Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

December 2020, Volume 7, 2, pp 52-57

Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions

Muhammad Hafeez


Zia Ahmad Chatha


Alamgir Akhtar Khan


Allah Bakhsh Gulshan


Abdul Basit


Fatima Tahira

Muhammad Hafeez 1

Zia Ahmad Chatha 2
Alamgir Akhtar Khan 3

Allah Bakhsh Gulshan 4 Abdul Basit 4 Fatima Tahira 6

  1. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 1

  2. Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2

  3. Department of Agricultural Engineering, MNSUA, Multan, Pakistan. 3

  4. Department of Botany, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. 4

  5. Department of Mathematics, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan. 6

Pages: 52-57

DOI: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.52.57

Share :

Article History:

Received: 14 April, 2020
Revised: 25 May, 2020
Accepted: 22 September, 2020
Published: 19 October, 2020


There are various equations for calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), but the Penman-Monteith (PM FAO-56) equation has been considered as the standard ETo equation. The key problem of PM FAO-56 equation is that it uses large number of weather parameters like air temperature, wind velocity, humidity and sun radiation as input. These weather parameters are not accessible at all weather stations of the world especially in developing countries. So, ablatives ETo equations like Hargreaves (HG) and Blaney-Criddle (BC) equations are used for estimation of ETo which required very small number of weather parameters that are readily available at most of the weather stations of the world. A research is conducted to compare HG and BC ETo equations for estimation of monthly ETo under semi-arid climatic regions of Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar, Pakistan. The PM FAO-56 ETo equation is considered as reference ETo equation for the assessment of HG ETo and BC ETo equation. The statistical results indicate that HG ETo equation overestimates PM FAO-56 ETo method by 7.91% at Lahore weather station, 5.59 % at Faisalabad weather station and 11.95% at Peshawar weather station. The BC ETo equation overestimates PM FAO-56 ETo equation by 34.345% at Lahore weather station, 28.637% at Faisalabad weather station and 21.44% at Peshawar weather station. The variation of HG ETo equation with PM FAO-56 ETo equation with RMSE of 0.487 mm/day at Lahore weather station, 0.521 mm/day at Faisalabad weather station and 0.985 at Peshawar weather station is noted. The variation of BC ETo equation with PM FAO-56 ETo equation having RMSE of 3.03 at Lahore weather station, 2.58 at Faisalabad weather station and 1.96 at Peshawar weather station is noted.
Contribution/ Originality
The objectives of this study is to compare the HG ETo and BC) ETo equations against FAO-56 PM ETo equation in semi-arid climatic conditions.


ETo, FAO-56 PM, Blaney-Criddle, Hargreaves, Semi-arid, Pakistan.


[1]           H. F. Blaney and W. D. Criddle, "Determining water requirements in irrigated areas from climatological and irrigation data." USDA Conservation Service. SCS-TP-96, Washington, DC, 1950.

[2]           Z. A. Chatha, M. Arshad, A. Bakhsh, and A. Shakoor, "Statistical analysis for lining the watercourses," Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 53, pp. 109-118, 2015.

[3]           H. Muhammad, A. C. Zia, A. K. Alamgir, B. Allah, B. Abdul, and T. Fatima, "Estimating reference evapotranspiration by hargreaves and blaney-criddle methods in humid subtropical conditions," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 15-22, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.15.22.

[4]           A. H. Azhar and B. Perera, "Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration estimation methods under southeast Australian conditions," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 137, pp. 268-279, 2011. Available at:

[5]           V. J. da Silva, H. d. P. Carvalho, C. R. da Silva, R. d. Camargo, and R. Teodoro, "Performance of different methods of estimating the daily reference evapotranspiration in Uberlandia, MG," Bioscience Journal, vol. 27, pp. 95-101, 2011.

[6]           H. Tabari, M. E. Grismer, and S. Trajkovic, "Comparative analysis of 31 reference evapotranspiration methods under humid conditions," Irrigation Science, vol. 31, pp. 107-117, 2013. Available at:

[7]           K. C. DeJonge, M. Ahmadi, J. C. Ascough II, and K.-D. Kinzli, "Sensitivity analysis of reference evapotranspiration to sensor accuracy," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 110, pp. 176-186, 2015. Available at:

[8]           M. Hafeez and A. A. Khan, "Assessment of hargreaves and blaney-criddle methods to estimate reference evapotranspiration under coastal conditions," American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 65-72, 2018.

[9]           M. Hafeez., A. B. ., A. Basit., Z. A. Chattha., A. A. Khan., M. A. Majeed., and F. Tahira., "Penman and thornwait equations for estimating reference evapotranspiration under semi-arid environment," Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 6-14, 2020. Available at: 10.18488/journal.68.2020.71.6.14.

[10]         A. Majeed, S. Mehmood, K. Sarwar, G. Nabi, and M. A. Kharal, "Assessment of reference evapotranspiration by the hargreaves method in Southern Punjab Pakistan," European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 64-70, 2017.

[11]         R. G. Allen, L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-fao irrigation and drainage paper vol. 56. Rome: FAO, 1998.

[12]         G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, "Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature," Appl. Eng. Agric, vol. 1, pp. 96-99, 1985.

[13]         G. H. Hargreaves and Z. A. Samani, "Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature," Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 96-99, 1985. Available at:

[14]         G. H. Hargreaves and R. G. Allen, "History and evaluation of Hargreaves evapotranspiration equation," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, vol. 129, pp. 53-63, 2003.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


The authors would like to thank Pakistan Meteorological Department, Lahore and Peshawar for providing the climatic data records used in this research.

Related Article

( 1 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 2 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 3 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 4 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 5 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 6 ) Comparative Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Equations in Semi-Arid Climatic Conditions
( 7 ) Comparative Analysis of Thermal Retention Capacity of Ice Chest Wood Cooler Stands Made from Pinus Caribeae and Nauclea Diderichii
( 8 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 10 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 11 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 12 ) Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
( 13 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 14 ) An Analysis of the Pre and Post Harvest Management Techniques in Rice Production: The Case of Unvda Ndop, North West Region, Cameroon
( 16 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 17 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 18 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 19 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 20 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 21 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 22 ) Design of Experiment - Optimization of HPLC Analysis of Vitamin A and E in Margarine and Vegetable Oil
( 23 ) Determinants of Farmers' Use of Land Reclamation Practices in Oil Producing Areas of Imo State, Nigeria: Application of Multivariate Logistic Analysis
( 24 ) A Tobit Analysis of Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology among Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria
( 25 ) Identification of Soybean Genotypes (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) Through Genetic Variability Analysis
( 26 ) Runoff Response to Climate Variability: An Analysis of Thika River Basin in Kenya Using Hydrological Simulation Model (Hysim)
( 27 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 28 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 29 ) Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis
( 30 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 31 ) Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 32 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 33 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 34 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 35 ) Trend Analysis of Climatic Variables at Mulde Location of Maharashtra State
( 36 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 38 ) Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis
( 39 ) A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Wheat Production Sustainability in the Semi-Arid Environment of Mashhad, Northeastern Iran
( 41 ) Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Repayment of Bank of Agriculture Loan in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (2009-2018)
( 42 ) Analysis of Arable Farmers Agroforestry Practices in Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria
( 43 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 44 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 45 ) Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Methods in Humid Subtropical Conditions
( 47 ) Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Modified Hargreaves Equations under Semi-Arid Environment
( 48 ) A Survey of Wood Borer Apate terebrans Tunnels on Terminalia mantaly in Nigeria with Special Reference to the Niger Delta Region
( 53 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 54 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 55 ) Identification of Cattle Persistently Infected With BVDV (PI) By Ear-Notch Testing In Southeast of Iran
( 56 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 57 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 58 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 59 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 60 ) Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the
( 61 ) Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs
( 62 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 63 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 64 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 65 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 66 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 67 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 68 ) Farm and Disease Management by Commercial Poultry Farmers
( 69 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 70 ) Characterization and Classification of Cropland-Soils Affected by Erosion in Igbudu Ikwo, Southeastern Nigeria
( 72 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 73 ) Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria
( 74 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 77 ) Characterization of a Novel Floral Mutation Induced by Gamma Irradiation of Philippine Rice Variety NSIC Rc9 (Apo)
( 78 ) Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard
( 79 ) Soil Properties and Growth of Maize as Affected by Slope Position and Fertilizer Type on Coastal Plain Sands