Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

December 2020, Volume 7, 4, pp 255-266

Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)

Stephen Taulu


Davis M. Lungu


Philemon H. Sohati

Stephen Taulu 1

Davis M. Lungu 2 Philemon H. Sohati 2 

  1. David Livingstone College of Education, Livingstone, Zambia. 1

  2. School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Science, University of Zambia. 2

Pages: 255-266

DOI: 10.18488/journal.70.2020.74.255.266

Share :

Article History:

Received: 07 August, 2020
Revised: 18 September, 2020
Accepted: 30 September, 2020
Published: 13 October, 2020


A study was conducted with an overall objective of establishing the determinants of weevil resistance in maize. Field experiments were done at GART using a North Carolina Design II with three replications and also at Nanga research in Mazabuka. Laboratory experiments were conducted at Zambia Agriculture Research Institute (ZARI) Entomology laboratory and University of Zambia, Food Science Department where insect bioassay and the biochemical tests were done respectively. In the insect bioassay grain hardness, grain weight loss, median development period, F1 progeny emergence and the Dobie index of susceptibility indices were measured. Protein and the Phenolic content were determined under the biochemical tests among genotypes. They were highly significant differences in all the twenty seven genotypes evaluated. Results showed that Parental survival accounted for 78.5 % of the total variation, Phenolic content was strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.423***) with grain hardness providing a good measure of resistance accounting for the 10.9 % of the total variation. The study showed the possibility of breeding maize genotypes with an increased resistance and also susceptible lines had a decreasing Phenolic content but increasing Phenolic content resulted in increased resistance. It was therefore concluded that Phenolic content and parental survival can be used as an indirect selection criteria for weevil resistance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the development of the Host-plant resistance as a pest control method is environmentally safe, economically cheaper method to farmers and most compatible with other components in the Integrated Pest Management initiatives.


Resistance, Sitophilus zeamais, Zea mays, Susceptibility index.


Abebe, F., Tefera, T., Mugo, S., Beyene, Y., & Vidal, S. (2009). Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(21), 5937-5943.Available at:

Arnason, T., Conilth de Beyssac, B., Philogene, B. J. R., Bervinson, D., Serratos, J. A., & Mihm, J. A. (1997). Mechanisms of resistance in maize grain to the maize weevil and the larger grain borer. In Mihm, J.A (Ed.), Insect Resistant maize - recent advances and utilization. Paper presented at the International Symposium., Mexico City. 27 Dec -3 Dec 1994. CIMMYT, Mexico City.

ASARECA–TUUSI. (2009). Drought and low-N torelant maize germplasm and varieties– inbred lines, populations, OPVs, Hybrids.

Barbano, D. M., Lynch, J. M., & Fleming, J. R. (1991). Direct and indirect determination of true protein content of milk by Kjeldahl analysis: Collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 74(2), 281-288.Available at:

Bekele, J., & Hassanali, A. (2001). Blend effects in the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum kenyense (Labiateae) on two post-harvest insect pests. Phytochemistry, 57(3), 385-391.Available at:

Bosque-Perez, N. A., & Buddenhagen, I. W. (1992). The development of host- plant resistance to insect pests: Outlook for the tropics. In: Menken, S.B.J., et al. (Ed.). Paper presented at the 8th International Symposium. Insect-pest Relationships. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrech.

Caswell, G. H. (1962). Agricultural entomology in the tropics (pp. 40 -76). London: Edward Arnold.

Chapman, R. (2000). Entomology in the twentieth century. Annual Review of Entomology, 45(1), 261-285.

CIMMYT. (2001). Maize research Highlights 1999-2000. International maize and wheat improvement centre. Mexico: CIMMYT.

Classen, D., Arnason, J., Serratos, J., Lambert, J., Nozzolillo, C., & Philogene, B. (1990). Correlation of phenolic acid content of maize to resistance to Sitophilus zeamais, the maize weevil, in CIMMYT'S collections. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16(2), 301-315.

Derera, J., Pixley, K., & Giga, D. (2001). Resistance of maize to the maize weevil: I. Antibiosis. African Crop Science Journal, 9(2), 431-440.

Dobie, P. (1974). The laboratory assessment of the inherent susceptibility of maize varieties to post-harvest infestation by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 10(3-4), 183-197.Available at:

Dobie, P. (1977). The laboratory assessment of the inherent susceptibility of maize varieties to post-harvest infestation by sitophilus zeamais motsch. Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Journal of Stored Products Research, 10(3-4), 183-197.Available at:

FAO. (1991). Maize post-harvest operations. Rome: FAO.

García‐Lara, S., Bergvinson, D. J., Burt, A. J., Ramputh, A. I., Díaz‐Pontones, D. M., & Arnason, J. T. (2004). The role of pericarp cell wall components in maize weevil resistance. Crop Science, 44(5), 1546-1552.Available at:

Gwinner, J., Harnisch, R., & Muck, O. (1996). Manual on the prevention of post-harvest seed losses, post-harvest project (pp. 294-295). Hamburg, FRG: GTZ, D-2000.

Hallauer, A. R., & Miranda, J. B. (1988). Quantitative genetics in maize breeding Iowa state (pp. 49-52). Ames: University Press.

Kamanula, J., Sileshi, G. W., Belmain, S. R., Sola, P., Mvumi, B. M., Nyirenda, G. K., . . . Stevenson, P. C. (2011). Farmers' insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa. International Journal of Pest Management, 57(1), 41-49.Available at:

Keba, T., & Waktole, S. (2013). Differential resistance of maize varieties to maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Entomology, 10(1), 1-12.Available at:

Kossou, D. K., Mareck, J. H., & Bosque-Perez, N. (1993). Comparison of improved and local maize varieties in the republic of Benin with emphasis on susceptibility to sitophilus zeamais motschulsky. Journal of Stored Products Research, 29(4), 333-343.

Makate, N. (2010). The susceptibility of different maize varieties to post harvest infestation by Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Scientific Research Essay, 5030-5034.

Makkar, H. P. S. (2003). Quantification of Tannis in tree and shrub foliage, laboratory manual. Vienna, Austria: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pixley, K. (1997). CIMMYT Mid-altitude maize breeding programme (Vol. 97, pp. 7-13). CIMMYT-Zimbabwe Annual Research Report, 1996/97.

Sen, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Wetzel, J., & Biswas, T. K. (1994). Characterization of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 41(1), 79-86.

Serratos, J. A., Blanco-Labra, A., Arnason, J. T., & Mihm, J. A. (1997). Genetics of maize grain resistance to maize weevil. In Mihm J.A.  Insect resistant maize: Recent advances and utilization. Paper presented at the Proceedings of an International Symposium, 27 Nov – 3 Dec, 1994.

Serratos, J., Arnason., J., Baum, B., Gale, J., Lambert, J., Bergvinson, D., . . . Jewell, D. (1993). Variation in resistance of mexican landraces of maize to maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais, in relation to taxonomic and biochemical parameters. Euphytica, 74(3), 227-236.

Siwale, J., Mbata, K., McRobert, J., & Lungu, D. (2007). Comparative resistance of improved maize genotypes and landraces to maize weevil. African Crop Science Journal, 17, 1-16.

Tongjura, J. D. C., Amuga, G. A., & Mafuyai, H. B. (2010). Laboratory assessment of the susceptability of some varieties of Zea mays infested with Sitophilus zeamais, Motsch. Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 5(2).Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Breeding Objective, Breeding Practices and Selection Criteria of Indigenous Sheep in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 2 ) Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)
( 3 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 4 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 5 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 6 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 7 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 8 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 9 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 10 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 11 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 12 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 13 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 14 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 15 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 16 ) Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
( 17 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 18 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 19 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 20 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 21 ) Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
( 22 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 23 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 24 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 25 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 26 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 27 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 28 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 29 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 30 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 31 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 32 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 33 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 34 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 35 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 36 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 37 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 38 ) Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
( 39 ) A Suction Trap for Sampling Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan Trees
( 40 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 41 ) An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts
( 42 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 43 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 44 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 45 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 46 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 47 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 48 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 49 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 50 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 51 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 52 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 53 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 54 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 55 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 56 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 57 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 58 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 59 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 60 ) Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 61 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 62 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 63 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 64 ) Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
( 65 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 66 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 67 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 68 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 69 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 70 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 71 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 72 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 73 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 74 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 75 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 76 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 77 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 78 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 79 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 80 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 81 ) Seedlings Performance of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum.) under Different Light Intensities and Soil Textural Classes
( 82 ) The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution
( 84 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 85 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 86 ) Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda
( 87 ) Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area
( 88 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 89 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 90 ) Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector
( 91 ) Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals
( 92 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 93 ) Ecosystem Services Assessment of Mangrove Forest in a Coastal Island of Bangladesh
( 94 ) Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables
( 95 ) Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria
( 96 ) Floristic Composition and Woody Species Diversity in National Park of Madhupur Tract Under Tangail North Forest Division, Bangladesh
( 97 ) Wood Density of Lower Stratum Trees in a Semi-Deciduous Tropical Forest of Cameroon
( 98 ) Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria
( 99 ) Challenges of Conserving and Co-Managing Khadimnagar National Park and Ratargul Fresh Water Swamp Forest in Bangladesh
( 100 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 103 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies
( 106 ) Review: Plant Resistance to Agriculture Insect Pests
( 107 ) Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) Varieties of Ethiopia
( 109 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 110 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 111 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 112 ) Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia
( 114 ) Effect of Integrated Application of Poultry Manure and Chemical NP Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Highland Maize Variety on Vertisol at Ambo University on Station, Ethiopia