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Animal Review

June 2021, Volume 8, 1, pp 10-19

Dietary Inclusion of Scent Leaf Meal (Ocimum Gratissimum) Affects Immune Genes Expression in Chicken Spleen at 28 and 56 Days

Ufuoma G. Sorhue

,

Emenim R. Onainor

,

Adimabua M. Moemeka

,

Irikefe-Ekeke E. Peterson

Ufuoma G. Sorhue 1 ,

Emenim R. Onainor 1 Adimabua M. Moemeka 1 Irikefe-Ekeke E. Peterson 4

  1. Department of Agricultural Education, Delta State College of Education Mosogar, Sapele, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Agricultural Education, College of Education Warri, Nigeria. 4

Pages: 10-19

DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar.2021.81.10.19

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Article History:

Received: 02 August, 2021
Revised: 30 August, 2021
Accepted: 21 September, 2021
Published: 11 October, 2021


Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the effects of scent leaf meal (Ocimum gratissimum) on expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spleen of two chicken strains. A total of 150birds (75 of each strain) were randomly allotted into five dietary treatments at fifteen birds per treatment. Birds were fed diet containing varying levels of Ocimum gratissimum leaf meal. Treatment one (T1) had 0% OG, while treatment two (T2), treatment three (T3), treatment four (T4) and treatment five (T5) had 0.5% OG, 1.00% OG, 1.5% OG and 2% OG respectively. Feed and water was provided adlibitum throughout the feeding trial. Three birds were slaughtered from each treatment at day 28 and day 56, spleen samples were collected and stored using RNALater in a -20oc freezer prior to RNA extraction. Real-time qPCR was performed in 40cycles using the PowerUp SYBR Green reagent and analyzed with the 2-??Ct method. Gene expression data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance. Strain effect was significantly different (P<0.05) at both time points. All the genes studied significantly differed (P<0.05) in their expression patterns at 28 and 56days of age. Increased inclusion rate of the test ingredients significantly (P<0.05) reduced IL1? and NF-KB1, while increasing IL10 and NF-KB2. Ocimim gratissimum leaf meal shows promise in the regulation of inflammation in chickens and can be used to efficiently replace antibiotics in broiler production.
Contribution/ Originality
This work is one of very few studies that have unraveled expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines in chickens subjected to dietary inclusion of scent leaf meal as replacement for in-feed antibiotic, and contributes to existing literature on the role of phytochemical containing plants in immunomodulation in chickens.

Keywords:

Inflammation, Gene Expression, Interleukin1?, Scent leaf, Cytokine, Spleen, Phytochemicals.

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Funding:

This research work was funded by the Tertiary Education Trust Fund grant reference number: TETFUND/DESS/COE/MOSOGAR/IBR/2015/VOL.1

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgement:

All Authors appreciate the Delta State College of Education Mosogar, and the management, and staff of African Biosciences limited Ibadan, for providing them with lab space and reagents.

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( 144 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 145 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 146 ) Determination of Milk Composition, Bacteriology and Selected Blood Parameters of Dairy Goats Under Different Feeding Systems
( 147 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 148 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 149 ) Assessments of Market Oriented Beef Cattle Fattening System Under Farmer Management Condition in South Omo Zone of Snnpr
( 150 ) Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology
( 151 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 152 ) Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the
( 153 ) The Effect of the Reduced Dose of GnRH on Conception, Ovulation and Ovarian Structures in Ovsynch Program of Lactating Dairy Cows
( 154 ) Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
( 155 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Social Aspects, Genetic Resources and Conservation of Companion Animal Cats (Felis Catus)
( 156 ) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
( 157 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 158 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir
( 159 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 160 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 161 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 162 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 163 ) Perception of Kogi State University Agricultural Students on Farming as a Career
( 164 ) Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
( 165 ) Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis
( 166 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 167 ) Design of Experiment - Optimization of HPLC Analysis of Vitamin A and E in Margarine and Vegetable Oil
( 169 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 170 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 171 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 172 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia
( 173 ) Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics
( 174 ) Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria
( 175 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 176 ) The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters
( 177 ) Status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Southwestern Nigeria
( 178 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 179 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 180 ) Accelerating Agricultural Productivity to Enhance Economic Growth in Botswana
( 181 ) An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 182 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 183 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 184 ) Experimental Model Validation and Control of a Lactic Fermentation Process
( 185 ) Mechatronics and Precision Livestock Farming in Mexican Animal Production
( 186 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 187 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 188 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 189 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 190 ) Identification of Soybean Genotypes (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) Through Genetic Variability Analysis
( 191 ) Harvesting Date Influences Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Yield and Quality of Based-Products
( 192 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 193 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 194 ) Management of Food Shelf Life and Energy Efficiency with Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance
( 195 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 196 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 197 ) Assessment of Government Feeding Programme on Improved Nutritional Health Status of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 198 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 199 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 200 ) Adaptation Study of Mung Bean (Vigna Radiate) Varieties in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
( 201 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 202 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 203 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 204 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 205 ) Physicochemical and Rheological Characterization of Goat Whey
( 206 ) Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
( 207 ) Utilization of Fish and Mango Wastes on Biological Silage Production
( 208 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 209 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 210 ) The Simulation of Egg Hatching Trend of Aedes Aegypti Associated with Rainfall Distribution
( 211 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 212 ) Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
( 213 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 214 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 215 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 216 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 217 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 218 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 219 ) The Potential Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Reproductive Profile of Male Rat and its Possible Consequences
( 220 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 222 ) Report of an Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Iran, Clinical, Epidemiological and Pathological Study
( 223 ) The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China
( 224 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 225 ) Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 226 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 227 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 228 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 229 ) Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 230 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 231 ) Contextual Estimation of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Seasonal Fruits: A Study Based on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh
( 232 ) Attitude of Youth to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 233 ) Genotype-Environment Interactions and Yield Stability of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) in Lomami Province, Central Part of Democratic Republic of Congo
( 234 ) Estimation of Suspended Sediment Load in the Ressoul Watershed, Algeria
( 235 ) Agronomic Practices of Maize and Farm Nutrient Status in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: Lesson from Agronomic Panel Survey
( 236 ) Influence of Biochar and Poultry Manure on Weed Infestation and Growth of Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica) Seedlings
( 237 ) Evaluation of Eggshell as Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Basil
( 238 ) Attitude of Youths to Agriculture as Career in Iwo and Aiyedire Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria
( 240 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 241 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 242 ) Changes in Certain Agronomic Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Alphonse Lavallee’ in Response to Water Deficit under the Different Rootstock Effect
( 243 ) Physiological Aspects of Yield Variation among Seven Groundnut Genotypes Cultivated under Rain-Fed Conditions
( 244 ) Adoption and Perception of Farmers towards Attributes of Improved Teff (Quncho) Varieties: Evidence from Benishangul-Gumuz Region of Ethiopia
( 245 ) Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour
( 246 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 247 ) Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Production as an Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additive
( 248 ) Study on Temporal Alterations in Land Cover Types in Simien Mountain National Park, Northwest Ethiopia
( 249 ) Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 250 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 251 ) Evaluation of Repellency of Plant-Derived Insecticide against Brinjal and Pepper Pest Populations
( 252 ) Market Integration and Seasonal Price Variation of High-Value Vegetable Crops in Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh
( 253 ) Effect of Seed Rate and Cultivar on Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in New Halfa Locality, Sudan
( 254 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 255 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 256 ) Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
( 257 ) Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia
( 258 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 261 ) The Fungicide and Variety Integration Effect on Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 263 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 264 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
( 265 ) Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) Varieties of Ethiopia
( 266 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 267 ) Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia
( 268 ) Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo
( 269 ) Adoption Impact of Improved Cowpea Variety in Selected Areas of Chattogram District of Bangladesh
( 270 ) Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 271 ) Chemical Changes Associated with Repetitive Re-Use of Vegetable Oil during Deep Frying of Bean Cake, Plantain and Yam
( 272 ) Phototactic Response of Two Spotted Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer) to Electric Bulb Light Colours and Types
( 273 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 274 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 275 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 276 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 277 ) Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar
( 278 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 279 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies
( 280 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 281 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 282 ) Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Methods in Humid Subtropical Conditions
( 284 ) The Relationship between Food Production, Agricultural Land, Rice Production, and Rice Price: An Empirical Study on Thailand and Viet Nam
( 285 ) Estimation of Water Stress in Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zones of Nigeria Under Climate Change and Population Growth
( 286 ) Youth Participation in Sesame Production in Gwer West Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria
( 287 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 288 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 289 ) Quality Attributes of Cheese Produced from Goat’s Milk Supplemented with Coconut Milk
( 290 ) Analytical Evaluation of Four Accessions of Dialium guineense (L.) Leaves
( 291 ) Carbon Sequestration Assessment of Selected Campus Champion Trees
( 292 ) Rural Population Perceptions on Anti-Silting Managements in Kebili Governorate, South Tunisia
( 293 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 295 ) Variations in Vitamin Composition of Four Accessions of Dialium guineense (L.) Fruit Pulp
( 296 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 297 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 298 ) Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes
( 299 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 301 ) Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State
( 302 ) Perception of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine among Poultry Farmers in Oyo State
( 304 ) Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets
( 305 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 306 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 307 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 308 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 309 ) A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes
( 310 ) Study of Heavy Metals Variability and their Effect on Plant Growth in Kanzenze River of Upper Akagera Catchment, Rwanda
( 311 ) Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions
( 312 ) Root Density, Distribution and Yield Relationships of High Yielding Sugarcane Varieties Under Sandy Soil Condition
( 313 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 314 ) Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis
( 315 ) Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment
( 316 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 317 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 318 ) On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh
( 320 ) A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Wheat Production Sustainability in the Semi-Arid Environment of Mashhad, Northeastern Iran
( 321 ) Characterization of a Novel Floral Mutation Induced by Gamma Irradiation of Philippine Rice Variety NSIC Rc9 (Apo)
( 322 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 323 ) Boosting Farm Productivity through Intensification of Soybean Production Technology
( 324 ) Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda
( 325 ) Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves
( 326 ) Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area
( 327 ) Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)
( 328 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 329 ) Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)
( 330 ) Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil
( 331 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 332 ) Azotobacter and Total Bacterial Population in Enriched Compost: Preliminary Study
( 333 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 334 ) Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector
( 335 ) Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation
( 336 ) Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 337 ) Heat Tolerance Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Early and Late Planting Environments through Stress Selection Indices
( 338 ) Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals