Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana

Strike Mbulawa


Piyush Mehta

Strike Mbulawa 1

Piyush Mehta 2

  1. Module leader Department of Finance, Botho University, Faculty of Business and Accounting 1

  2. Head of Department of Accounting and Finance, Botho University, Faculty of Business and Accounting 2

Pages: 144-159

DOI: 10.18488/journal.62/2016.3.11/

Share :

Article History:

Received: 26 July, 2016
Revised: 27 September, 2016
Accepted: 10 October, 2016
Published: 22 October, 2016


The study investigates whether or not access and quality of education contributes to the development process and economic well being of Botswana by (1) examining the impact of access to education on economic development, (2) establishing the relationship between quality of education and economic development and (3) testing the causal relationship between education and economic development. The study uses time series data from 1980 to 2014 which was analyzed using vector error correction model and vector auto regression approaches to test both long and short run relationships respectively. The paper provides a strong background on the political economy of education in Botswana since independence to date as a departure from our current understanding in literature. Findings show that the level of access to education has a positive and significant effect on the level of economic development; there is bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development; unidirectional causality moves from economic development to access to education. The study suggests that access to education should be complemented by enhancing more employment creation to forester long term development and private investment in inventory and tangible assets should be enhanced. Attracting more foreign direct investment and maintaining low inflation improves quality of education in the short as they work through enhanced economic development.

Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature by showing bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development. Access to education has both long and short run effects on economic development. The impact during the former period depends on the measure of access to education employed.


Botswana, Education, Quality, Access, Economic development, Causality, Cointegration.



  1. Abiodun, L.N. and W.T. Iyiola, 2011. Education and economic growth: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(3): 225-231.
  2. ADBR, 2009. Botswana 2009-2013 country strategic paper. Retrieved from http://www.afdb [Accessed 20 October 2015].
  3. Africa Development Bank Report, 2009. Botswana: Support for education quality and technical and vocational education and training (SEQTVET). Education Science and Technology Division, Human Development Department.
  4. Afzal, M., M.S. Farooq, H.K. Ahmad, I. Begum and A.M. Quddus, 2010. Relationship between school education and economic growth in Pakistan: ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 48(1): 39-60.
  5. Ahmad, N. and M. Luqman, 2013. Secondary education and economic growth in developing countries: A case study of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(3): 306-313.
  6. Al-Samarrai, S., 2003. Financing primary education for all: Public expenditure and education outcomes in Africa. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Retrieved from [Accessed 31 August 2015.
  7. Anyanwu, J.C. and A.E.O. Erhijakpor, 2007. Education expenditure and school enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and other SANE countries. Economic Research Working Paper Series, African Development Bank. Retrieved from [Accessed 16 October 2015].
  8. Barro, R., J., 1996. Determinants of economic growth: A cross country study. NBER, Working Paper No. 5698.
  9. Barro, R., J., 2003. Determinants of economic growth in a panel of countries. Annals of Economics and Finance, 4(2003): 231-274.
  10. Beskaya, A., B. Savas and F. Samiloglu, 2010. The impact of education on economic growth in Turkey. Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 15(3): 43-62.
  11. Bils, M. and P. Klenow, J., 2000. Does school cause growth? American Economic Review, 90(5): 1160-1183.
  12. Botswana Federation of Trade Unions, 2007. Policy on education in Botswana. Retrieved from [Accessed 30 June 2015].
  13. Dahal, M.P., 2010. Higher educational enrolment, school teachers and GDP in Nepal: A causlity analysis. Economics Journal of Development Issues, 11 & 12(1-2): 69-91.
  14. Dewan, E. and S. Hussein, 2001. Determinants of economic growth (Panel Data Approach). Reserve Bank of Fiji, Economics Department, Working Paper No. 01/04.
  15. Gyinah-Brempong, K., O. Paddison and W. Mitiku, 2005. Higher education and economic growth in Africa. Journal of Development Studies, 42(3): 509-529.
  16. Hanushek, E.A. and L. Wobmann, 2007. The role of education quality in economic growth. World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 4122.
  17. Honde, G.J. and F.G. Abraha, 2015. Botswana country report. Retrieved from [Accessed 20 September 2015].
  18. Huang, F., L. Jin and X. Sun, 2009. Relationship between scale of higher education and economic growth in China. Asian Social Science, 5(11): 125-141.
  19. Javed, M., S. Abbas, A. Fatima, M.M. Azeem and S. Zafar, 2013. Impact of human capital development on economic growth of Pakistan: A public expenditure approach. World Applied Sciences Journal, 24(3): 408-413.
  20. Kausar, K.A., 2010. The role of education on economic growth in Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan: Federal Urdu University of Arts Science and Technology.
  21. Kinghorn, A., C. Coombe, E. Mckay and S. Johnson, 2002. The impact of HIV/AIDS on education in Botswana. Ministry of Education, Republic of Botswana and UNDP. Retrieved from [Accessed 16 August 2015].
  22. Lee, E.K., 2012. Higher education expansion and economic growth in Japan and South Korea. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Pittsburgh.
  23. Leith, J.C., 2005. Why Botswana prospered. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  24. Mbulawa, S., 2015. Effect of macroeconomic variables on economic growth in Botswana. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6(4): 68-77.
  25. Ministry of Education and Skills Development, 2008. Towards a knowledge society. Tertiary Education Policy. Retrieved from [Accessed 29 July 2016].
  26. Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 2013. Mid-term review of NDP10. Retrieved from [Accessed 10 August 2015].
  27. Reza, A. and S. Valeecha, 2012. Impact of education on economic growth of Pakistan-econometric analysis. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 5(4): 20-27.
  28. Statistics Botswana, 2012. Education statistics report. Retrieved from [Accessed 02 November 2015].
  29. Statistics Botswana, 2014. Annual Report 2014. Available:  [Accessed 10 October 2015]
  30. Statistics Botswana, 2015. Literacy survey 2014 stats brief. Retrieved from [Accessed 10 July 2015].
  31. Velde, D.W. and M. Cali, 2007. Assessment of Botswana’s services sector. United Kingdom: Overseas Development Institute.
  32. Viracheat, I. and T.R. Dash, 2011. Growth of higher education and its relationship with per capita gross domestic product in Cambodia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(12): 53-61.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 2 ) Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 3 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports
( 4 ) Does the Mena Countries May Converge in GDP to Southern European One? The Effects of International Trade
( 5 ) Can the Interdependence Effect and the Contagion Phenomena be Related with One Another?
( 6 ) Corruption’s and Democracy’s Effects on Economic Growth
( 7 ) Effective Tax Administration and Institutionalization of Accounting Systems in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Evidence from Nigeria
( 8 ) Moderating Effect of Demographics on Monetary Motivation and Employees Job Performance Relationship: Evidence from Malaysia
( 9 ) Consideration the Effects of Water Sector Investment on Economic Growth in Iran
( 10 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 11 ) The Effect of Selected Financial Ratios on Profitability: An Empirical Analysis of Listed Firms of Cement Sector in Saudi Arabia
( 12 ) An Empirical Test on Effect of Intra-Product Trade on Regional Income Distribution: The Case of Liaoning, China
( 13 ) Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe
( 14 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 15 ) The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Value Relevance of Financial Statement Information of Malaysia and Nigeria Banks
( 16 ) The Effect of Outsourcing on Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mines Performance
( 17 ) Organisational Politics – Causes and Effects on Organisation and Employees
( 18 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 19 ) Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement
( 20 ) Land Use/Land Cover Change and its Effects on Bamboo Forest in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia
( 21 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 22 ) The Effect of Public Debt on Domestic Product and Unemployment (An Empirical Study on the Palestinian Economy)
( 23 ) The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Consumer Prices in Nigeria: Evidence from VECM Model
( 24 ) The Effect of Access and Quality of Education on Economic Development in Botswana
( 25 ) Effect of Media Transportation and Advertising Transportation on Customers Responsiveness
( 26 ) The Effect of Personal Factors on the Customer Rating of the Quality of Services of the Islamic Banks Operating in the Syrian Coast
( 27 ) Does the Holiday Effect Differ from Religious to Non-Religious Holidays? Empirical Evidence from Egypt
( 28 ) Effects of Environmental Satisfaction on Family Displacement Case Study: Gohar Dasht Region, Karaj City
( 29 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 30 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 31 ) Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria: A Study of United Bank of Africa
( 32 ) The Effects of Exchange Rate Variability on Trade Flows in Nigeria: A Cointegration Analysis
( 33 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 34 ) The Moderating Effect of Governance Mechanisms on the Relationship Between Innovation Strategy and the Performance
( 35 ) Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
( 36 ) An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees
( 37 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 38 ) Africa's Human Capital Development: Is Public Finance Management an Effective Strategy?
( 39 ) Analysis of the Effects of Pull and Push Factors on Brain Drain: An Example of Turkey
( 40 ) The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region
( 41 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 42 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 43 ) Activity Cost Management and its Effect on Enterprise Productivity
( 44 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 45 ) Analysis of Effect of Profitability, Capital, Risk Financing, the Sharia Supervisory Board and Capabilities Zakat in Islamic Perspective with Circular Approach Causastion on Islamic Banks in Indonesia
( 46 ) The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Corporate Financial Performance
( 47 ) Issues of Unemployment in Nigeria: Effect of Real Exchange Rate and Inflation Interaction
( 48 ) How can Female Executives Shape the Effectiveness of Executive Compensation?- A Multi-Dimensional Approach
( 49 ) The Effectiveness of the Production of Healthy Rice in Comparison with other Rice Varieties in the Upper Northern Region of Thailand
( 50 ) Externality Effects of Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Consumption on the Environment: Evidence from Benin City and Okada in Nigeria
( 51 ) Evaluating the Effectiveness of CAPM and APT for Risk Measuring and Assets Pricing
( 52 ) Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA
( 53 ) Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies
( 54 ) Effect of Savings Deposit Rate on Stock Market Capitalization in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
( 55 ) The Effects of Visual Merchandising and Price Sensitivity on Impulse Purchase Behaviour among Young Apparel Shoppers in Bangladesh
( 56 ) The Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Default: A Case Study in Brazil
( 57 ) Likely Effect of Gender and Education on Information Adoption and Utilization among Sugarcane Farmers in the Nyanza Region, Kenya
( 58 ) Non-Linear Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Technological Innovation: Evidence from Emerging and Developing Countries
( 59 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 60 ) International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Management: The Fundamental Effect Framework
( 61 ) Effect of Tax Administration on Tax Revenue of States in African Countries: Evidence from Nigeria
( 62 ) The Effect of Capital Structure Decisions on Profitability of Quoted Consumer Goods in Nigeria
( 63 ) Creative Marketing and Innovative Branding: An Effective Way to Attract Customers
( 64 ) Modelling Stock Returns Volatility and Asymmetric News Effect: A Global Perspective
( 65 ) The Effects of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Exploitative and Explorative Strategies of Pharmaceutical Industries in Brazil
( 66 ) IT Governance as Drivers of Dynamic Capabilities to Gain Corporate Performance Under the Effects of Environmental Dynamism
( 67 ) Relational Capabilities under Moderating and Mediating Effects to Understand their Impacts on Firm Financial Performance
( 68 ) Effects of Green Human Resource Management on Employee Green Behavior: Moderating Role of Employee Environmental Knowledge
( 69 ) Human Research Management: Effect of Covid-19 On Workers in the UK Who Have Previously Lost One or Both Arms
( 71 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 72 ) Assessing Access to Comprehensive HIV Treatment Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in the Bamenda Health District
( 73 ) Importance of Corporate Governance Quality and Voluntary Disclosures of Corporate Governance Information in Listed Malaysian Family Controlled Businesses
( 74 ) New Evidence on the Link Between Income Inequality and Misery Index: A Nonlinear Time Series Analysis
( 75 ) Ensuring Quality Provision of Education for All: Discovering Challenges Faced by Teachers of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Primary Schools in Masvingo District
( 76 ) Quality Management Practices towards Customer Satisfaction in Local Authority Public Services Website
( 77 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 78 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 80 ) Quality of Accounting Reporting After the IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
( 81 ) Impact of FDI on Environmental Quality of China
( 83 ) Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Economic Freedom as Well as Economic Conditions, The Quality of Life, and Public Education Spending on U.S. Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns
( 84 ) Measuring the Quality of Health Services in Lattakia Province Patients' Perspective (Field Study of Health Centers in Jableh City)
( 85 ) Specifying Quality of Governance in Transition Economies with Cluster Analysis
( 86 ) Service Quality and Outpatients Satisfaction in Public Hospitals in Malaysia
( 87 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 88 ) The Dimensions of the Quality Perceived by Users in a Clinical Analysis Laboratory of A University Hospital
( 89 ) Factors Influencing Audit Expense and Quality in an Emerging Economy: A Study on Bangladesh
( 90 ) Internal Audit Quality and Disclosure on Risk Management and Internal Control
( 91 ) CSR Themes Quality, Good Corporate Governance, and Earnings Management: Evidence from Indonesia
( 92 ) Financial Instability and the State of Environmental Quality in Nigeria
( 93 ) The Development of Participated Environmental Education Model for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management on Eastern Part of Thailand
( 94 ) Promoting Entrepreneurship through Open and Distance Education in Zimbabwe. A Case Study of the Zimbabwe Open University Students at Masvingo Regional Campus
( 96 ) Opinion of Parents about Child Labour and Their Education – A Study
( 97 ) Measuring the Gap Between the Syrian Accounting Qualifications and the International Accounting Education Based on IES 2 and IES 3
( 98 ) Education and Income Relationship in Turkey
( 100 ) A Review of Cross Border Higher Education in Africa: Focus on Graduate Level Training in Engineering and Technology
( 101 ) A Factor Analysis Approach Towards a Study of the Factors Affecting Students’ Choice of Higher Education Institution: A Case Study of a Private Institution (Twintech International University College of Technology)
( 104 ) Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants
( 105 ) Consideration the Relationship Between Information Communications Technology and Economic Growth in Top 10 Economic
( 106 ) Shifting Global Economic Paradigm
( 107 ) How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region
( 108 ) The Prospects of Accounting and Economic Systems in the Era of Global Knowledge Economy
( 109 ) Labor and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe
( 110 ) The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tunisia Using Star and Stecm Models
( 111 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 112 ) Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth
( 113 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 114 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 115 ) Study of the Relationship between Economic Growth and Inflation: Application to the Countries of the South Side of the Mediterranean: A Panel Data Approach
( 116 ) The Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Spillover and Economic Growth
( 118 ) Relationships between Financial Development and Economic Growth: A New Approach by Inputs
( 119 ) Impact of Microfinance Lending On Economic Growth of Third world Nations: Study of Nigeria
( 120 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 121 ) Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics
( 123 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 124 ) Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria Employing Vector Error Correction Model Framework
( 125 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 126 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 127 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 128 ) Causal Relationship between Imports and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe: An Empirical Analysis 1975 – 2013
( 131 ) Dynamics of Inflation, Economic Growth, Money Supply and Exchange Rate in India: Evidence from Multivariate Analysis
( 132 ) Structural Breaks, Electricity Generation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 134 ) The Link Between Agricultural Budgetary Allocation and Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 135 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 136 ) China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Analysis of Internal and External Challenges
( 137 ) A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program
( 138 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 139 ) An Investigation of the Relationship between Manufacturing Output and Economic Growth : Evidence from Nigerias Data Set
( 140 ) Scenario Economic Impact Analysis of Offshore Fishing Tournaments in Ocean City
( 141 ) Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence
( 142 ) An Empirical Investigation into the Key Drivers of Economic Performance in the CEMAC Zone: A Panel Corrected Standard Errors Approach
( 143 ) Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria
( 144 ) Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States
( 145 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 146 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 147 ) Does Agricultural Sector Contribute to the Economic Growth in Case of Republic of Benin?
( 148 ) Uncertainties in Global Economic Policy and Nigerias Export Earnings
( 149 ) Public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth and Health Outcomes in Nigeria
( 150 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 151 ) Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Selected Economic Sectors of the Nigerian Economy
( 152 ) The Colonialists & Indigenous Exchange Currency: Tracing the Genesis of Socioeconomic Woes in Postcolonial Nigeria
( 153 ) The Transitional Relationship between Economic Growth and Exchange Rate in Ghana: An Empirical Approach
( 154 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 155 ) The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria
( 156 ) The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia
( 157 ) German Exports, Economic Growth and Foreign Demand: An Analysis of the Period 2000–2017
( 158 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 159 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 160 ) Management of The CFA Franc: What are the Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)?
( 162 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 163 ) The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Pinterest
( 164 ) The Impact of Economic Growth, Oil Price, and Financial Globalization Uncertainty on Financial Development: Evidence from Selected Leading African Countries
( 166 ) Deficit Financing Asymmetry and Nigerias Economic Growth: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
( 167 ) Impact of Savings on Economic Growth in Africa
( 168 ) Does Corruption Grease or Sand the Wheels of Economic Growth in Ghana? An ARDL Bounds Test
( 169 ) Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Assessing Public Policy in Ukraine
( 170 ) Socioeconomic Environment and Obesity on the US West and East Coasts
( 171 ) Human Capital and Economic Growth in Latin America: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis
( 172 ) An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of FDI, Export and Gross Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth in Bangladesh
( 173 ) Exploring the Linkages between Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
( 174 ) Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach
( 175 ) Contribution of Domestic Direct Investment and Direct Foreign Investment to Economic Growth in Indonesia Era Joko Widodo
( 176 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 177 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 178 ) Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan
( 179 ) Financial Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria: New Evidence from a Threshold Autoregressive and Asymmetric Analysis
( 180 ) Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States
( 181 ) Central Bank Independence and Economic Growth of Ghana: What Inflation and GDP Per Capita Growth Rates Matter?
( 182 ) Investigating the Nexus among Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment, and Economic Development in Nigeria
( 183 ) Economic and Noneconomic Forces on Remittance Receiving: A Panel Analysis of Top Remittance Sending Countries towards Bangladesh
( 184 ) The Role of Social Capital and Social Innovation in Economic Growth
( 185 ) Twin Deficit Hypothesis and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: New Evidence from Nigeria
( 186 ) Nexus of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth: A Study of Ghana
( 187 ) Interest Rate–Economic Growth Nexus Under Currency Board Operations
( 188 ) Do Petroleum Product Pump Prices Influence Economic Growth in Nigeria? An Empirical Analysis
( 190 ) The Impact of Investment Climate Reforms on the Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Nigeria: A Policy Brief
( 192 ) Development of Logarithmic Equations for Statistical Sample Determination
( 193 ) An Enquiry into the Contributions of Microfinance Institutions Towards the Development of Small Scale Business in Nigeria
( 196 ) National Urban Development Policy and the Unanswered Development Question of Slum in Nigeria
( 197 ) Good Governance, Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges
( 200 ) The Potential of Rural–Urban Linkages for Sustainable Development and Trade
( 203 ) A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy