International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Online ISSN: 2408-9281
Print ISSN: 2412-3439
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No. 2

Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Pages: 26-35
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Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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Farzana Perveen , Anzela Khan , Sayed Abdul Rauf

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Farzana Perveen , Anzela Khan , Sayed Abdul Rauf (2014). Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 1(2): 26-35. DOI:
Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are beautiful insects with high species diversity worldwide. These insects are indicators of environmental pollution and are predators of important insect vectors of human pathogens and parasites, especially mosquitoes. The present research was the first record of 318 specimens of dragonflies from district Lower Dir (LD), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan collected during May-July 2011. Among the specimens collected there were 11 species, 7 genera and 3 families. The number of specimens collected in each family were 17 Cordulegasteridae (5.3%), 18 Gomphidae (5.7%), and 283 Libellulidae (89.0%).  All cordulegastrids were the golden ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigmata brevistigmata Selys. All gomphids were Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys. Libellulids species were: blue or black percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Rambur); ground skimmer, D. trivialis Rambur; black tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum (L); common red skimmer, O. pruinosum neglectum (Rambur); slender skimmer, O. sabina (Drury); triangle skimmer, O. triangulare triangulare (Selys); wandering glider or global skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius); spine legged redbolt, Rhodthemis rufa (Rambur) and common skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys. A dichotomous key based on external morphology, coloration and wing venation was prepared to facilitate the identification of the dragonfly fauna of the LD and aid conservation efforts of dragonflies in Pakistan.
Contribution/ Originality

Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)

Pages: 20-25
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Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)

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Z. Dauda , D. M. Mailafiya , L. D. Simon

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  1. T. I. Ofuya, Biology ecology and control of insect pests of stored legumes in Nigeria In: Pests of stored cereals and pulses in Nigeria, biology ecology and control. Nigeria: Dove Collins Publications, 2001.
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Z. Dauda , D. M. Mailafiya , L. D. Simon (2014). Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.). International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 1(2): 20-25. DOI:
Protection of grains against infestation and damage by diverse storage insect pests is an age long practice, as it ensures availability of agricultural produce and guarantees food security. This study assessed the protective bioactivity of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Ten gram grains of three cowpea varieties (Borno brown, Gwalam and Banjara) were treated with four doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml) of MSO in three replicates, along with un-treated check. Data obtained on the number of eggs laid, adults emerged (F1) and severity of damage were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean separation at 5% probability level was performed using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). Results indicated statistical significance (P<0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid on un-treated grains compared to grains treated with higher doses from each of the varieties. Similarly, mean number of adults emerged and severity of damage from un-treated grains were statistically significant (P<0.05) relative to the treated grains with all doses of each variety. Statistical differences in the mean number of eggs laid, adult emergence and severity of damage indicated the good potential of MSO in conferring protection to stored cowpea grains. The protective effect of MSO against C. maculatus seemed to be achieved principally through oviposition suppression and reduced or complete inhibition of adult emergence, consequently reducing or eradicating infestation risk, damage and loss of cowpea grains in storage. While the use of plant essential oils against storage insect pests is being advocated, the availability, affordability and the tendency of tainting protected grains need to be considered.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, as the results of the study concur with reports of several authors, where plant essential oils was effective as a protectant against the cowpea bruchid infestation; consequently reducing or eradicating the damaging effect of the beetle.