Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs , Fouzia Phyllis Amroun (2021). The Relative Contributions of Explicit and Implicit Instruction in the Learning of EFL Apologies. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(2): 122-151. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.92.122.151
This study aims to compare the influence of explicit versus implicit teaching on the learning of apology realization strategies in a foreign language context. To this end, 86 Arab elementary learners of English were divided into three groups: (1) a group that was introduced to the target realization strategies explicitly, (2) a group that was introduced to the target strategies implicitly, and (3) a comparison group that did not receive any instruction on the target strategies. Using a pre-/posttest design, the three groups completed a discourse completion task as a pretest, immediate posttest and delayed test. The apology-specific strategies the students produced in these tests were compared using mixed ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. The results revealed a positive influence for both the explicit and implicit teaching approaches with relatively more gains for explicit teaching. The effectiveness of the two approaches varied based on a number of factors including the time of test (i.e., immediate or delayed posttest), the learners’ prior knowledge, and the cultural acceptability of the apology-specific strategy. The results are interpreted in light of the existing literature and relevant theoretical hypotheses.
This study is one of very few studies which have compared the influence of explicit versus implicit teaching on the learning of speech acts in a foreign language context. Research in this area is imperative to enhance our understanding of effective approaches to increase language learners’ pragmatic competence.
Osazevbaru, Henry Osahon , Yahaya, Garba Hassan (2021). Board Cultural Diversity and Firm Performance. Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 9(2): 152-161. DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2021.92.152.161
The contemporary belief that diversified boards perform better has prompted an investigation of board characteristics and how they influence firm performance. This study examines cultural diversity in boards and the performance of Nigerian firms. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of board culture as a “double-edged sword” with the aim of providing new evidence from the perspective of emerging markets. Board cultural diversity viewed the “foreignness” (the degree of a firm’s foreign orientation) of the board and firm, gender diversity, and board independence. Firm performance was measured by return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). A sample of 23 financial services firms from the Nigerian stock market over the period between 2006 and 2018 was used for the study, which applied a non-linear symmetric GARCH model for the analysis. The results revealed that board culture has a significant negative impact on performance. This result is sensitive to performance measures and is homogeneous to all firms because the control variables for firms’ heterogeneity were statistically insignificant.
This study advances the existing literature on the influence of cultural diversity within corporate boards on corporate performance using data from a developing economy. It uses a non-linear estimation technique that can accommodate heteroscedasticity in the data to model the dynamics of board culture and performance.