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Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania

Adelajda Matuka

Adelajda Matuka 1

  1. Department of Economics and Law, University of Macerata, Ph.D in Quantitative Methods for Economic Policy, Italy. 1

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on PubMed

Pages: 303-315

DOI: 10.18488/journal.62.2019.65.303.315

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Article History:

Received: 21 June, 2019
Revised: 17 July, 2019
Accepted: 26 September, 2019
Published: 11 November, 2019


This study estimates exchange rate pass-through to prices in Albania using a Vector Autoregressive model from 2000Q1 to 2017 Q1 following Cholesky decomposition. We perform an Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Phillips-Pherron test to ensure the stationarity of the variables and we estimate the impulse-response functions and the variance decomposition of import, producer, consumer prices and interest rate to oil price /exchange rate shocks. Impulse-response functions indicate an incomplete pass-through of exchange rate to prices and the highest response is of consumer prices and interest rates. Variance decomposition indicates that the variance of import prices is explained by growth rate, its shocks and oil prices shocks. The variance of producer prices is explained by its own shocks, real GDP rate and interest rate whilst consumer prices are explained by its innovations, GDP rate and exchange rate. In order to confirm our results, we order the interest rate before the exchange rate and the findings do not change from the previous results. We perform diagnostic tests for the presence of autocorrelation and the stability of our model and the results show that we fail to reject the null hypothesis for serial autocorrelation and all the roots lie within the companion matrix. However, there is evidence on non-normality in our VAR residuals, but this does not violate our analysis.
Contribution/ Originality
We estimate the pass-through using recent data and we add producer prices in our VAR model, which to our best knowledge has not been captured in the existing pass-through literature for Albania.


Exchange rate, Pass-through effect, Inflation, Vector autoregressive.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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( 320 ) The Nexus between Financial Crisis and Household Consumption: Evidence from Emerging Countries
( 322 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 323 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 325 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 327 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 328 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 329 ) Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components
( 330 ) The Interactions between Culture, Global Mindset and Leadership in Global Context
( 331 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 332 ) Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria: More Words Than Deeds
( 333 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 334 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 335 ) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Employment: A Case of Province of Punjab, Pakistan
( 336 ) An Essay on the Political Economy of Fiscal Policy Making in Pakistan
( 337 ) Contracting Out: What Works, What Doesn’t and Why?
( 338 ) National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria
( 340 ) Value Creation in the Multi-Project Environment
( 341 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 342 ) S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation
( 347 ) A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective
( 348 ) Effective Tax Administration and Institutionalization of Accounting Systems in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Evidence from Nigeria
( 349 ) Coaching in Action Research
( 351 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 352 ) The Impact of Rice Production, Consumption and Importation in Nigeria: The Political Economy Perspectives
( 353 ) Good Governance, Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges
( 354 ) The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia
( 356 ) The Dynamics of Land Market and Food Security in Malawi
( 358 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 359 ) Local Governance and Service Delivery in Zimbabwean Local Authorities: The Case of Harare and Masvingo Urban Municipalities
( 360 ) Federalism and Planning in Nigeria
( 361 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 362 ) Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies
( 364 ) Kuala Lumpur Urban Biodiversity: Birds Community in Urban Public Parks
( 367 ) Green Products Purchasing Among Malaysian Consumers
( 371 ) Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
( 374 ) Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings
( 375 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 376 ) The Influence of Information Technology and Communication Supply Chain Management Performance for Greater SME Manufacturing in Aguascalientes
( 377 ) Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village
( 378 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 379 ) Awareness and Perception of Muslim Consumers on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
( 380 ) The Phenomenon of Money Politics and Nigeria’s Democratization: An Exploration of the Fourth Republic
( 381 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 384 ) Leveraging Telematics for Optimal Fleet Performance
( 385 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 386 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 387 ) Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries
( 388 ) Profit And Loss Sharing As an Offshoot for Bank Stability: A Comparative Analysis
( 389 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 390 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 393 ) An Empirical Test on Effect of Intra-Product Trade on Regional Income Distribution: The Case of Liaoning, China
( 395 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 397 ) Credibility and Monetary Policy under Inflation Targeting
( 398 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 401 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 403 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 404 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 406 ) Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective
( 407 ) Republic of Zimbabwe National Water Policy: A Desk Review of the Gaps between the Policy and Its Implementation
( 410 ) Share Options, Share Award and Firm’s Performance: Evidence from Malaysian Public Listed Companies
( 411 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Milk Production Systems in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya
( 412 ) Impact of Inflation on Per Capita Income in Emerging Economies: Evidence from BRICS Nations
( 413 ) Agent-Based Simulation of Contribution Games
( 414 ) An Analysis of Purchase Behavior of Generation Y in Kenya
( 415 ) Dynamic Analysis of Competitive Technology Innovation Diffusion Model
( 416 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 417 ) A Review upon the Changes Which Come With the Model upon Turkish Metropolitan Municipality within the Provincial Administrative Boundaries
( 418 ) Insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 420 ) Organisational Politics – Causes and Effects on Organisation and Employees
( 421 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 422 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 423 ) The Impact of the Decline in Oil Prices in Latin America
( 424 ) Opinion of Parents about Child Labour and Their Education – A Study
( 425 ) An Assessment of the Relationship between Budget Deficit Syndrome and Consumer Welfare in Nigeria (1985 – 2014)
( 426 ) Determinants of Share Price Movement in Nigeria -The Management Perspective
( 427 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 428 ) The Correlation Between the Palestinian Civil Society Institutions and the Universities (Status: The Palestine Technical University Kadourie with Tulkarm Institutions)
( 429 ) Measuring the Gap Between the Syrian Accounting Qualifications and the International Accounting Education Based on IES 2 and IES 3
( 431 ) Teaching Hypothesis Test in an Easy Way
( 434 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 436 ) The Investment Performance of Socially Responsible Investment in Japan
( 438 ) Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey
( 439 ) Determinants of Tax Revenue in Ethiopia (Johansen Co-Integration Approach)
( 440 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy
( 441 ) Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement
( 442 ) Measuring Efficiency in Banks: A Brief Survey on Non – Parametric Technique (Data Envelopment Analysis)
( 443 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 444 ) Education and Income Relationship in Turkey
( 447 ) Acquisition of Personal Assets Through Loan Bank and Commercial Credit: What’s the Best Option?
( 448 ) Does Managerial Emotional Biases Affect Debt Maturity Preference? Bayesian Network Method: Evidence from Tunisia
( 450 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 453 ) Determinants of Import Demand Functions of Pakistan: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach
( 454 ) Empirical Evidence on Municipal Tax Policy and Firm Growth
( 455 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 456 ) The Effect of Public Debt on Domestic Product and Unemployment (An Empirical Study on the Palestinian Economy)
( 457 ) The Lead-Lag Relationships between Construction Investment and GDP: Granger Causality Tests and Impulse Responses Using Japanese Data
( 458 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 459 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 461 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 462 ) Quality of Accounting Reporting After the IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
( 463 ) Testing the PPP Using Unit Root Tests with Structural Breaks: Evidence from Politically Unstable Arab Countries
( 465 ) Impact of FDI on Environmental Quality of China
( 467 ) A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members
( 468 ) Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation
( 469 ) A Review of Cross Border Higher Education in Africa: Focus on Graduate Level Training in Engineering and Technology
( 470 ) Decoupling Analysis of Bulgaria’s Agriculture
( 471 ) Determining Rural Poverty in Manga Del Cura – Ecuador Non Delimited Zone
( 473 ) Examining Long Run Relationship between Household Debt and Household Savings in South Africa – An Error Correction Model and Granger Causality
( 474 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 477 ) The Relationship between Currency Conversions and International Business Transactions: Small Businesses and Travelers
( 478 ) Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) Evaluation in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 479 ) Purchasing Power Parity Hold in Major SAARC Countries? Panel Cointegration Analysis
( 480 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 482 ) Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City
( 483 ) Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)
( 485 ) Specifying Quality of Governance in Transition Economies with Cluster Analysis
( 486 ) Investment Climate Rating Evaluation: The Case of Ukrainian Economy
( 487 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 488 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 489 ) Food Security Amongst Small Grains and Long Grains Smallholder Farmers of Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe
( 490 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 491 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 493 ) National Security and Democratization in Nigeria: The Case of Insurgence
( 494 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 495 ) Evaluation of the Current Procurement Planning Process in a District Municipality
( 496 ) An Econometric Planning Model of Urban Forestry as a Measure of Sustainability: A Matrix of Action and Change
( 497 ) Technological Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: What’s the Contribution of Innovation Policy?
( 498 ) Pollution Tax Under Imperfect Competition and Air Transport in a Domestic Economy
( 503 ) A Brief Survey of the House Allocation Problems
( 505 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 506 ) Overview of the Most Common Types of Maladministration Raised at EU Level
( 507 ) Financial Tables Reports Gaps in Jordanian Islamic Banks
( 509 ) The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
( 511 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 513 ) What Drives Banking Stability? Empirical Evidence from ECOWAS Countries
( 514 ) Construction and Application of Water Resource Accounting Information System in Taiwan
( 516 ) Determinants of Rural Residential Solid Waste Collection Services in Lagos State
( 517 ) Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?
( 518 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 519 ) Investigation on SMEs Features in Both China and Iran
( 520 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 522 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 523 ) Social Protection Programmes, Agricultural Production and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Analysis from LSMS-ISA
( 527 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 528 ) Under-Utilization of Female Capital: A Quantitative Study in Pakistani Perspective
( 529 ) The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan and its Impact on Economy
( 532 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 535 ) Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria
( 536 ) An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees
( 539 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 540 ) Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question
( 542 ) Electronic Banking Innovations and Selected Banks Performance in Nigeria
( 545 ) Firm-Level Investment Decisions Under Uncertainty and Irreversibility in Zimbabwes Private Firms
( 546 ) Awareness on Air Pollution and Risk Preparedness among Residents in Kigali City of Rwanda
( 547 ) The Nexus between Urbanization, Energy Demand and Healthcare in Bangladesh
( 549 ) Triple Hurdle Model with Zero Expenditures
( 551 ) An Analysis of Chinas Poverty Research Based on CiteSpace
( 552 ) Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data
( 554 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 555 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 556 ) Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
( 559 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 560 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 561 ) Trade Policy and Democracy for Development in Central African Countries