Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Empirical Studies

March 2014, Volume 1, 1, pp 23-29

Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination

Moayad B. Zaied


Ahmed M. El Naim


Dafalla M. Mekki

Moayad B. Zaied 1
Ahmed M. El Naim 2
Dafalla M. Mekki 3

  1. Department of Agric. Eng., Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan 1

  2. Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan 2

  3. Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobied, Sudan 3


Sample size estimation is a fundamental step in designing trials and studies for which the primary objective is the estimation or the comparison of parameters. In this paper, the equation of sample for proportion was used to develop two equations for sample size determination. The resultant equations are natural and normal logarithmic. The validation test was conducted for populations with different sizes from 10 to 100000 from which sample size was calculated applying the equation of sample for proportion, finite population correction for proportion equation and the developed equations at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of significance. It was found that the sample size calculated by natural logarithmic equation was larger than sample sizes calculated by proportion, finite population correction for proportion, and normal logarithmic equation. Sample size calculated by normal logarithmic equation was the smallest up to 1000 population size at 0.05 level of significance and up to 10000 population sizes at 0.01 levels.
Contribution/ Originality



  1. Altman, D., D. Machin, T. Bryant and S. Gardner, 2000. Statistics with confi dence: Confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. 2nd Edn., BMJ Books.
  2. Armitage, P., G. Berry and J.N.S. Matthews, 2002. Statistical methods in medical research. 4th Edn., Blackwell Science.
  3. Daniel, W.W., 1999. Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 7th Edn., New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  4. Friedman, L., C. Furberg and D.L. DeMets, 1998. Fundamentals of clinical trials. 3rd Edn., New York: Springer-Verlag.
  5. Gardner, M.J. and D.G. Altman, 1986. Confidence intervals rather than P values: Estimation rather than hypothesis testing, BMJ (292): 746–750.
  6. Gardner, M.J. and D.G. Altman, 1988. Estimating with confidence, BMJ (296): 1210–1211.
  7. Lwanga, S. and S. Lemeshow, 1991. Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  8. Machin, D., M. Campbell, P. Fayers and A. Pinol, 1997. Sample size tables for clinical studies. 2nd Edn., London: Blackwell Science.
  9. Naing, L., T. Winn and B.N. Rusli, 2006. Sample size calculation for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 1: 9-149.
  10. Piantadosi, S., 2005. Clinical trials: A methodologic perspective. 2nd Edn., Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
  11. Sackett, D.L., 2001. Randomized controlled trials . Failure to employ physiological statistics, or the only formula a clinician-trialist is ever likely to need. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 165: 1226–1236.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 2 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 3 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 4 ) Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination
( 5 ) An Enquiry into the Contributions of Microfinance Institutions Towards the Development of Small Scale Business in Nigeria
( 6 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 7 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 8 ) National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria
( 9 ) Good Governance, Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges
( 10 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 11 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 12 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 13 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 14 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 15 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 16 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 17 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 18 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 19 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 20 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 21 ) The Importance of Public Administration Towards Achieving Good Governance for Positive National Development by Using SmartPLS 3
( 22 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 23 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries
( 24 ) Health Care Outcomes, Malnutrition and Food Security in Southern Africa Development Community: A Quantile Regression Approach
( 25 ) The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
( 26 ) Impact of Network Finance Development on Inflation: Evidence from Chinese Market
( 27 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 28 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 29 ) Family Leadership and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises Research and Development Investments
( 30 ) Perceived Poverty and Alleviation Efforts of Kogi State Community and Social Development Agencies in Kogi State: An Empirical Investigation
( 31 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 32 ) State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture
( 33 ) Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
( 34 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 35 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 36 ) Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Development
( 37 ) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 38 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 39 ) Role of Talent Development on Talent Engagement and Self-Efficacy: A Structural Model
( 40 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 41 ) The Financial Decentralization Policy for Local Development in Cameroon: An Econometric Analysis
( 42 ) Sustainability Performance and Sustainable Development Goals
( 43 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 44 ) Investigating the Nexus among Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment, and Economic Development in Nigeria
( 47 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 50 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 53 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 54 ) Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya
( 55 ) Improved Performance Through Empowerment of Small Industry
( 56 ) Challenges of Human Rights Abuses in Nigerian Democratic Governance – Which Way Forward ?
( 57 ) Teachers Characteristics and Students’ Performance Level in Senior Secondary School Financial Accounting
( 58 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 59 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 60 ) A Study of Transnational and Transformation Leadership Styles and Factors Affect The Leadership Style
( 62 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 63 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 64 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 65 ) Government Borrowing Behaviour: Implications for Private Sector Growth in Nigeria
( 66 ) The Association Between Corporate Risk Disclosure and Firm Performance in Emerging Country – The Case of Egypt
( 67 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 68 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 69 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 70 ) The Impact of Dividend Policy on Shareholders’ Wealth before and After Financial Melt down: Evidence from FMCG Sector in India
( 71 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 72 ) The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector
( 73 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 74 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 75 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 76 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 77 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 78 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 80 ) Workplace Bullying: Modelling Construct Validity in an Australian Public Sector Workforce
( 81 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 82 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 83 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 84 ) Estimating Value at Risk for Sukuk Market Using Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models
( 85 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 86 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 87 ) Insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 88 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 89 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 90 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 91 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 93 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 94 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 96 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 97 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 98 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 99 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 100 ) Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation
( 101 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 102 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 103 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 104 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 105 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 106 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 108 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 109 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 110 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 111 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 112 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 113 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 114 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 115 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 116 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 117 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 118 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 119 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 120 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 121 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 124 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 126 ) Exchange Rate and Foreign Reserves Interface: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 127 ) Forecasting Prices of Three Important Agricultural Crops in Bangladesh
( 128 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 129 ) The Impact of Organisational Culture on Public Sector Performance: A Case Study of Local Authorities in Zimbabwe
( 130 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 131 ) Gamification on Sales Force Performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
( 132 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 133 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 134 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 135 ) Exploring the Asymmetric Linkage between Commodity Prices and Fiscal Performance in Nigeria
( 136 ) Assessing the Perceived Value of Customers for being Satisfied towards the Sustainability of Hypermarket in Malaysia
( 137 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 138 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 139 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 140 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 141 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 142 ) Exchange Rate Volatility, Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Asymmetric Preferences
( 143 ) Value for Money (VFM) Audit and Public Sector Performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
( 144 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 145 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 146 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 147 ) Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia
( 149 ) Determinants of Financial Performance and its Impact on the Growth of Islamic Bank Assets on Indonesia
( 150 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 151 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector
( 152 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 153 ) Evaluating the Model of Demand for Money in Nigeria
( 154 ) Entrepreneurship Training for Mitigating Unemployment in Nigeria: How have the Tertiary Institutions Fared?
( 155 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 156 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 157 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 158 ) Developing a Conceptual Model for Antecedents of Resistance to Change towards Sustainable Construction Practices
( 159 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 160 ) A Process Model for Conformance of Health Information Systems: Towards National Interoperability
( 161 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 162 ) Change Management and Firm Performance of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
( 163 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 164 ) The Contingent Fit between Management Control System and Capabilities on Sustainability Performance
( 165 ) The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on the Financial Performance of the Nasdaq Listed Small Size Technology Companies
( 166 ) Exchange Rate Fluctuations and the Performance of Nairobi Securities Exchange Market in Kenya During the Coronavirus Pandemic
( 167 ) A Qualitative Analysis of the Impediments to Business Innovation and Information Management in Nigeria: A Policy Stance
( 168 ) Analysis of Demographic Factors on Perceptions of Inventory Managers towards Healthcare Performance
( 169 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 170 ) The Euribor and EONIA Reform: Achieving Regulatory Compliance while Protecting Financial Stability