Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Online ISSN: 2313-4178
Print ISSN: 2408-9117
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No. 2

Socio-Economic Analysis of Tourism: Evidence from Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

Pages: 184-194
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Socio-Economic Analysis of Tourism: Evidence from Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.184.194

Linus Beba Obong , Offiong Effiong Etim

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Linus Beba Obong , Offiong Effiong Etim (2019). Socio-Economic Analysis of Tourism: Evidence from Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 184-194. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.184.194
The paper was focused on the socio-economic analysis of tourism impacts on the economy with evidence from Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was generated from well-structured questionnaire administration. The generated data was analyzed using descriptive statistic; while three hypothesis were tested in the study using and results shows that there is a significant difference between the socio-economic impact of tourism and the internally generated revenue; there is a significant difference between the impact of tourism on households and private businesses within the Metropolis; and there is no significant variation in the challenges faced by private businesses associated with tourism in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended that tourism experts should be employed to pilot the affairs of tourism to position the industry for greater benefits in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on tourism activities/operations and the boost of internally generated revenue, household income and enhancement of private businesses.

The Effects of Promotion and Site Attraction on Satisfaction and Subsequent Impact on Loyalty: A Case Study in Gunung Sewu Unesco Global Geopark, Indonesia

Pages: 172-183
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The Effects of Promotion and Site Attraction on Satisfaction and Subsequent Impact on Loyalty: A Case Study in Gunung Sewu Unesco Global Geopark, Indonesia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.172.183

Budiono Sulistyadi , Nur Wening , Tutut Herawan

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Budiono Sulistyadi , Nur Wening , Tutut Herawan (2019). The Effects of Promotion and Site Attraction on Satisfaction and Subsequent Impact on Loyalty: A Case Study in Gunung Sewu Unesco Global Geopark, Indonesia. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 172-183. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.172.183
Geopark as an innovation for the protection of natural and geological heritage plays an important role in the development of geotourism. All geoparks have to be established in rural areas, thus, geopark and geotourism are opportunities for rural development, reducing unemployment, and preventing migration in rural areas. This study aims to provide information for management to maintain and increase the number of geopark tourist visits. The research is conducted at the Gunung Sewu UNESCO Global Geopark in Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The data collection is on January 2019 using a questionnaire of 50 respondents. The population is tourists visiting from 2013 to 2017; sample size is calculated based on Roscoe; type of probability sample, and sampling random sample. Research variable consists of the promotion and site attraction as independent variables, satisfaction as a mediator variable, and loyalty as the independent variable. This study examines the relationship between promotion and site attraction to satisfaction as a mediator variable and subsequent impact on loyalty. The analysis is carried out quantitatively by path analysis using linear structural relationship (LISREL) 8.50. The result shows that promotion does not have a direct affect on loyalty, still however affects on satisfaction. Thus, increasing promotion, therefore, it would provide opportunities for management to affects loyalty, which in turn could increase the number of tourist.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between promotion and site attraction on satisfaction as a mediator variable and subsequent impact on loyalty. The study found that promotion does not have a direct effect on loyalty but has an effect on satisfaction.

Do Demographic Variables Affect the Organizational Cynicism Levels in Tourism?

Pages: 155-171
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Do Demographic Variables Affect the Organizational Cynicism Levels in Tourism?

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.155.171

Akin Aksu , Irem Deveci

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Akin Aksu , Irem Deveci (2019). Do Demographic Variables Affect the Organizational Cynicism Levels in Tourism?. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 155-171. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.155.171
This study aimed to determine whether organizational cynicism levels of Generation X and Generation Y employees in tourism sector differed. In this context, the effects of demographic variables on organizational cynicism levels of generation X and generation Y employees were investigated. Quantitative research methods were employed in the study. The population of the study consists of 192 employees of 5-star hotel enterprises that are located and in business in Belek, Antalya region. A significant difference was found between the responses of Generation Y employees and those of Generation X employees. The cognitive, affective and behavioural sub-dimensional and overall organizational cynicism scores of Generation Y employees were determined to be higher than those of Generation X. Generation X employees who want to be part of the organization they work for, and who are strictly committed to their jobs, hardworking, more traditionalist, respectful to authority, diligent and obedient can generally accept the policies of the organization without questioning, employees of Generation Y who do not like bureaucracy and seriousness, who want to manage themselves and take responsibility for themselves, and see the organization as a means and question everything, and who are more individualist can criticise them easily when they are not satisfied, and reflect this on their attitude and behaviour. It is seen that studies that examine the relationship between personal characteristics and organizational cynicism are limited in the relevant literature.
Contribution/ Originality
It is seen that studies that examine the relationship between personal characteristics and organizational cynicism are limited in the relevant literature. The population of the study consists of 192 employees of 5-star hotel enterprises that are located and in business in Belek, Antalya region.

Development of Health Tourism in Turkey: SWOT Analysis of Antalya Province

Pages: 134-154
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.134.154

Akin Aksu , Kerem BAYAR

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Akin Aksu , Kerem BAYAR (2019). Development of Health Tourism in Turkey: SWOT Analysis of Antalya Province. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 134-154. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.134.154
Health tourism is one of the most important types of alternative tourism that provides sustainable tourism. When examining the coordination among current developments in health tourism in the world, technological innovations, and health tourism providers, it is clear to see that Turkey and Antalya have not yet reached the desired level. This study attempts to evaluate and explain the position of Antalya, which wants to attain a share in health tourism. In this context, a SWOT analysis of Antalya in the development of health tourism was carried out. Antalya is primarily a cheap destination, and this is a very attractive feature for foreign tourists. Health services in Antalya, doctors and other health care personnel, applied treatments, and technological devices are at a very high standard. Tourists who prefer autumn and spring seasons will solve the seasonality problem of Antalya especially during off-peak times. For this purpose, Antalya should additionally be promoted and marketed as a destination for health tourism. In this context, public and private sectors need to cooperate. Within the scope of the responses obtained from the participants, Antalya is required to conduct studies on being easily accessible and reliable for patients. Promotional information in brochures or posters should also be reviewed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study tries to give valuable input to the development of health tourism in Antalya Province of Turkey benefiting from SWOT analysis method. In the written literature there are few researches conducting SWOT analysis of destinations in the development of health tourism. In this context, this study can be evaluated as a starting point at least for Antalya province.

Managements and Tourists Knowledge and Appreciation of Eco-Labeling and Eco-Certification at Selected Coastal Tourist Destinations in Lagos, Nigeria

Pages: 119-133
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.119.133

Ajani, F. , Omobuwa, B.T. , Ajayi, O.O.

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Ajani, F. , Omobuwa, B.T. , Ajayi, O.O. (2019). Managements and Tourists Knowledge and Appreciation of Eco-Labeling and Eco-Certification at Selected Coastal Tourist Destinations in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 119-133. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.119.133
Eco-labels and eco-certification are environmental tools that help tourism providers to adopt environmentally sustainable practices. Although widely adopted in developed countries, there is little information available in developing countries. This study therefore assessed both management’s and tourists’ knowledge and appreciation of eco-labeling and eco-certification at Santa Cruz and Suntan Beach Resorts in Lagos State, Nigeria. Key informant interviews were conducted with the managers of both sites to determine their level of knowledge about the concept and the type of eco-label awarded. A total of 372 structured questionnaires totaling 372 were administered, proportionately, among tourists at both sites, based on convenience sampling. The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, the t-test, and Pearson product–moment correlation. The results revealed that the Director of Santa Cruz Beach did know about eco-labels and eco-certification, but not the Manager of Suntan Beach; however, neither beach resort have completed eco-certification and acquired an eco-label. With respect to tourists, no significant difference between Santa Cruz and Suntan Beaches exists (p>0.05) in either their knowledge and appreciation of the value of eco-labels (p > 0.05) or their interest in and response to eco-labeled products (p > 0.05). Tourists at Santa Cruz Beach, however, have a more favorable response (56.7%) to eco-labeled products than at Suntan Beach (48.5%). Finally, a positive correlation (p < 0.05) exists between tourists’ knowledge of and responsiveness to eco-labels and eco-certification. This study thus concludes that the eco-labels and eco-certification for tourist destinations should be promoted in the Nigerian tourism sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few to investigate the adoption of eco-labels and eco-certification for water-based tourist destinations in developing countries. In particular, it analyzes the knowledge and appreciation of the value of environmentally sustainable practices among stakeholders in the tourism sector.

Creative Cultural Tourism as a New Model for Cultural Tourism

Pages: 109-118
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Creative Cultural Tourism as a New Model for Cultural Tourism

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.109.118

Mukhles Al-Ababneh , Mousa Masadeh

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Mukhles Al-Ababneh , Mousa Masadeh (2019). Creative Cultural Tourism as a New Model for Cultural Tourism. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 6(2): 109-118. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2019.62.109.118
The aim of this study is to identify the move from cultural to creative cultural tourism as new model for meeting tourists' demands for creative experiences. Hence, traditional cultural tourism must reinvent itself as creative tourism for those creative tourists seeking more interactive experiences. This new trend in creative cultural tourism has emerged from the changes in the production of cultural tourist commodities, the skilled tourist activities, and new consumption patterns. Moreover, creative cultural tourism can solve those problems experienced by traditional cultural tourists. A literature review confirmed that a move to creative cultural tourism, or intangible heritage (i.e., linguistic diversity or gastronomy), from tangible cultural attractions (i.e., museums, monuments, and so forth) increases the attractiveness of tourism destinations. In addition, this study explains the transformation from traditional cultural to creative cultural tourism.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on creative cultural tourism as a new model for cultural tourism and explains the move from traditional cultural to creative cultural tourism.