International Journal of Hydrology Research

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Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp

Pages: 46-53
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Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.46.53

Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo , Sankaranarayanan Muthiah , Ruzigamanzi Eric , Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine , Nyandwi Elias , Rukangantambara Hamoud

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Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo , Sankaranarayanan Muthiah , Ruzigamanzi Eric , Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine , Nyandwi Elias , Rukangantambara Hamoud (2020). Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 5(1): 46-53. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.46.53
Groundwater is the dynamic local water source for agriculture, industry, wildlife and human development activity. Hence, in order to sustain long-term groundwater use, make intelligent groundwater allocation decisions and water budget planning, develop on-farm water management strategies, the estimation of the net groundwater recharge from agricultural areas like Kanzenze swamp is paramount important. The study findings therefore showed that Ground Water Recharge estimation for the study area ranges from 33.85mm to 52.96mm while the average mean of ground water recharge is about 45.06mm per year. The coefficient of ground water recharge is ranging from 3.41% to 5.27% while average mean recharge coefficient is 4.06% recharged to ground water level yearly. However, monthly basis planning have advantages for farmers’ water budgeting. It revealed that highest recharge coefficient is recorded in months of March, April and November representing 17.22% and 17% of the mean monthly rainfall while the lowest recharge coefficient is recorded during the period of June, July and February representing 16.17%, 15.73% and 16.71% of the average monthly rainfall. Thus, it is recommended that utmost farmers around the Kanzenze swamp should plan the irrigation activities and minimizes unnecessary water use consumption in such way that in June and July there is water enough water even taught there is shortage of rainfall. It meant that priori irrigation systems should be applied to obtain optimum moisture content and water table levels for effective crop production mainly horticultural crops in season C rather than season A and season B of cultivation in Rwanda.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Estimation of ground water recharge for irrigation water budget planning in Kanzenze swamp to solve the farmers’ problems in use of water during agricultural seasons alongside the swamp.

Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda

Pages: 32-45
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Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.32.45

Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo , Sankaranarayanan Muthiah , Ruzigamanzi Eric , Habineza Eliezel , Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine , Rukangantambara Hamoud

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Nsengiyumva Jean Nepo , Sankaranarayanan Muthiah , Ruzigamanzi Eric , Habineza Eliezel , Mutako Vedasto Alphonsine , Rukangantambara Hamoud (2020). Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 5(1): 32-45. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.32.45
Agricultural swamps are among the major fruitful and exposed to heavy metals deposition and contributes to ecological concerns. Heavy metals are mainly pollutants to deteriorate water quality and affect plant health through leaching and seepage process from industrial services, anthropogenic activities, erosion and mining activities. The study aimed to assess heavy metals, water quality and their effect on plant growth along Kanzenze Swamp of the Akagera Upper Catchment. The total of Sixteen chemical parameters of water including Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Magnesium hazards, Kelly Index and Soluble Sodium Percent were analyzed and observed values were thereafter compared with international standards values recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Photometric methods and Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer machines were used to detect the heavy metals while analytical. Descriptive analysis and Principal Components Analysis techniques were used to correlate water quality parameters for similarities and dissimilarities through cluster analysis. All statistical analysis were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Science version 22.0. The study findings shows that most water use for irrigation is polluted by heavy metals with maximum values compared to Rwanda national and international permissible standards for irrigation. The heavy metals with highest content included Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Copper, Manganese, Cadmium and Chromium. Hence farmers relaying on this water may be disposed to health hazards issues and other environmental concerns. Therefore some effective measures like water treatments are compulsory vital needed to boost the quality of water for irrigation purpose.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated heavy metals variability and their effect on plant growth in Kanzenze river of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda for water quality improvement in irrigation purposes.

Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas

Pages: 17-31
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Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.17.31

Assefa E. , Tenalem A. , Tilahun A.

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Assefa E. , Tenalem A. , Tilahun A. (2020). Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 5(1): 17-31. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.17.31
The experiences of the last 30 years developed an understanding in the Addis Ababa Water Utility that groundwater sources are not fully dependable for such a big city. Notwithstanding this, additional wells and well-fields are being developed especially in the last 10 years to meet the ever increasing demand. The Akaki well-field was initially designed for an abstraction rate of up to 35,000 m3/day for 20 years until 2020 though the current abstraction rate is nearly ten-fold. The current developments are only demand driven irrespective of safe and sustainable utilization. What is making things worse is the rise of other water competing demands for irrigation projects in adjacent well-fields. The present water supply coverage of the Addis Ababa city is not more than 50%. The situation in other urban centers in the Upper Awash basin is not different. Conceptual modelling, time series well water level measurements and operational assessments showed that the aquifer systems are not uniform and dotted with many volcanic flow barriers; there is sharp decline of water table (up to 70 meters since 2000) in some well-fields and the decline is propagating upstream of the Akaki well-field. Moreover, the excessive and uncontrolled pumping is impacting regional groundwater table. Topographic and technical issues are hampering upstream water distribution, and the once exemplary hundreds of wells are now abandoned. The frequent tapping of thermal and high fluoride water is another complication. Unless proper intervention is devised, grave environmental problems are likely to come in the near future.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which investigated the time series well water evolutions in the Upper Awash and Akaki catchments and well water operational difficulty in Akaki catchment.

Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth

Pages: 1-16
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Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.1.16

Salihu A. C. , Abdulkadir A , Nsofor G. N. , Otache, M. Y.

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Salihu A. C. , Abdulkadir A , Nsofor G. N. , Otache, M. Y. (2020). Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth. International Journal of Hydrology Research, 5(1): 1-16. DOI: 10.18488/journal.108.2020.51.1.16
Climate change and population growth are seen to be the major factors that will shape the pattern of per capita water up to the end of 21st century. The study aimed to project water stress condition in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria under the impacts of climate change and population growth. Firstly, annual water yield was generated using KNMI climate explorer for (2019-2048), (2049-2078) and (2079-2100) under three CO2 emission trajectories. Secondly, population was projected using the Nigeria’s average growth rate of 2.6%. Thirdly, the per capita water was analysed based on water stress index. Mann-Kendal statistical test was used to analyses trends in water stress at 0.05 significant levels. Result demonstrated that the Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria will experience significant positive trend in water stress with respect to climate change impact for mid and long-term periods whereas no significant trend under the short-term projection. However, regional trend analysis under the influence of population growth at constant climate observed that there were significant positive trends in water stress for the three projected periods. More so, the same positive trends were obtained under the combined impacts of climate change and population growth in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria. This implies that future water scarcity is imminent and will primarily cause by population growth and secondarily by climate change in the area. The results can act as guidelines for strategic planning for adaptive and mitigation measures to water stress as envisaged by the projection.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated regional impacts of climate change and population growth on water stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian ecological zones of Nigeria.