Journal of Food Technology Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-3796
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No. 1

Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri

Pages: 125-135
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Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.125.135

Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu , Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili

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Agbara, Gervase Ikechukwu , Ibekwe, Paulina Chikaodili (2020). Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 125-135. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.125.135
In this present study, completely peeled (CP) and Incompletely peeled (IP)cassava roots were used to produce garri, other portions were supplemented with soybean (S) or Melon seed (MS) meals at 10% level and garri were produced, a total of nine which were subjected to physicochemical and sensory analysis using standard procedures and the results presented as mean±SE. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P<0.05) from 9.75-15.16%, 1.40-9.71%, 0.70-3.35%, 1.60-2.36%, 2.13-3.45% and 68.97-81.03% respectively. Significance increase was observed in ash, fibre, protein and fat contents of IP garri especially the seed meal treated. Calcium (45-87mg/100g), Phosphorous, Iron and Zinc contents were generally low but Calcium, Potassium and Phosphorous were greater in the IP garri than in the Cp garri, and the values of all the mineral elements were enhanced in the treated garri. The bacteria counts, fungi counts, coliform and staphylococcus aureus load were far below the approved permissible safe limits for ready-to-eat foods however, the E.coli observed in two garri samples could be attributed to post-toasting cross contamination. CP garri had the highest water absorption capacity (4.51%), the swelling index of CP (5.78%), IP (5.90%), and CP+IP (5.76%) were relatively high, and decreased on supplementation with seed meal. The PH of the various garri were slightly acidic especially the untreated garri. The cyanide contents of the various garri (0.11-0.34mg/100g) were low perhaps due to sweet cassava variety used in this study. The sensory properties of the either eba or soaked garri were well appreciated, however the texture of all eba made from IP were softer and stickier. This study has proved that complete removal of the cassava peel for garri production leads to nutrient depletion in a nutrient deficient staple and the waste accumulation constitutes environmental hazard.
Contribution/ Originality
The study proved conclusively wasteful peeling away of the cassava root cortex before garri production is unnecessary, increases cost of labour and create environmental pollution and it also depletes the mineral and the dietary fiber contents of the garri; moreover fortification with seed oil meal enhanced the nutrient density of all types of garri however higher oil contents of modified garri reduced water absorption and swelling capacities which are not desired by consumers.

Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso

Pages: 110-124
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Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.110.124

Tarnagda Bakary , Zongo Oumarou , Traore Korotimi , Nikiema Fulbert , Sourabie Bernadette Pane , Drabo Koine Maxime , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly

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Tarnagda Bakary , Zongo Oumarou , Traore Korotimi , Nikiema Fulbert , Sourabie Bernadette Pane , Drabo Koine Maxime , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly (2020). Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 110-124. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.110.124
Babenda is a national dish that has become famous in food habits and production without adequate knowledge of its nutritional and energy potential. It is made with leafy vegetables and cereals. This study aimed to determine the risk assessement of some heavy metals and physico-chemical characteristics of leafy vegetables and Babenda consumed in five cities in Burkina. The samples of 120 leafy vegetables and 60 Babenda were collected. The analyzes focused on the total levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) and were carried out using standard methods. The moisture content varied between 86.82 ± 2.51 and 88.57 ± 1.19. The lipid content varied from 13.89 ± 0.22g/100g to 19.91 ± 0.41g/100g, the carbohydrate content ranged from 60.91 ± 0.2 g/100g to 77.35 ± 0.22 g/100g; the protein content between 9.76 ± 0.09g / 100g and 23.56 ± 0.02g / 100g. The energy potential was between 469.45 kcal and 499.57kcal with an average value of 480.766 Kcal 100g of dry matter. Babenda is a source of calcium (129.52 ± 2.38mg / 100g), sodium (12.92 ± 0.29mg / 100g). Babenda has a good nutritional value and its consumption can help fight against food insecurity and malnutrition.
Contribution/ Originality
This study assesses the contamination risk and the Babenda composition. These are necessary valorization steps this local resource and fight malnutrition and improve food security. Besides, its consumption should be recommended, especially among the low-income population with little access to products with high nutritional value and the human health benefits.

Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk

Pages: 100-109
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Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.100.109

Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah , Victor Ephraim Edem , Iniobong Ime Harrison

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Aniekpeno Isaac Elijah , Victor Ephraim Edem , Iniobong Ime Harrison (2020). Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 100-109. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.100.109
Quality attributes of cheese produced from goat’s milk supplemented with coconut milk was studied. Fresh goat milk was blended with coconut milk at varying proportions of 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; and 50:50. A 100% goat milk was used as control. Result showed that increase in the proportion of coconut milk (10-50%) resulted in significant (p<0.05) effect in quality parameters of cheese. Values ranged from 0.20-0.33% TTA; 6.40-6.69 pH. TSS declined from 1.14% in the control sample to 0.56% at 50% coconut milk substitution. The yield of cheese increased from 22.55 - 30.69% with increased coconut milk. Proximate composition of cheese was also influenced by increased proportion of coconut milk. Protein, ash, fibre and fat contents of cheese ranged from 12.94-14.49%; 1.28-2.08%; 0.03-1.79% and 15-40.41% respectively. Conversely, carbohydrate content of cheese decreased with increased coconut milk. Mineral contents of cheese showed maximum value of 74.03 mg/100g potassium, 41.60 mg/100g sodium and declined with decrease in coconut milk content, while magnesium content was highest (8.10 mg/100g) in cheese produced using 10% coconut milk supplementation. Potassium content of cheese was least (59.27 mg/100g) in control sample, but increased with increase coconut milk content. Microbial analysis showed that the product was safe for consumption. The blend of 90:10% of goat milk and coconut milk substitution was most preferred by panelists in terms of sensory parameters.
Contribution/ Originality
Substitution of coconut milk in cheese production had significant effect on quality parameters of cheese studied. Physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, mineral content of cheese supplemented with coconut milk were determined. The acceptable level of coconut milk and goat milk blends for cheese production was established.

Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours

Pages: 88-99
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Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.88.99

Ani, J.C , Onwurafor, E.U , Ogunseye, Y. Y.

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Ani, J.C , Onwurafor, E.U , Ogunseye, Y. Y. (2020). Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 88-99. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.88.99
Two cultivars (green and red) of Dioscorea bulbifera were processed individually by boiling (100oC, 25 min) or roasting (175oC, 60 min) into flour. The processed and unprocessed samples were evaluated for nutrients, phytochemical and functional properties. The results revealed that the raw green cultivar had higher values (12.94, 8.19 and 3.06%) of moisture, protein, and ash, respectively than the red cultivar with 12.94, 8.19 and 3.06%, respectively. The red cultivar contains more fat (3.92%) and carbohydrate (75.05%) compared to the green cultivar with 3.20 and 69.16% values, respectively. The green cultivar contains more Mg and Zn contents (362.30 mg/100g and 1476.27 µg/100g, respectively) than the values (344.43 mg/100g and 1288.50 µg/100g, respectively) of the red cultivar. The phytochemicals; alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, and diosgenin (3.27, 1.91, 0.29 and 176.42 mg/100g, respectively) were more in red cultivar than the green cultivar (3.06, 1.74, 0.26 and 162.24 mg/100g) while higher content of saponins (10.07 mg/100g) was observed in red cultivar than green cultivar (7.43 mg/100g). Boiling and roasting led to a reduction in Mg, Zn, vitamin C contents and all the proximate parameters in both cultivars except carbohydrates. The water absorption capacity, bulk density, swelling capacity of both treated cultivars increased, but roasting had a lower effect than boiling. Boiling and roasting reduced the alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin contents except diosgenin content of the two cultivars, with boiling inducing a greater effect than roasting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the most suitable processing method for Dioscorea bulbifera flour as related to maximizing nutrients and functionality. The potentials of Dioscorea bulbifera cultivars as a functional food ingredient which would encourage its increase in production and further utilization in diverse ways were also highlights.

Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network

Pages: 78-87
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Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.78.87

Yeong Nain Chi , Orson Chi

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Yeong Nain Chi , Orson Chi (2020). Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 78-87. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.78.87
Using data extracted from MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items, this study tried to classify groups exhibiting common patterns of nutrition facts from the targeted popular menu items. The one-way ANOVA results showed that significant differences in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and protein were found with the three types of the targeted popular menu items. In this study, group means were significantly different using the Wilk’s Lambda scores for both discriminant functions, respectively. The canonical correlation results also supported that there were strong relationships between the discriminant score and the group membership. The multilayer perceptron neural network model was utilized as a predictive model in deciding the classification of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items. The predictive model developed had excellent classification accuracy. From an architectural perspective, it showed a 10-2-2-3 neural network construction. Results of this study may provide insight into the understanding of the importance of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu for consumer references.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have classified groups of nutrition facts from McDonalds popular menu items. This study also addresses that discriminant analysis and multilayer perceptron neural network model can be utilized to detect the classification of MacDonald’s nutrition facts for targeted popular menu items.

Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

Pages: 69-77
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Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.69.77

Roland Monday Kayode , Victor Ephraim Edem , Niyi Julius Ogundun , Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola , Bukola Idowu Kayode

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Roland Monday Kayode , Victor Ephraim Edem , Niyi Julius Ogundun , Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola , Bukola Idowu Kayode (2020). Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 69-77. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.69.77
Biscuits were produced from the composite flour of grapefruit pulp and wheat flour. The Grapefruit pulp was boiled, fermented and some unfermented separately. Nine composite flours were made from the fermented, boiled and unfermented grapefruit pulp at different ratios of 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70 respectively while the control was 100% wheat flour. The proximate composition ranged from 6.50-8.25% (moisture), 5.46-11.36% (protein), 1.5-9.75% (crude fiber), 0.5-1.75% (ash), 2.93-4.35% (fat), and 62.77-80.04% (carbohydrate). The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.01-1.42 g water/g flour and 0.94- 1.56 g oil/g flour respectively. The values obtained for fiber fraction analysis ranged from 24- 44% (neutral detergent soluble), 11-39.75% (acid detergent fiber), 6.50-34.50% (lignin), 2.75-6.63% (silica), 2.5-7.5% (cellulose) and 5.00-20.50% (hemicellulose). The sensory scores of the biscuits indicated that sample 10BGP had the best overall acceptability among the composite flour pointing out high acceptability at up to 10% inclusion of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour. This research recommended the inclusion of boiled grapefruit pulp flour up to 10% with wheat flour for the production of biscuit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study showed the variations in proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, fibre fraction, and sensory properties of biscuit as affected by different levels of grapefruit inclusion. The acceptable level of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour for biscuit production was established.

An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality

Pages: 59-68
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An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.59.68

Esther Korkor Djidjor , Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah , Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu , Joanna-Dzeagu Kudjodji

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Ackah, M., Gyamfi, E., Anim, A., Osei, J., Hansen, J., & Agyemang, O. (2011). Socio-economic profile, knowledge of hygiene and food safety practices among street-food vendors in some parts of Accra-Ghana. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 13, 191-197.

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Esther Korkor Djidjor , Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah , Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu , Joanna-Dzeagu Kudjodji (2020). An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 59-68. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.59.68
The study assessed food hygiene practices of food vendors in some selected basic schools in Birim Central Municipality in the Eastern Region-Ghana. A case study approach was used for this research. Questionnaire and an interview guide were the two main instruments used in the data collection. The study was conducted in Birim Central Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana and the large group was the basic schools. Random sampling technique was used to select basic 15 schools for the study. The list of names of all schools in the Municipality was collected from the Ghana Education Service (GES) office. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, ranges and prevalence rates of the study variables. It was found out that most of the vendors (92.3%) had low level of education but this did not affect their food hygiene practices. Also, majority of the vendors (91.39%) were found not to have storage facilities for uncooked food items. It was recommended that in-service training on food safety should be organized for food vendors on regular bases to improve on their food safety skills by their supervisors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by examining the food hygiene practices among food vendors in selected basic schools in Brim Central Municipality.

Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology

Pages: 48-58
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Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.48.58

Osunrinade Oludolapo A. , Akinoso R.

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Osunrinade Oludolapo A. , Akinoso R. (2020). Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 48-58. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.48.58
Rice (Oryza sativa L. variety OS-6) paddy pre-treatments condition was optimized with respect to proximate, amylose and free fatty acids (FFA) composition. Soaking duration (1, 3 and 5 days), initial soaking temperature (30, 65 and 100 0C), parboiling temperature (80, 100 and 120 0C) and drying temperature (30, 50 and 70 0C) were used as independent factors in D-optimal response surface design methodology. AOAC methods were used for determination of proximate and free fatty acid composition. Amylose content was determined using standard method. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, amylose contents and FFA of the rice were 4.22- 10.24%, 0.24-0.71%, 0.62-1.73%, 7.41-9.57%, 0.60-1.71%, 78.31-84.65%, 17.41-22.34% 25 and 0.70-3.80%, respectively. The R2 for the model fitted ranged from 0.457 to 0.922. The range of R2 and p-value obtained for moisture, carbohydrate, energy, FFA and amylose affirms the degree of fitness of models obtained. The optimum rice paddy pre-treatment condition obtained was 1 day: 4.8 minutes, initial soaking temperature of 35 oC, Parboiling temperature of 98.03 oC and drying temperature of 70 oC.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provided detailed changes that occur in the chemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L. variety OS-6) as affected by paddy pre-treatments. Effect of variation in pre-treatment conditions was reported, while processing conditions for optimum chemical composition of rice was also established.

The Oils Refining Process and Contaminants in Edible Oils: A Review

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.9.47

Souleymane Zio , Hama Cisse , Oumarou Zongo , Flibert Guira , Francois Tapsoba , Namwin Siourime Somda , Fatoumata Hama-Ba , Laurencia Toulsoumde Songre-Ouattara , Cheikna Zongo , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo

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Souleymane Zio , Hama Cisse , Oumarou Zongo , Flibert Guira , Francois Tapsoba , Namwin Siourime Somda , Fatoumata Hama-Ba , Laurencia Toulsoumde Songre-Ouattara , Cheikna Zongo , Yves Traore , Aly Savadogo (2020). The Oils Refining Process and Contaminants in Edible Oils: A Review. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 9-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.9.47
Edible oils are widely consumed foods. These oils come from various animal materials raw and vegetable products. Edible oils are prone to many contaminants. Contaminants can be found at all levels from oilseed production to conservation through refining processes and end up in oils. The contaminants origin may be of endogenous or exogenous. These are water, phosphorus, non-visible insoluble compounds, free fatty acids, residual hexane, benzo [a] pyrene, pesticides, dioxins, mycotoxins, mineral oils, cargo residues, minerals such as iron, copper, lead, gossypol, many primary and secondary oxidation products, etc. To eliminate or limit these compounds having a nuisance or toxicity for the consumer, it is allowed the refining of oils (chemical, physical or enzymatic). In addition, the regulatory limits of anti-nutritional factors in edible oils have been set in order to obtain quality oils and to guarantee the health of consumer living in developing country. This results in analytical methods developed for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of oils intended for human consumption.
Contribution/ Originality
This study on the contaminants of edible oils contributes to knowledge the sanitary consumption of these oils and their analytical methods. Previously, the contaminants in the oils did not experience infatuation. Our study focuses on pesticides, mycotoxins and gossypol which are anti-nutritional factors present in edible oils widely consumed.

Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.1.8

Osunrinade, O.A. , Jimoh, K.O. , Babalola, J.O.

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Osunrinade, O.A. , Jimoh, K.O. , Babalola, J.O. (2020). Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.71.1.8
Oil re-use is a common practice in households. Oxidative and hydrolytic reactions have been reported to cause significant changes in oil quality. This study was carried out to determine the chemical changes specific to beans cake (Vigna unguiculata), Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and yellow yam (Discorea cayenensis) frying with repetitive re-use of oil. Refined vegetable and palm oil were used for five consecutive frying operations for bean cake, plantain and yam. Free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value of the first, third and fifth frying operations were determined using standard methods. For refined vegetable oil, the FFA range for repeated frying operations obtained for bean cake, plantain and yam were 0.31-0.53, 0.37-0.52 and 0.40 to 0.53 % oleic respectively. While palm oil re-use had a range of 11.87 to 14.97 in the value of their FFA. Peroxide value (3.24- 4.92 meq/kg), Iodine value (91.09-107.00 mg/100g) and Saponification value (125.00-152.66 mgKOH/g) were obtained for re-use refined vegetable oil while Peroxide value (27.95-77.02 meq/kg), Iodine value (131.68-210.89 g/100g) and Saponification value (179.45-197.50 mgKOH/g) were obtained for re-use palm oil. Generally, frying operation led to increase in the FFA of refined vegetable oil. Frying operation for peroxide value significantly varied for all frying operation for plantain. Significant difference existed in iodine value at p<0.05 among frying operations for bean cake and yam. Changes in chemical properties of oil were affected by frying duration and food material fried.
Contribution/ Originality
The present study reported variations in the chemical properties of vegetable oil as affected by the type of food material (bean cake, plantain and yam) during repeated frying operation. Extent of changes caused by hydrolytic and oxidative reactions is dependent on the food material used for deep frying operation. This work also was able to ascertain that acceptable oil re-use depended on the frying duration and food material.