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Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

December 2021, Volume 8, 2, pp 80-89

Effect of Mid-Term Cropping System Adoption on Soil Chemical Properties at Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Saroj Koirala


Santosh Shrestha


Prashanta Raut


Bikram Pandey


Arbindra Timilsina

Saroj Koirala 1
Santosh Shrestha 2

Prashanta Raut 3
Bikram Pandey 4
Arbindra Timilsina 5

  1. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China; Agricultural Technology Center, Lalitpur, Nepal. 1

  2. Department of Soil Science, Institute of Agricultural and Animal Science, Kathmandu, Nepal; Agricultural Technology Center, Lalitpur, Nepal. 2

  3. Agricultural Technology Center, Lalitpur, Nepal. 3

  4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 4

  5. Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Hebei Key Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, China. 5

Pages: 80-89

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.80.89

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Article History:

Received: 26 May, 2021
Revised: 29 June, 2021
Accepted: 03 August, 2021
Published: 24 August, 2021


Soil chemical properties plays a crucial role in crop yield. In this study, we evaluated the chemical properties of soils under three different cropping systems practiced for more than five years in Changunarayan municipality of Bhaktapur district of Nepal. The cropping systems includes- (i) cultivation inside polyhouse (Treatment A: polyhouse), (ii) paddy-wheat rotation (Treatment B: P-W), and (iii) paddy-wheat-vegetable rotation (Treatment C: P-W-V). Thirty-nine composite samples (13 replicates from each site) were taken from the area based on variation in landforms. Soil pH, organic matter (%), total nitrogen (%), available phosphorus (mgkg-1), and available potassium (mgkg-1) were evaluated for each sample. The study revealed that the soil pH was acidic and ranges between 4.71 and 5.39, organic matter (1.6-2.39%), total nitrogen (0.091-0.13%), phosphorus (4.48-29.24mg kg-1) and potassium (88.04-109.52 mg kg-1). A significant lower mean pH (4.71), and higher mean organic matter (2.39%), total nitrogen (0.13%) and available phosphorus (29.24 mgkg-1) were observed in cultivation under polyhouse. Incorporation of vegetable in paddy-wheat system gave significant (p<0.05) higher accumulation of soil phosphorus and consistently raised other nutrient status. Moreover, cultivation under polyhouse raised C:N ratio (10.55) significantly than other system. This finding can be relevant to wide range of readers that focus on soil chemical properties and can be used in developing future research strategy and sustainable soil management system in the area.
Contribution/ Originality
In this paper we analyzed the impact of different cropping system over soil quality.


Acidity, Changunarayan, C: N, Cropping system, Crop rotation, Paddy-wheat, Paddy-wheat-vegetables, Polyhouse.


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The authors thanks Ambit Research and Development for financial support in sample collection and laboratory analysis.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


The authors would like to acknowledge all the volunteers who participated in soil sample collections, lab technicians who performed lab tests and owner of farms of study area who helped providing samples and information regarding agricultural practices.

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( 145 ) Biochemical Composition and Consumption Risk of Leafy Vegetables Puts and Babenda Cereals Produced in Five Cities in Burkina Faso
( 148 ) Broiler and Indigenous Chickens: A Comparison through Biochemical Parameters
( 149 ) Chemical Control of Alternaria Brown Spot on Mandarins Cultivars in Tunisia
( 151 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 152 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 157 ) The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria
( 165 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 168 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 169 ) Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products
( 173 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 174 ) Farmer’s Decision To Practice Crop Rotation in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia: What are the Determinants?
( 176 ) Use of Solar Drier Papapya Lather as a Fat Replacer in Cakes
( 177 ) Preservative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ginger in Wara - A West African Traditional Soft (Unripened) Cheese
( 178 ) Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants
( 179 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 180 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 181 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 182 ) Flaxseed Nutritied Meat Balls With High Antioxidant Potential
( 183 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 184 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 187 ) Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 188 ) Impact of Laser Land Leveling On Water Productivity of Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Condations
( 190 ) Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria
( 192 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 193 ) An Assessment of the Level of Awareness of Climate Change and Variability among Rural Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria
( 194 ) Characterization and Association among Yield and Yield Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus Annus L) Genotypes
( 195 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 196 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 198 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 199 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 200 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 201 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 208 ) Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites
( 210 ) Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used In Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Abia State, Nigeria
( 212 ) Influence of Dehydrated Medicago Sativa on Quality Characteristics of Marchigiana Beef
( 213 ) Seleno-Cystine Affects the Fatty Acid Profile in In Vitro Incubated Ovine Ruminal Fluid Containing α-Linolenic Acid
( 214 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 215 ) Economics of Sheep Production in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State Nigeria
( 218 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 219 ) Tree Species Diversity and Productivity Relationship in the Central Region of Bangladesh
( 220 ) Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
( 221 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 222 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 223 ) Assessment of Human Capital Attributes Influencing Occupational Diversification among Rural Women in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 225 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 227 ) Survey on Economical Important Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Sub-Zoba Hamemalo of Eritrea
( 229 ) Hot Water Enhanced Germination of Leucaena Leucocephala Seeds in Light and Dark Conditions
( 230 ) Microbial Degradation of Organic Waste through Vermicomposting
( 231 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 232 ) Ingessana Goats Phenotype, Carcass and Wholesale Cuts Characteristics in Fadamia, Bao Locality, Blue Nile State, Sudan
( 234 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 235 ) Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
( 236 ) Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India
( 237 ) Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy
( 238 ) Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
( 239 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 240 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 241 ) Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 242 ) Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
( 243 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 244 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 245 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 246 ) Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
( 249 ) Combined Microbial Inoculation as a Promising Approach to Enhance Promiscuous Soybean Nodulation and Nitrogen Content in Sudan Savanna
( 250 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 253 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 254 ) Cholesterol Content of Bull Spermatozoa Alters Survival at Ultra-Low Temperatures
( 256 ) Empirical Study on the Relationship between Market Share, Advertising Density and Ratio of Sales
( 257 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 260 ) Bioaccumulation of Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals and Minerals in Tympanotonus Fuscatus from Coastal Region of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
( 261 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 262 ) Gender Issues of Labour Participation in Vegetable Production in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State
( 263 ) Genetic Divergence and Character Association of Kabuli-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietium) Genotype under Rainfed Conditions in Ethiopia
( 264 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 268 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 269 ) Pelvic Floor Fractures in 55 Dogs and 39 Cats: CT and X- Ray Findings
( 270 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 271 ) Characteristic of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Pampangan at Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera, Indonesia
( 275 ) Apparent Metabolisability of Diets Containing Concentrate, Zostera Noltii or Taraxacum Officinalis in Anas Penelope
( 278 ) Evaluation of Improved Varieties of Teff in West Belessa, Northwest Ethiopia
( 279 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 282 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 284 ) Genotypic Difference in Growth and Yield Related Traits of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray
( 285 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 288 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 291 ) Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
( 292 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Social Aspects, Genetic Resources and Conservation of Companion Animal Cats (Felis Catus)
( 293 ) Synthesis of Biodiesel from Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappa) Seed Oil
( 294 ) Technical Efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Ebonyi South Agricultural Zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 295 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir
( 296 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 297 ) Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production
( 299 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 300 ) Perception of Kogi State University Agricultural Students on Farming as a Career
( 302 ) Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis
( 303 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 304 ) Design of Experiment - Optimization of HPLC Analysis of Vitamin A and E in Margarine and Vegetable Oil
( 305 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 308 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 310 ) Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics
( 311 ) Microscopic Detection of Haemoparasites in Muscovy Ducks (Anas Platyrynchos) in Gombe State, Nigeria
( 312 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 313 ) The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters
( 315 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 316 ) Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia Occidentalis in Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 317 ) Accelerating Agricultural Productivity to Enhance Economic Growth in Botswana
( 318 ) An Assessment of the Market Structure of Sesame among Farmers, Wholesalers and Retailers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
( 319 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 320 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 321 ) Experimental Model Validation and Control of a Lactic Fermentation Process
( 322 ) Mechatronics and Precision Livestock Farming in Mexican Animal Production
( 323 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 324 ) Perception of Cassava Farmers of Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 325 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 327 ) Identification of Soybean Genotypes (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) Through Genetic Variability Analysis
( 328 ) Harvesting Date Influences Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Yield and Quality of Based-Products
( 332 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 333 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 334 ) Assessment of Government Feeding Programme on Improved Nutritional Health Status of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 335 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 337 ) Adaptation Study of Mung Bean (Vigna Radiate) Varieties in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
( 338 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 339 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 340 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 341 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 343 ) Isolation and Screening of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) on Andisols
( 344 ) Utilization of Fish and Mango Wastes on Biological Silage Production
( 345 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 346 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 347 ) The Simulation of Egg Hatching Trend of Aedes Aegypti Associated with Rainfall Distribution
( 349 ) Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
( 351 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 352 ) Investigating Constraints to Poultry Management Practices among Smallholder Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 353 ) Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies: Farmers Perception in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 354 ) Climate Variability, Incidences and Mitigation Strategies among Poultry Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
( 355 ) Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology
( 357 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 358 ) Study of Factors Linked to the Variation in Rentability in the Farming of Broiler Chickens in Northeast Algeria
( 359 ) Report of an Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Iran, Clinical, Epidemiological and Pathological Study
( 360 ) The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China
( 362 ) Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 364 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 365 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 366 ) Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia