International Journal of Geography and Geology

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No. 1

Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State

Pages: 71-83
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Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.71.83

Agulue Emmanuel , Okoye Nnabuike , Samuel Oji Iheukwumere , Kelechi Friday Nkwocha

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Agulue Emmanuel , Okoye Nnabuike , Samuel Oji Iheukwumere , Kelechi Friday Nkwocha (2020). Assessment of Landuse and Landcover Changes and its Implications to Flooding Along Omambala Flood Plain, Anambra State. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 71-83. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.71.83
This paper assessed the landuse and landcover changes and its implications to flooding along Omambala floodplain in Anambra State. The paper aimed at identifying the landuse and landcover types in Omambala floodplain in relations to their temporal dynamics, the extent of landuse change and its implication to recurring incidence of flood disaster in the study area over a period of 20 years starting from the year 1998 to 2018. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imageries were obtained at 10 years interval; 1998; 2008 and 2018 to observe the pattern of landuse and landcover along the floodplain over the period of study. Population data of study area were obtained from National Population Commission on four time paints as to understand the rate of land conversion and modification of the floodplain. Visual interpretation method was used to map landuse and landcover into five classes namely: waterbody; built-up; sparse vegetation; bare surface and dense vegetation. The result of the analysis of the imageries showed a considerable change in the pattern of landuse and landcover classes within the period under study. There was also a considerable population growth leading to progressive conversion of natural vegetation to other human activities with Built-up lands sparse vegetation and bare surface on the increase as well as their attendant consequences. However, the study concluded that various anthropogenic landuse activities especially poor farming system leading to increasing sparse vegetation, bare surface and built-up area are major factors that affects natural vegetation thereby worsening the incidence of flooding in the study area. The research therefore recommends relocation of settlements, greening of space already turning bare, effective floodplain management and continues monitoring of changes on land characters to ensure environmental sustainability and to forestall recurring incidence of flooding along the floodplain.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated land-use and land-cover changes and its implications to flooding along Omambala flood plain, Anambra State. The research demonstrated the ability of GIS and remote sensing in capturing spatial-temporal data for land-use, land-cover changes and flood incidence studies.

An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)

Pages: 55-70
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An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.55.70

Jatau, Sarah , Mmaduka Louis , Obidike Emeka Esae

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Jatau, Sarah , Mmaduka Louis , Obidike Emeka Esae (2020). An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014). International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 55-70. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.55.70
Urban heat island (UHI) intensity is the characteristic warmth of both the atmosphere and lithosphere in urban areas compared to its rural surrounding areas. This study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI in Coventry city. ArcGIS was used to collect the land surface temperature (LST) of different seasons; summer, autumn, spring and fall using the peak month to represent each season. These data was collected during the night times to avoid cloud cover and limit other impeding factors for accurate data collection and results. The data was collected for a period of 11years that is 2004-2014. The study revealed that there was no regular pattern of UHI across the four seasons, however, it was discovered that there was a marginal increase in temperature in some regions during the seasons. To mitigate UHI effects this study recommends the planting of trees to moderate the microclimate as well as the use of green roofs to absorb more of CO² thereby modifying and regulating the climate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on urban heat Island Intensity. Using ArcGIS and land surface temperature, the study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI intensity in Coventry City with a marginal increase in temperature in some seasons; it therefore recommends the planting of trees to moderate the climate.

Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana

Pages: 38-54
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Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.38.54

Blestmond A. Brako , Gordon Foli , Chiri Amedjoe , Simon K.Y. Gawu

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Blestmond A. Brako , Gordon Foli , Chiri Amedjoe , Simon K.Y. Gawu (2020). Petrographic Study of Some Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in the Chagupana and Tarkwa Areas of Ghana. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 38-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.38.54
This study geologically compares conglomerate and sandstone units in the Chagupana area of the Upper West Region and the Kawere conglomerate and Kawere-Huni-Banket sandstone units in the Tarkwa area of the Western Region in Ghana. Some work in the area has over time proposed that rocks from the two areas as similar based on only field relations, hence the need for more detailed work for re-classification. Macro and microscopic studies of the composition, mineralogy and texture of the rock types reveal that the conglomerates in both areas are metamorphic-clast units, greenish-grey, polymictic, foliated and texturally immature. Compositionally and mineralogically, Chagupana conglomerate is matrix-supported and immature, while Kawere conglomerate is clast-supported and mature; these constraint similarities between the conglomerates to only composition. The sandstones from both areas have similar mineralogical compositions, but with decreasing feldspar in the order of Chagupana>Huni>Kawere>Banket. Texturally, all the sandstones are sub-mature, well-indurated and angular-rounded; except the Huni sandstone, which is fine to medium-grained, while the other sandstones are medium-coarse-grained. Based on the feldspar contents, the Chagupana, Huni, Banket and Kawere sandstones classify as greywacke, feldspathic arenite, sub-litharenite and sub-feldspathic-feldspathic arenite, respectively. The greywacke and sandstones have the same cementing materials as quartz, sericite and chlorite. Concluding, the Chagupana rocks are not entirely the same as those from the Tarkwaian Group, probably due to differences in provenance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses petrographic and structural investigations to unravel the puzzle of the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks in the Chagupana area of the Upper West Region as being part, or not, of the Tarkwaian Group in the Tarkwa area of Ghana.

Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana

Pages: 13-37
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.13.37

Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana , Jonathan Quaye-Ballard , Clement Ntori , Alfred Awotwi , Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka , Thomas Moore Okrah , Abena Asare-Ansah

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Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana , Jonathan Quaye-Ballard , Clement Ntori , Alfred Awotwi , Oladunjoye Michael Adeyinka , Thomas Moore Okrah , Abena Asare-Ansah (2020). Location Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Using Landsat 8 Data: A Case of Study in Prestea Huni Valley District, Ghana. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 13-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.13.37
Utilization of multispectral satellite images is an excellent approach in the reconnaissance stage of gold prospecting due to its high effectiveness and low cost. This research used Landsat 8 Remote Sensing data and Geographical Information System to identify, delineate and map hydrothermal alteration zone relating to gold pattern mineralization in Prestea Huni Valley District in the Western Region of Ghana. Principle Component Analysis (PCA), three band combinations, spectral rationing and Crosta techniques are used in this study. For three band combinations, bands 5, 4, 3 and 5, 6, 7 are used to map location of hydrothermal alterations. Band ratios (7/5and6/7), (6/5) and (4/2) are used to identify presence of clay, ferrous and iron oxide minerals respectively. Sabin's ratio 4/2, 6/7 and 6/5, Kaufmann ratio 7/5, 5/4 and 6/7, and 4/2, 6/7 and 5 are used to identify vegetation, outcrop and hydrothermal alterations respectively. Crosta and PCA techniques were used to suppress the interference of vegetation in delineating the alteration zones. Results revealed that the three band combinations and spectral ratioing clearly depicts hydrothermal deposit of ferrous minerals, clay and iron oxide minerals. PCA identifies presence of iron-oxide and hydroxyl minerals as bright pixels. The first three high order principal components (PC1, PC2 and PC3) of input spectral bands gave more than 98% of the spectral information. Thus, the results from satellite images an effective and efficient way of mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at regional scale.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated to identify hydrothermally alteration relating to gold mineralization. The study documents how Satellite data and Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System techniques can be used to delineate hydrothermal alterations at regional scale at a reduced cost.

Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.1.12

Lazarus A. Mbaya

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Lazarus A. Mbaya (2020). Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area, Gombe State. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 9(1): 1-12. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10.2020.91.1.12
Groundwater is the major freshwater store acting in the hydrological cycle. It provides water for human consumption, agriculture, industry and many groundwater-dependent ecosystems, especially during dry season and drought periods. This study “Assessment of Ground Water Abstraction in Kwadon, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area” aimed at examine the quantity of water abstracted for various uses in the study area and its implications for future development. Field Measurement, Questionnaire and GPS device was used to collect information about water sources and uses in the study area and data collected were analyzed using T-test and descriptive statistics. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the depth of boreholes and wells between periods with minimum and maximum depth of 26m and 53.5 for boreholes and 12m and 21m for wells respectively. The study also revealed that Table water industries, Block industries, Fishpond, Water Vendors and Irrigation agriculture are the dominant activities that are using underground water with annual abstraction rate of 1785000m3, 1905600m3, 1818150m3, 3168000m3 and 1827100m3 respectively. A general decline in rainfall and geological nature of Gombe town has led to the over exploitation of groundwater in the study area. Sustainable groundwater management in the future requires groundwater to be used in a manner that can be maintained for an indefinite time without having unacceptable environmental, economic or social consequences.
Contribution/ Originality
This research work title assessment of groundwater abstraction in kwadon Gombe state will contribute to existing literature especially in the fields of water resource management and hydrology. Empirical methods were used in collecting relevant data and this study is among few and non-carried out in the state. The study is original and the primary findings was that groundwater in the study area is under threat due to over utilization. Therefore this study document the rate of groundwater abstraction and need for sustainable utilization.