International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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No. 1

Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices

Pages: 72-90
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Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.72.90

Peter Uchenna Okoye , Isaac Abiodun Odesola

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Peter Uchenna Okoye , Isaac Abiodun Odesola (2020). Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(1): 72-90. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.72.90
This study developed a conceptual model of antecedents of resistance to change behaviours among construction professionals and contractors towards sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. Survey data gathered through a questionnaire were analysed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Software. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) and correlation significance test results revealed that human (r=0.973; p<.05), industry (r=0.996; p<.05), environment (r=0.984; p<.05), and policy (r=0.932; p<.05) factors were very strongly positively associated with resistance to change behaviours. Subsequently, a conceptual model of antecedents of resistance to change behaviours towards sustainable construction practices in Nigeria was empirically established. The correlation coefficient of determination result revealed that the direct effects of the conceptual model accounted for 94.67% of the variance in human factors, 99.20% of the variance in industry factors, 96.83% of the variance in environment factors, and 86.86% of the variance in policy factors. This suggested that professionals and contractors’ responses to change and resistance to change behaviours are accounting for a substantial proportion of the variance in any effort towards implementation of sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of multi-dimensionality of resistance to change and suggested that construction stakeholders should take note of these factors instead of general assumption where people tend to make judgments, based on observable behaviours. Finally, it recommended for rejuvenation of construction industry policies and integration of these factors that trigger behavioural resistance by the professionals and contractors in the sustainable construction practices policy intervention in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributed to the emerging literature on rethinking the resistance to change behaviours of construction stakeholders from different perspectives, and particularly sustainable construction practices in Nigeria through empirical evidence based on conceptual model. It also provided theoretical support to antecedents of resistance to change behaviour towards sustainable construction practices.

Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Pages: 47-71
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Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.47.71

Agumas Alamirew Mebratu , Fentaw Leykun , Merouane Lakehal-Ayat

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Agumas Alamirew Mebratu , Fentaw Leykun , Merouane Lakehal-Ayat (2020). Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(1): 47-71. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.47.71
The main objective of this paper was empirically examined the trend and its drivers of tax revenue effort in Sub- Saharan African countries using panel data and stochastic frontier analysis techniques inter alia:- random effect, fixed effect, half-normal, exponential-normal, and truncated-normal analysis for a period of 2000 to 2018. The estimation result shows that tax effort is positively and significantly related to openness, Share of agriculture sector, external debt, share of the construction sector, population growth, age dependency, corruption and GDP per capita and negatively and significantly related with a share of the service sector, official development assistance, foreign direct investment, population density, literacy and official exchange rates. In general, depending on the choice of analysis technique, both supply- side factors and demand - side factors are highly affected tax revenue effort and before designing tax policy, therefore, those concerned bodies be going to first determine their tax revenue effort.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses the new estimation methodology of stochastic frontier analysis to examine tax revenue effort in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries over 19 year’s panel data set from 2000-2018 and the paper's primary contribution finding is that economic, demographic, policy and institutional factors have a significant effect on tax revenue effort.

Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies

Pages: 26-46
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Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.26.46

Joshua Clifford Kofi Amissah , Samuel Attuquaye Clottey

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Joshua Clifford Kofi Amissah , Samuel Attuquaye Clottey (2020). Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(1): 26-46. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.26.46
Sustainable green environment, green innovation, and low-carbon economy are the top priorities of governments and global climate institutions. Indeed, the link between economic growth and environmental sustainability has been commonly discussed in the literature, with different outcomes. This paper endeavors to partly fill the research gap by using recent panel estimators to explore the long-run cointegration nexus between economic growth, trade openness, energy consumption, urbanization, and CO2 emissions (pollution). In terms of decision making, we further grouped the specified 25 newly emerging African nations into oil-exporting and non-oil exporting economies. The data collected are annual and cover the period from 1990 to 2015. The panel cross-sectional dependency and homogeneity results indicated that our selected variables are heavily interdependent across the various cross-sections in the long-run. Similarly, the panel unit root test and bootstrap cointegration estimates showed evidence of stationarity and long-run equilibrium connection between the chosen variables for all panels. The long-run panel estimates using the common correlated effects mean group approach shows that economic growth, energy usage, trade openness, and urbanization depicted a positive and substantial impact on long-run carbon emissions for all panels. The Dumitrescu and Hurlin non-causality results indicated a bidirectional causal relationship between income and pollution, energy consumption and pollution, urbanization, and pollution for all three panels. Likewise, except for the 25-countries panel, there was evidence of a feedback causality between trade openness and pollution. Our outcome further verified the EKC framework but with distinct threshold points for all three panels. Various policy scenarios are discussed.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated the environmental effects of economic growth considering new emerging African economies. These nations were grouped into oil-exporting and non-oil exporting to enhance decision making and applying recent panel estimators while verifying the EKC framework within these economies.

State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture

Pages: 10-25
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State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.10.25

Hrabrin Bachev

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Hrabrin Bachev (2020). State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(1): 10-25. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.10.25
Despite the great theoretical and practical significance, in Bulgaria there are no comprehensive analysis of the state and evolution of agrarian research and development (ARD) activities in public and private sectors. The goal of this paper is to analyze the state and evolution of ARD in Bulgaria during the period after country’s EU accession in 2007, identify major trends in that area, make a comparison with other EU states, specify main problems, and suggest conclusions for improvement of policies during next programing period. The analysis has found out that in years of EU membership the expenditures for ARD significantly decreased absolutely and relatively as a share in the total expenditures for R&D, which indicates diminishing importance, and deteriorating financial, personnel and material potential of agrarian knowledge and innovation sector. The most important sector for ARD in the country is the government in which more than 80% of overall expenditures for ARD are invested, as distribution of expenditures and organization of R&D in major sectors differ considerably from other EU member states. ARD in the country mainly are funded by the state budget, and the importance of budget financing relatedly increases during the period, unlike trends in other EU countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the state and evolution of agrarian research and development activities in public and private sector in Bulgaria during country’s membership in the European Union and compare it with other member states.

Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria

Pages: 1-9
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Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.1.9

Ohiomu, Sylvester , Ihensekhien, Orobosa Abraham , Ovenseri-Ogbomo, Friday Osaru

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Ohiomu, Sylvester , Ihensekhien, Orobosa Abraham , Ovenseri-Ogbomo, Friday Osaru (2020). Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.26.2020.91.1.9
This paper examines the public perception of the externality effects of sachet and plastic bottled water consumption in Benin City and Okada. The methodology applied to source for data involved both the qualitative and quantitative analysis, through the use of questionnaires with well-structured questions and informal personal interviews. 320 respondents were then selected from the four local government areas of Oredo, Egor, Ikpoba-Okha and Ovia North East that make up Benin City and Okada. The results of the study as indicated by majority of the various respondents revealed the absence of tap water supply. The wastes from sachet and plastic bottles constitute danger to our environment by blocking the water ways and hindering the draining system, depositing debris in the affected rivers, thereby creating negative externalities to our environment. The study also showed that the perennial flooding in Benin City and Okada could be associated with indiscriminate disposal of empty sachets and plastic bottles. The study recommends the following; local government authorities should try to provide waste bins in every street and these should be managed and monitored by their authorized agents. Private firms that are involved in sachet and plastic bottled water production should be encouraged to establish recycling plants that can recycle plastic wastes into other useful materials in line with renewable energy mandate. Government should properly enforce the laws against indiscriminate disposal of wastes, where offenders are punished in order to maintain proper disposal of wastes in Benin City and the entire states of the Federation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on environment climate change action on the SDGs. The paper's primary contribution is finding that wastes from sachet and plastic bottles constitute danger to our environment by blocking the water ways and hindering the draining system, depositing debris in the affected rivers.