analytical chemists, 71(4): 685-703.

Parker, W.A. and D. Melnick, 1966. Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 43(11): 635-638.Available at:

Pearson, A.M., J.I. Gray, A.M. Wolzak and N.A. Horenstein, 1983. Safety implications of oxidized lipids in muscle foods. Food Technology (USA).

Peers, F.G. and C.A. Linsell, 1975. Aflatoxin contamination and its heat stability in Indian cooking oils. Tropical Science, 17(4): 229-232.

Pierides, M., H. El-Nezami, K. Peltonen, S. Salminen and J. Ahokas, 2000. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind aflatoxin M1 in a food model. Journal of Food Protection, 63(5): 645-650.Available at:

Pitt, J.I., 1996. What are mycotoxins? Australian Mycotoxin Newsletter, 7(4).

Polgár, L., B. Kmellár, J.F. García-Reyes and P. Fodor, 2012. Comprehensive evaluation of the clean-up step in QuEChERS procedure for the multi-residue determination of pesticides in different vegetable oils using LC-MS/MS. Analytical Methods, 4(4): 1142-1148.Available at:

Polsky, B., S.J. Segal, P.A. Baron, J.W. Gold, H. Ueno and D. Armstrong, 1989. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by gossypol. Contraception, 39(6): 579-587.Available at:

Proctor, J., H. O’Neill, H. Reilich, R. Levi and W. Pons, 1968. Physiological evaluation of solvent-treated cottonseed meals in rations for laying hens. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 45(5): 393-396.Available at:

Qi, X., 2010. Development of a matrix solid-phase dispersion-sonication extraction method for the determination of fungicides residues in ginseng extract. Food Chemistry, 121(3): 758-762.Available at:

Qian, S. and Z. Wang, 1984. Gossypol: A potential antifertility agent for males. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 24(1): 329-360.Available at:

Quin, L.D., 2000. A guide to organophosphorus chemistry. John Wiley and Sons. Available from:

Rahma, E.H. and M.N. Rao, 1984. Gossypol removal and functional properties of protein produced by extraction of glanded cottonseed with different solvents. Journal of Food Science, 49(4): 1057-1060.Available at:

Ravelo-Pérez, L.M., J. Hernández-Borges, T.M. Borges-Miquel and M.A. Rodríguez-Delgado, 2008. Solid-phase micro-extraction and sample stacking micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in red wines. Food Chemistry, 111(3): 764-770.Available at:

Razzazi-Fazeli, E., B. Rabus, B. Cecon and J. Böhm, 2002. Simultaneous quantification of a-trichothecene mycotoxins in grains using liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 968(1-2): 129-142.Available at:

Reboux, G., 2006. Mycotoxins: Health effects and interactions with other organic components. French Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 46(3): 208-212.Available at:

Repetto, R. and S.S. Baliga, 1996. Pesticides and the immune system: The public health risks. World Resources Institute.

Richard, J.L., G.A. Payne, A.E. Desjardins, C. Maragos, W. Norred and J. Pestka, 2003. Mycotoxins: Risks in plant, animal and human systems. CAST Task Force Report, 139: 101-103.

Riemersma, R.A., 2002. Analysis and possible significance of oxidized lipids in food. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104(7): 419-420.Available at:<419::aid-ejlt419>;2-s.

Robertson, A.E., 2005. Risk of aflatoxin contamination increases with hot and dry growing conditions. Available from

Roszko, M., A. Szterk, K. Szymczyk and B. Waszkiewicz-Robak, 2012. PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and pesticides in cold-pressed vegetable oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 89(3): 389-400.Available at:

Sahay, S.S. and T. Prasad, 1990. The occurrence of aflatoxins in mustard and mustard products. Food Additives & Contaminants, 7(4): 509-513.Available at:

Samarajeewa, U., T. Gamage and S. Arseculeratne, 1983. Aflatoxin contamination of coconut oil from small scale mills: Toxin levels and their relation to free fatty acid content. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 11(2): 203 - 210.Available at:

Schmidely, P. and D. Sauvant, 2001. Butyrous rate and fat composition of milk in small ruminants: Effects of the intake of fat or concentrated feed. INRA Animal Production, 14(5): 337–354.

Scott, P.M., 1998. Industrial and farm detoxification processes for mycotoxins. Journal of Veterinary Medicine (France), 149: 543 548.

Scudamore, K.A. and C.T. Livesey, 1998. Occurrence and significance of mycotoxins in forage crops and silage: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77(1): 1-17.Available at:<1::aid-jsfa9>;2-4.

Sharmili, K., S. Jinap and R. Sukor, 2016. Development, optimization and validation of QuEChERS based liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of multi-mycotoxin in vegetable oil. Food Control, 70: 152-160.Available at:

Sheen, L.Y., H.W. Chen, Y.L. Kung, C.T. Liu and C.K. Lii, 1999. Effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on the activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-and low-fat diets. Nutrition and Cancer, 35(2): 160-166.Available at:

Shelley, M.D., L. Hartley, R.G. Fish, P. Groundwater, J.J.G. Morgan, D. Mort and A. Evans, 1999. Stereo-specific cytotoxic effects of gossypol enantiomers and gossypolone in tumour cell lines. Cancer Letters, 135(2): 171-180.Available at:

Silva, L., J. Pinto, J. Carrola and F. Paiva-Martins, 2010. Oxidative stability of olive oil after food processing and comparison with other vegetable oils. Food Chemistry, 121(4): 1177-1187.Available at:

Slope, S.L., S. Wu, Z. Wu, H. Shen and X.J. Chang, 2013. Patent CN 103205311B. A method for industrially removing zearalenone out of maize germ. State Grain Administration Institute. (Granted 24 Dec 2014).

Sobhanzadeh, E., N.K.A. Bakar, M.R.B. Abas and K. Nemati, 2011. An efficient extraction and clean-up procedure for pesticide determination in olive oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(7): 862-869.Available at:

Spanjer, M.C., P.M. Rensen and J.M. Scholten, 2008. LC–MS/MS multi-method for mycotoxins after single extraction, with validation data for peanut, pistachio, wheat, maize, cornflakes, raisins and figs. Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(4): 472-489.Available at:

Srivastava, S., M. Siddiqui and T. Seth, 1983. Organochlorine pesticide residues in groundnut oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 20(1): 25-27.

Staprans, I., D.A. Hardman, X.M. Pan and K.R. Feingold, 1999. Effect of oxidized lipids in the diet on oxidized lipid levels in postprandial serum chylomicrons of diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 22(2): 300-306.Available at:

Stoytcheva, M. and R. Zlatev, 2011. Organophosphorus pesticides analysis. Pesticides in the modern world-Trends in Pesticides Analysis (M. Stoytcheva, Ed.). InTech, Croacia. pp: 143-164. Available from

Sun, Y.E., W.D. Wang, H.W. Chen and C. Li, 2011. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in food emulsion. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 51(5): 453-466.Available at:

Sweeney, M.J. and A.D. Dobson, 1998. Mycotoxin production by aspergillus, fusarium and penicillium species. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 43(3): 141-158.Available at:

Tabuc, C., 2007. Fungal flora of different substrates and optimal conditions for the production of mycotoxins. Doctoral Dissertation.

Tantaoui-Elaraki, A. and B. Le Tutour, 1985. Possible mycotoxin contamination of olives and olive products: Latest developments. Oleagineux, 40(8): 451-454.

Thakare, S.K., R.S. Dewan and K.C. Gulati, 1969. Build-up of DDT in human fat-oils and oilseeds as possible source. Pesticide, 3: 13-14.

Thompson, C. and S.E. Henke, 2000. Effect of climate and type of storage container on aflatoxin production in corn and its associated risks to wildlife species. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 36(1): 172-179.Available at:

Tian, X., J.-X. Ruan, J.-Q. Huang, C.-Q. Yang, X. Fang, Z.-W. Chen, H. Hong, L.-J. Wang, Y.-B. Mao and S. Lu, 2018. Characterization of gossypol biosynthetic pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(23): E5410-E5418.Available at:

Tomlin, C.D.S., 2003. The pesticide manual: A world compendium. 13th Edn., Alton Hampshire: British Crop Protection Council.

Tozlovanu, M., 2008. Evaluation of the risk of food contamination with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins (notably ochratoxin A): validation of exposure and effect biomarkers. Doctoral Thesis.

Vaitilingom, G., 2007. Extraction, packaging and use of pure fuel vegetable oils. Challenges and perspectives of biofuels for Africa. Available from

Van Duijn, G. and G. Den Dekker, 2010. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats. Oléagineux, Corps gras, Lipides, 17(2): 100-103.Available at:

Vander, J.D.L. and R. Royer, 2000. Gossypol prototype of inhibitors targeted to dinucleotide folds. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 7(4): 479-498.Available at:

Velez, D.L.C.J.F., E. Rachou, M.T. Martelot, B. Ducot, L. Multigner and P.F. Thonneau, 2001. Male infertility risk factors in a French military population. Human Reproduction, 16(3): 481-486.Available at:

Villier, A. and C. Genot, 2006. Physico-chemical and sensory approach to the oxidation of lipids in emulsions. Oleageneux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 13(4): 1-7.

Vine, M.F., L. Stein, K. Weigle, J. Schroeder, D. Degnan, C.-K.J. Tse and L. Backer, 2001. Plasma 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) levels and immune response. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153(1): 53-63.Available at:

Vix, H., P. Eaves, H. Gardner and M. Lambou, 1971. Degossypolized cottonseed flour—the liquid cyclone process. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 48(10): 611-615.Available at:

Waites, G., C. Wang and P. Griffin, 1998. Gossypol: Reasons for its failure to be accepted as a safe, reversible male antifertility drug. International Journal of Andrology, 21(1): 8-12.Available at:

Waites, G.M.H., 1986. Regulation of male fertility: Recent progress. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 64(4): 493.

Wang, J., L. Tao, X. Wu, L. Lin, J. Wu, M. Wang and G. Zhang, 1992. Differential binding of (+) and (−) gossypol to plasma protein and their entry into rat testis. Reproduction, 95(1): 277-282.Available at:

Wang, M.-Z., J.-S. Wang, B.-L. Li and F.-Y. GA

No any video found for this article.
Souleymane Zio , Hama Cisse , Oumarou Zongo , Flibert Guira , Francois Tapsoba , Namwin Siourime Somda , Fatoumata Hama-Ba , Laurencia Toulsoumde Songre-Ouattara , Cheikna Zongo , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo (2020). The Oils Refining Process and Contaminants in Edible Oils: A Review. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 9-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.9.47
Edible oils are widely consumed foods. These oils come from various animal materials raw and vegetable products. Edible oils are prone to many contaminants. Contaminants can be found at all levels from oilseed production to conservation through refining processes and end up in oils. The contaminants origin may be of endogenous or exogenous. These are water, phosphorus, non-visible insoluble compounds, free fatty acids, residual hexane, benzo [a] pyrene, pesticides, dioxins, mycotoxins, mineral oils, cargo residues, minerals such as iron, copper, lead, gossypol, many primary and secondary oxidation products, etc. To eliminate or limit these compounds having a nuisance or toxicity for the consumer, it is allowed the refining of oils (chemical, physical or enzymatic). In addition, the regulatory limits of anti-nutritional factors in edible oils have been set in order to obtain quality oils and to guarantee the health of consumer living in developing country. This results in analytical methods developed for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of oils intended for human consumption.
Contribution/ Originality
This study on the contaminants of edible oils contributes to knowledge the sanitary consumption of these oils and their analytical methods. Previously, the contaminants in the oils did not experience infatuation. Our study focuses on pesticides, mycotoxins and gossypol which are anti-nutritional factors present in edible oils widely consumed.

Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam

Pages: 1-8
Find References

Finding References

Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam

Search :
Google Scholor
Search :
Microsoft Academic Search

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.1.8

Osunrinade, O.A. , Jimoh, K.O. , Babalola, J.O.

Export to    BibTeX   |   EndNote   |   RIS

Aladedunye, F.A. and R. Przybylski, 2009. Degradation and nutritional quality changes of oil during frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(2): 149-156.Available at:

AOAC, 2000. Official methods of analysis. The association of official analytical chemists. 17th Edn., Maryland, USA: Horowitz W.

Belitz, H.D. and W. Grosc, 1992. Textbook of food chemistry. 4th Edn., Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer Verlag. pp: 580-606.

Cao, J., H. Li, X. Xia, X.G. Zou, J. Li, X.M. Zhu and Z.Y. Deng, 2015. Effect of fatty acid and tocopherol on oxidative stability of vegetable oils with limited air. International Journal of Food Properties, 18(4): 808-820.Available at:

Choe, E. and D. Min, 2007. Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Science, 72(5): R77-R86.Available at:

Codex Alimentarius, 1999. Norme pour les Huiles vegetabes portant un nom specifique, Codex-Stan 210. Rome, Italy: Codex Alimentarius.

Debnath, S., N. Rastogi, A.G. Krishna and B. Lokesh, 2009. Oil partitioning between surface and structure of deep-fat fried potato slices: A kinetic study. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42(6): 1054-1058.Available at:

Debnath, S., N.K. Rastogi, A.G. Krishna and B. Lokesh, 2012. Effect of frying cycles on physical, chemical and heat transfer quality of rice bran oil during deep-fat frying of poori: An indian traditional fried food. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 90(2): 249-256.Available at:

Falade, A.O. and G. Oboh, 2015. Thermal oxidation induces lipid peroxidation and changes in the physicochemical properties and β-carotene content of arachis oil. International Journal of Food Science: 1-7.Available at:

Frega, N., M. Mozzon and G. Lercker, 1999. Effects of free fatty acids on oxidative stability of vegetable oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 76(3): 325-329.Available at:

Ghidurus, M., M. Turtoi, G. Boskou, P. Niculita and V. Stan, 2010. Nutritional and health aspects related to frying (I). Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 15(6): 5675-5682.

Hamilton, R.J., 1994. The Chemistry of rancidity in foods. In: Allen, J.C. and Hamilton, R.J., Eds., Rancidity in Foods, 3rd Edn., London: Blackie Academic & Professional. pp: 1-21.

Kalogianni, E.P., C. Karastogiannidou and T.D. Karapantsios, 2010. Effect of potato presence on the degradation of extra virgin olive oil during frying. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45(4): 765-775.Available at:

Lee, K.-S., G.-H. Kim, H.-H. Kim, B.-J. Seong, S.-I. Kim, S.-H. Han, S.-S. Lee and G.-H. Lee, 2013. Physicochemical properties of frying ginseng and oils derived from deep-frying ginseng. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 42(6): 941-947.Available at:

Nayak, P.K., U. Dash, K. Rayaguru and K.R. Krishnan, 2016. Physio-chemical changes during repeated frying of cooked oil: A review. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 40(3): 371-390.Available at:

Oboh, G., A. Falade and A. Ademiluyi, 2014. Effect of thermal oxidation on the physico-chemical properties, malondialdehyde and carotenoid contents of palm oil. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 91(1): 59-65.

Park, J.-M. and J.-M. Kim, 2016. Monitoring of used frying oils and frying times for frying chicken nuggets using peroxide value and acid value. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal, 36(5): 612-616.Available at:

Serjouie, A., C.P. Tan, H. Mirhosseini and M.Y. Che, 2010. Effect of vegetable-based oil blends on physicochemical properties of oils during deep-fat frying. American Journal of Food Technology, 5(5): 310-323.Available at:

Shen, N., S. Moizuddin, L. Wilson, S. Duvick, P. White and L. Pollak, 2001. Relationship of electronic nose analyses and sensory evaluation of vegetable oils during storage. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 78(9): 937-940.Available at:

Weisshaar, R., 2014. Quality control of used deep-frying oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(6): 716-722.Available at:

No any video found for this article.
Osunrinade, O.A. , Jimoh, K.O. , Babalola, J.O. (2020). Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.1.8
Oil re-use is a common practice in households. Oxidative and hydrolytic reactions have been reported to cause significant changes in oil quality. This study was carried out to determine the chemical changes specific to beans cake (Vigna unguiculata), Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and yellow yam (Discorea cayenensis) frying with repetitive re-use of oil. Refined vegetable and palm oil were used for five consecutive frying operations for bean cake, plantain and yam. Free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value of the first, third and fifth frying operations were determined using standard methods. For refined vegetable oil, the FFA range for repeated frying operations obtained for bean cake, plantain and yam were 0.31-0.53, 0.37-0.52 and 0.40 to 0.53 % oleic respectively. While palm oil re-use had a range of 11.87 to 14.97 in the value of their FFA. Peroxide value (3.24- 4.92 meq/kg), Iodine value (91.09-107.00 mg/100g) and Saponification value (125.00-152.66 mgKOH/g) were obtained for re-use refined vegetable oil while Peroxide value (27.95-77.02 meq/kg), Iodine value (131.68-210.89 g/100g) and Saponification value (179.45-197.50 mgKOH/g) were obtained for re-use palm oil. Generally, frying operation led to increase in the FFA of refined vegetable oil. Frying operation for peroxide value significantly varied for all frying operation for plantain. Significant difference existed in iodine value at p<0.05 among frying operations for bean cake and yam. Changes in chemical properties of oil were affected by frying duration and food material fried.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study reported variations in the chemical properties of vegetable oil as affected by the type of food material (bean cake, plantain and yam) during repeated frying operation. Extent of changes caused by hydrolytic and oxidative reactions is dependent on the food material used for deep frying operation. This work also was able to ascertain that acceptable oil re-use depended on the frying duration and food material.