The International Journal of Biotechnology

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2306-6148
Print ISSN: 2306-9864
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No. 1

Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates

Pages: 59-65
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Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.59.65

Iotsor, B. I. , Izegohi, F. , Oladoja, O.E. , Raji, O.R. , Yusuf, Z. , Oyewole, O.A.

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Iotsor, B. I. , Izegohi, F. , Oladoja, O.E. , Raji, O.R. , Yusuf, Z. , Oyewole, O.A. (2019). Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 59-65. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.59.65
The antibacterial activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger and garlic was determined in vitro against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae using agar well diffusion technique. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and triterpenes in the plant extracts. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of garlic were observed to be more potent against S. dysenteriae with maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 40 mg/ml and 29 mm at 80 mg/ml. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger were observed to be more potent against E. coli with maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm at 40 mg/ml and 19 mm at 80 mg/ml. The MIC of the methanolic extract against the test organisms was determined to show values between 5 and 20 mg/ml. In comparison, the n-hexane extract had MIC values between 2.5 and 10 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MIC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-hexane had MIC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The MBC of methanol garlic extract was between 10 and 40 mg/ml. The n-hexane garlic extract had MBC values between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MBC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-Hexane ginger extract had MBC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that the extracts had activity against the test organisms and as such could be used for drug development.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the use of garlic and ginger for their antimicrobial properties aside from their use as spices. These plant-based extracts provide hope for solving antimicrobial resistance problems since it is difficult for microorganisms to develop resistance to them.

Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Palm Wine Subjected to Spontaneous Fermentation During Storage

Pages: 48-58
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Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Palm Wine Subjected to Spontaneous Fermentation During Storage

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.48.58

Folake Titilayo Afolabi , Akeem Temitope Owoola

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Folake Titilayo Afolabi , Akeem Temitope Owoola (2019). Microbiological and Physicochemical Changes in Palm Wine Subjected to Spontaneous Fermentation During Storage. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 48-58. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.48.58
This work aimed to isolate and identify yeasts obtained from palm wine subjected to spontaneous fermentation during storage. A total of forty (40) yeast isolates were from spontaneously fermented palm wine. The yeast counts obtained ranged from 5.46 x 104 cfu/ml at day one to 3.00 x 102 cfu/ml at day twenty-two. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated at all stages of fermentation. The pH dropped from 3.70 at 24 hours to 3.37 at 360 hours. Total titratable acidity of the wine increased from 2.28% at 24 hours to 4.50% at 528 hours. Total sugar of the stored palm wine from decreased from 4.0211g/10 ml at 24 hours to 0.6417g/10 ml at 528 hours was observed. The reducing sugar content of the stored palm wine decreased from 13% at 24 hours to 0.960% at 456 hours was also observed. Ethanol content of the stored palm wine increased steadily from 21.06 mg/ml at 24 hours to 88.99mg/ml at 456 hours as the storage time increases. Palm wine whose storage time is not beyond 120 hours is not injurious to the health of consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the isolation of yeasts that are accountable for the spontaneous fermentation of palm wine during storage and also to determine its physicochemical characteristics.

Assessment of Haemoglobin Polymorphism as a Potential Protein Marker in Selection for Genetic Improvement of the West African Dwarf Goat Population in Nigeria

Pages: 38-47
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Assessment of Haemoglobin Polymorphism as a Potential Protein Marker in Selection for Genetic Improvement of the West African Dwarf Goat Population in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.38.47

Gwaza, D.S. , Ukwu, H.O. , Ogbole, P.A.

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Gwaza, D.S. , Ukwu, H.O. , Ogbole, P.A. (2019). Assessment of Haemoglobin Polymorphism as a Potential Protein Marker in Selection for Genetic Improvement of the West African Dwarf Goat Population in Nigeria. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 38-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.38.47
This study was conducted to ascertain the level of genetic diversity at the haemoglobin (Hb) locus and to assess its potential as a protein marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of Nigerian West African Dwarf goat populations. Haemoglobin genotyping was performed on forty (40) West African Dwarf goat obtained from Okpokuu local government area of Benue state, Nigeria, using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Data on Haemoglobin genotypes were also subjected to chi-square test. Two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB observed controlled three haemoglobin genotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB). The genotypic frequencies were Hb AA 0.42, HbAB 0.50 and HbBB 0.08 for does populations, while that in the bucks population were HbAA 0.38, HbAB 0.44 and HbBB 0.19 respectively. The most frequent haemoglobin genotype observed in the study was HbAB. The heamoglobin genes (allelic) frequencies observed in this study were 0.64 and 0.36 for HbB and HbA respectively. The result of chi-square test was not significant (P>0.05), critical value was 3.84 at 1degree of freedom. Which implies that the oberseved and the expected genotypic frequencies at the heamoglobin locus in west African dwarf goat populations in okpokwu local government area were in handy-Weinberg proportion. Since protein molecules are easily accesseble through electrophoresis, heamoglobin blood protein polymorphism can be used as a potential biochemical marker in selection for genetic improvement of the West African Dwarf goat populations among rural farming communities in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
The study indicated that two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB controlled three haemoglobin genotypes. Genotypic frequencies at the heamoglobin locus in West African dwarf goat populations in the area were in handy-Weinberg proportion. Heamoglobin blood protein polymorphism through electrophoresis can be use as a potential biochemical marker in selection for genetic improvement of the West African Dwarf goat populations among rural farming comunities in Nigeria.

Molecular Identification of Gut Microflora of Bacillus coagulans Supplemented Feed FED Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-Larvae Using 16S rRNA

Pages: 19-37
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Molecular Identification of Gut Microflora of Bacillus coagulans Supplemented Feed FED Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-Larvae Using 16S rRNA

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.19.37

S. Manjula , P. Saravana Bhavan , R. Udayasuriyan , D. Anitha , R. Kalpana , T. Manjula

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S. Manjula , P. Saravana Bhavan , R. Udayasuriyan , D. Anitha , R. Kalpana , T. Manjula (2019). Molecular Identification of Gut Microflora of Bacillus coagulans Supplemented Feed FED Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-Larvae Using 16S rRNA. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 19-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.19.37
Probiotics yield numerous health benefits to the host. In this way the probiotic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans has competitively been excluded the pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and Klebsiella spp., from the gut of Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae when given through feed (Manjula et al., 2018). The elimination of these two pathogenic bacteria indicated the fact that B. coagulans improved the disease resistance capacity of M. rosenbergii. The present paper deals with 16S rRNA sequence analysis of gut microbial diversity of M. rosenbergii fed with B. coagulans (CFU, 2.28x10-7) supplemented feed, which revealed the presence of B. coagulans (1541 bp), Lactobacillus fermentum (1516 bp), Lactobacillus lactis (1499 bp), Lactobacillus acidophilus (1507 bp), Escherichia coli (1465 bp) and Staphylococcus aureus (1476 bp). The BLAST of these sequences showed almost 100% similarities with the same species retrieved from the NCBI database. The MAS showed 920 identical amino acids residues, 119 similar amino acids residues and 461 variable amino acids sites. The nucleotide sequence divergence and the calculated phylogenetic information clearly discriminate these bacterial species.
Contribution/ Originality
This study indicates that the probiotic, Bacillus coagulans used as a feed supplement helped in the exclusion of two pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus spp., and Klebsiella spp., from the gut of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The gut microflora identified have been barcoded and authenticated.

Assessment of Genetic Diversity at the Heamoglobin Locus in Selected West African Dwarf Goat Populations in Nigeria

Pages: 12-18
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Assessment of Genetic Diversity at the Heamoglobin Locus in Selected West African Dwarf Goat Populations in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.12.18

Gwaza, D.S. , Ukwu, H.O. , Iorungwa, J.M.

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Gwaza, D.S. , Ukwu, H.O. , Iorungwa, J.M. (2019). Assessment of Genetic Diversity at the Heamoglobin Locus in Selected West African Dwarf Goat Populations in Nigeria. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 12-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.12.18
Blood samples were collected from 40 (forty) goats in Kwande Local Government Area, of Benue State, Nigeria. Blood samples collected were subjected to electrophoresis to study haemoglobin polymorphism and its distribution in West African Dwarf goat populations in Kwande. Data on Haemoglobin genotypes were subjected to sample variance (S2) population genetics simulation software for the analysis. Three heamoglobin genotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were observed in the West African dwarf goat populations. The haemoglobin gynotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were controlled by two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB. The genotypic frequencies were 0.24, 0.57 and 0.19 for HbAA, HbAB and HbBB respectively. Genotypic frequencies at the haemoglobin locus in West African Dwarf goat were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of HbA and HbB observed were 0.52 and 0.48 respectively with HbA being the most frequent. The low allelic variation may have occur when populations are separated but only for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiations of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur. As the amount of time in which two isolated populations increases, the differences in allelic frequencies will also increase until each population is completely fixed for a number of alleles. These factors may have accounted for the low variation in the heamoglobin allelic frequencies observed in this study. There was also gene-controlled diversity at the haemoglobin locus in the WAD goat populations with heterozygosity (He) value of 0.49, which indicated a moderate level of genetic diversity at the haemoglobin locus in WAD goat populations in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
The study indicated that the populations of the West African dwarf goat were separated for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiation of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur and that no population of the West African dwarf goat is fixed in heamoglobin allelic frequencies.

Glucose Monitoring Technologies and Challenges: An Update

Pages: 1-11
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Glucose Monitoring Technologies and Challenges: An Update

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.1.11

Deepali Bisht , Vedika Yadav , Rajsi . , Panchali Saha , Narendra Kumar

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Deepali Bisht , Vedika Yadav , Rajsi . , Panchali Saha , Narendra Kumar (2019). Glucose Monitoring Technologies and Challenges: An Update. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 8(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57.2019.81.1.11
The innovation of glucometer has set a benchmark to restrain the effects of diabetes. Diabetes is a scourging metabolic disorder, responsible for disabilities and anachronistic deaths among mass populations. The hyperglycemic condition creates physiological and psychological sufferings to the patients. These complications have led to drastic evolvement in the diabetes diagnostic technologies. The pioneer work in the field of glucose monitoring devices started with the development of blood-based sensing practices, extensively used by the patients but it is an invasive technique which induces trouble in the subjects. Thus, a non-invasive, painless method of glucose testing is a new advancement in the range of glucometers and would profoundly increase the compliance and overcome complications. Saliva-based glucometers is a non-invasive approach, has the potential to exceptionally overcome the discomfort brought up by the blood-based invasive methods. The objective of presenting this review is to provide the chronological series of events in the identification of the disease along with the technological advancements in the glucose monitoring devices.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about the glucose monitoring technologies available in current use as well as the upcoming technologies which will add the comfort and painless methods for glucose testing to support patient care.