Journal of Forests

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2409-3807
Print ISSN: 2413-8398
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No. 1

Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent

Pages: 71-78
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Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.71.78

Adebawo F.G. , Adegoke O.A. , Ajala O.O. , Adelusi E. A.

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Adebawo F.G. , Adegoke O.A. , Ajala O.O. , Adelusi E. A. (2021). Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 71-78. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.71.78
Human generated climate change caused by deforestation is one of the serious issues’ humanity is facing recently. Due to the effect of diminishing forest resources on climate change, it becomes indispensable to preserve the limited wood resources using eco-friendly preservation methods. Thus, this study aimed at modification of Triplochiton scleroxylon wood, with a view to increasing its durability. Sixty clear wood blocks, each with dimension of 20x20x60 mm were obtained from Triplochiton scleroxylon. After conditioning, the wood blocks were placed in a bioreactor containing acetic anhydride and acetylated at 120 ºC for a varying time of 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes, whereas the unmodified blocks were used as control. The moisture content and weight percent gain (WPG) of the wood blocks were assessed using standard procedures. The acetylated wood was characterised by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy. Wood blocks were exposed to termites in termite colony for 12 weeks. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the data at ? 0.05. The WPG varied from 10.4% (60 minutes) to 22.7% (300 minutes). The durability of the acetylated wood was enhanced with the percentage weight loss ranging from 30.20±3.20 to 3.46±0.54. However, all treatments proved to be effective over control (44.32±6.3%).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the chemical modification of Triplochiton scleroxylon to increase its durability against biodeterioration. In order to mitigate the effect of climate change caused by deforestation, limited wood resources must be preserved using environmentally friendly processes.

Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation

Pages: 61-70
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Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.61.70

Arjun Dixit , Yeong Nain Chi

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Arjun Dixit , Yeong Nain Chi (2021). Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 61-70. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.61.70
Identifying hazard trees in urban setup is a time-consuming and tedious task and therefore concerned organizations and homeowner associations may not identify and fix such hazard trees in time. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of defects in the trees with the use of convolutional neural networks. This technology could speed up the process of identifying hazard trees. The study used the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB 2019a to process and classifies the images into one of the seven most prominent types of tree defects. The CNN used for this classification was ResNet-50. The Tree Defects dataset was prepared from images from publicly available sources. Further, the accuracy of the classification of these images into each of the defect categories was tested by obtaining a confusion matrix. The performance of ResNet-50 architecture was compared on three more publicly available and common research datasets Caltech101, Flower, and Dogs. The novel Tree Defects dataset was very small and had only 298 images. For its effectiveness on smaller datasets, ResNet-50 architecture was used along with data augmentation of tree defects images by rotating them 90-degrees clockwise and anti-clockwise. The effect of the proportion of the training dataset on model performance was also evaluated by training the model on 70%, 80%, and 90% of the total images in the dataset. The augmented Tree Defects dataset had 894 images. The model performance improves by 43.56% on the augmented Tree Defects dataset. The augmented model achieved the highest classification accuracy of 91.48%.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies that have investigated the ways to find an image classification model that delivers high accuracy on smaller datasets. Mostly, a machine learning model is believed to perform better on vast datasets but building large datasets is costly and time-consuming.

Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

Pages: 45-60
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.45.60

Oghenekevwe Abigail Ohwo , Nnamdi Francis Nzekwe-Ebonwu

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Oghenekevwe Abigail Ohwo , Nnamdi Francis Nzekwe-Ebonwu (2021). Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 45-60. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.45.60
This study examined the impact of Community based forest management (CBFM) in Ugbolu forest reserve (UFR), Delta State. A random selection of 110 respondents was carried out. Information on activities encouraging deforestation, list of resources extracted, jobs and income provided from involvement in CBFM, structure and strategy used by community in managing UFR were collected using structured questionnaire and interview section. Descriptive statistics was used to analysed the data (frequency table and likert scale). Majority of respondents were male (51.8%), married (61.6%), between the age of 31-40 (34.5%), had household size of 7-9 (39.1%). The activities that contributed to deforestation in the reserve were logging (70.9%), livestock breeding (15.5%), and farming (10.9%). The forest resources harvested included Tectona grandis, Gmelina aborea, Rattus fuscipes, Thryonomy swinderianus. Involvement in CBFM provided jobs (categorized as Forest user groups (FUG) namely; timber merchants, fellers, loaders, hunters, farmers, forest guards to community members. The income earned varied between ?11,000 ($28.9) to ?200,000 ($526.3) monthly. Majority (58.2%) of respondent stated that heads of different FUG constituted the committee which works with an annual plan (53.4%), arrived at by voting (70.0%). The annual plans meet the demands of various FUG (81.8%) with little interference from government (86.4%). The committees major forest management strategies included partnership of forest guards with rural people (40.0%), creation of a community forest administration group (26.4%) and laws stopping illegal entry into the forest estate (23.4%). Intensification of government involvement and adequate funding for effective CBFM were recommended by the study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated the participation of rural dwellers in the management of the forest. The interests of various user were met, the forest estate adequately managed, and crisis, a basic characteristic of natural resources management was reduced.

Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria

Pages: 37-44
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Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.37.44

Momoh E.O. , Olotu Y. , Olatunde F.O. , Akharia O.O. , Igiekhume M.J. , Oseni N.

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Momoh E.O. , Olotu Y. , Olatunde F.O. , Akharia O.O. , Igiekhume M.J. , Oseni N. (2021). Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 37-44. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.37.44
Deforestation creates imbalances in weather patterns, making the weather drier and hotter, consequently leading to increased drought and desertification, coastal flooding, crop failures, and dislodging major vegetation regimes. The study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of deforestation in Edo State. The study utilized ArcGis digitizing tool to determine the tree population and downscale the spatial datasets using defined boundary conditions. Signal 2.0 was used to establish the relationship of linearity between the forest and economic loss over the region using R-square. Results revealed that as the rate of deforestation in Edo state rose from 4100ha in the year 1990 to 14100ha in 2016, there was also a gradual increase in economic loss from 0.7 to 10.9 billion nairas in 2016. It was also observed that the relationship of linearity between deforestation and economic loss in Edo State shows a strong relationship at an R-square of 0.97. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take action towards ameliorating new Climate Change CC problems by exploring and protecting the local values of forests in order to improve livelihood sustainability. Lowering CO2 emissions is a central global focus through the International Climate Change Policy. About a 5th of emissions globally are caused primarily by deforestation. Reducing CO2 emissions is highly dependent on the reduction of forest loss which can also contribute significantly to the low-cost mitigation portfolio.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the global impacts of deforestation with particular focus on the socio economic impacts of deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria.

Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area

Pages: 23-36
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Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.23.36

Ana Paula de Araujo Alves , Aureliana Santos Gomes , Debora Coelho Moura , Lazaro Avelino de Sousa , Mario Herculanode Oliveira , Ailson de Lima Marques , Erimagna de Morais Rodrigues , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa

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Ana Paula de Araujo Alves , Aureliana Santos Gomes , Debora Coelho Moura , Lazaro Avelino de Sousa , Mario Herculanode Oliveira , Ailson de Lima Marques , Erimagna de Morais Rodrigues , Cassio Ricardo Goncalves da Costa (2021). Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 23-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.23.36
This research aims to identify and analyze the level of regeneration of Caatinga vegetation in different stages, under the impact of granite-gneiss mining in a semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil. To carry out the floristic and phytosociological survey, four areas of vegetation cover were selected in different stages of regeneration: 20 years (closed bush shrubland); 15 years (open bush shrub); 10 years (sub-shrub Caatinga); 50 years (reference area with shrubby Caatinga). The species records of the four sampled areas were compared using the Jaccard and Sorensen similarity index. For the phytosociological analysis, the parameters of Basal Area, Absolute and Relative Density, Absolute and Relative Dominance and Coverage Value of the species were calculated. The floristic survey registered 5,494 individuals belonging to 14 families and 34 species. It was found that Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae were the families that contributed with the largest number of species in the tree and shrub components. The species in the areas where there was exploitation 20 and 15 years ago showed a regeneration process close to that registered in the preservation area for 50 years. However, with respect to wealth, the 20-year area showed the greatest abundance. From the results it was possible to know the process of regeneration of the pioneer and secondary successional species in the Caatinga, contributing to the preservation of the species and the recovery of degraded areas in the semi-arid region of Paraíba.
Contribution/ Originality
The exploitation of granites and gneisses has a high economic impact in the state of Paraiba. There are extensive areas under environmental impact and biological loss due to the removal of vegetation. We characterize the rate of regeneration of Caatinga vegetation with a history of exploitation of these rocks.

Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard

Pages: 13-22
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Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.13.22

Erol Imren , Rifat Kurt , Cengiz Yucedag , Nebi Bilir , Halil Baris Ozel , Mehmet Cetin , Hakan Sevik

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Erol Imren , Rifat Kurt , Cengiz Yucedag , Nebi Bilir , Halil Baris Ozel , Mehmet Cetin , Hakan Sevik (2021). Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 13-22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.13.22
The living conditions of living beings are becoming ever more difficult due to the climate change caused by industrialization. Forests, which have a great importance in terms of natural resources, are one of the main elements which prevent this situation. Therefore, it is important to ensure the sustainability of forests and to increase their genetic and structural quality. Appropriate farms and clonal seed orchards should be established with the purpose of achieving this genetic diversity. This way, quantitative traits of clones, which are located in these seed orchards, depending on their growth performance, the cone yield can be determined. In this study, the best clones in terms of cone yield were determined through MAUT and WASPAS methods, which are some of the multiple criteria decision-making techniques. This was done by using the height and diameter measurements of 30 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones selected according to random sampling method in 3 different blocks in Erzurum region. Based on the sum product assessment and multi-attribute utility theory model results, clones 22 and 29 were determined as superior and prospective for further breeding procedures in terms of seedling height and root collar diameter. According to the entropy method, the maximum weights for seedling height and root collar diameter were obtained in Block-3 with 0.580175 and in Block-1 with 0.590017, respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study plays important role in selecting the best clones in terms of cone yield through MAUT and WASPAS methods, which are some of the multiple criteria decision-making techniques.

Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.1.12

Olive Nishimwe , Narcisse Hakizimana , Lamek Nahayo , Abias Maniragaba , Theodore Nirere

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Olive Nishimwe , Narcisse Hakizimana , Lamek Nahayo , Abias Maniragaba , Theodore Nirere (2021). Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda. Journal of Forests, 8(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.101.2021.81.1.12
Karongi District of Rwanda is one among districts with high rate of forest clearance resulting from unmanageable human activities and change on land use. This study was conducted in order to analyze the relationship between human activities and deforestation on the period between 2013 and 2019. The authors employed secondary data on forest cover collected from the Rwanda Forestry Authority (RFA), National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR), and Karongi District report. Thereafter, the Geographic Information System (GIS) helped to map forest cover and Microsoft Excel was used to indicate the percentage of land cover change over the study period. The Pearson correlation analysis of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) analyzed the relationship between human activities and deforestation in Karongi District. The results showed that between 2013 and 2019, cropland, built up and population growth rate increased at the rate of 5 %, 2.15%, and 6.07% respectively. The forestland which reduced by 5.4% in the same period generated a positive significant relationship between population growth and forestland with correlation r1= 0.993. The results also revealed a positive significant relationship between settlement and forestland with r2=0.990. The negative significance relationship between cropland expansion and forestland with r3 = -0.970 at 0.05 level of significance was noticed. Since the analysis generated a positive effect of settlements and population growth on deforestation, it can be concluded that human activities contribute to deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda, and that relevant measures should be applied.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper provided information which is necessary in country like Rwanda or similar regions with high population density looking for food security and development as well. Thus, areas in need of sustainable resources natural management under human pressure can benefit from this study.