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Supporting Tourism Business in Nigeria via Integrated Marketing
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Tourism in Nigeria could be a big business; however, the nation has not capitalized on it. When 30 black mayors from American cities came to Lagos for the Black Heritage Festival, a carnival parade followed by some traditional culture and a visit to Badagry, a former slave-exporting port; the then governor of Lagos State, appealed to the mayors for advice on how to attract American tourists. Nigeria is considered the largest black nation in the world, with the total population at 170,123,740 (million) people last recorded in July 2012 (Indexmundi. Com, 2012) and 250 languages; she is rich in oil, gas, and other natural resources such as gold, diamond, animal games, tropical rain forests, savannah grasslands, mangrove swamps and the shale savannah near the Sahara, and diverse culture. Being strategically located at the end of eastern part of West Africa, she is equally rich in tourism; nevertheless, the tourism industry in Nigeria is experiencing no growth, because of some fundamental problems. Therefore, this paper is to offer possible business (marketing) solutions on how tourism could be promoted in this nation, so as to have an impact on the economy.
Marketing Destination Zimbabwe During and Post the 2000-2008 Political and Economic Crises
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Zhou Zibanai (2014). Marketing Destination Zimbabwe During and Post the 2000-2008 Political and Economic Crises. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 1(1): 14-26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31/2014.1.1/18.104.22.168
Consequences of political and economic crises on tourist destinations are profound and inescapable. This paper discusses the 2000-2008 political and economic crisis issue in Zimbabwe in relation to the tourism industry. The 2000-2008 political and economic environment was characterised by political stand- off among the three major political parties, heightened negative publicity, shortages of basic commodities, hyperinflation and isolation of Zimbabwe by the international community. During the height of this crisis, international visitors declined sharply and hotels reported a one digit occupancy figure triggering a tourism crisis. This paper has some significance, as the tourism industry was greatly affected by the political and economic instability. Yet the overall marketing and promotional strategies adopted by stakeholders during and post the crisis to put the tourism industry on the recovery path have been rather minimal. The study used secondary sources of data and netnography to collect data. The article argues that tourist destinations that are prone to political and economic instabilities should be pro-active and device novel marketing strategies to reassure prospective tourists of the safety of the destination. The study revealed that destination Zimbabwe re-engaged with the western markets, courted the Asian market, bid to host high profile events and sought destination endorsement as a cocktail of practical marketing strategies to revive the tourism sector. Recommendations include collaborative marketing campaigns fronted by political leaders, activation of tourism police service and partnering with embassies to ensure visitor`s safety. Future research is suggested at micro level and industry sub-sector level like hotels and tour operators on how they individually market their products during a crisis period.
Is the Tourism Industry A Fragile Heavy Weight? Validation through a Literature Review of Tourism System Shocks
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Zhou Zibanai (2014). Is the Tourism Industry A Fragile Heavy Weight? Validation through a Literature Review of Tourism System Shocks. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 1(1): 1-13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31/2014.1.1/22.214.171.124
The global tourism industry has arguably become the world`s pre-eminent sector, contributing about $3.6 trillion to the global gross domestic product (GDP) and employing 225 milion people (World Travel and Tourism Council, 1997). Despite its acknowledged economic power and apparent resiliency, tourism is highly vulnerable to internal and external shocks ranging from political conflicts, natural disasters to epidemic diseases. This article argues that the tourism industry is increasingly becoming susceptible to crisis events to the extent that tourism players have to contend with this reality in their daily operations. The study employed literature narratives as data sources from primed tourist destinations that have been hit by tourism crises. This study has some significance of confirming that tourists evaluate destinations according to safety and risk factors. The study further revealed that tourism crises do not only impair a tourist destination`s image but also weaken and destroy the competitive advantage of the destination. The review identified the quartet of terrorism, epidemic diseases, tsunamis and political conflicts as having the most devastating effects on the global tourism industry. Recommendations include less reliance upon tourism as an economic sector in favour of economic diversification, identification of potential destination specific crises and putting in place pro-active crisis management and recovery strategies. Future studies should explore how positive tourism shocks impact on the global tourism industry.