Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Food Technology Research

December 2020, Volume 7, 2, pp 202-211

Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk

Olasunmbo A. Ajayi


Toluwalope I.Bankole

Olasunmbo A. Ajayi 1 ,

Toluwalope I.Bankole 1 
  1. Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, engineering and Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. 1

Pages: 202-211

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.202.211

Share :

Article History:

Received: 23 September, 2020
Revised: 12 October, 2020
Accepted: 28 October, 2020
Published: 16 November, 2020


Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) non-dairy milk is a plant milk and a rich source of nutrients. However, milk from animal or plant is highly perishable. The focus of this study was to evaluate the influence of inclusion of preservatives and pasteurization on the quality of tiger nut milk. Five samples were produced: control (0 % preservative); natural preservatives (ginger or tumeric extract); combination of ginger and turmeric and manufactured citric acid. Samples were stored at room and refrigeration temperatures and evaluated for 30 days. Analyses performed include physico-chemical and nutritional composition, microbial load and general acceptability of tiger nut non-dairy milk samples using standard methods. Tiger nut non-dairy milk without preservative was generally accepted, while milk with ginger extract scored higher in appearance. Values ranged from (5.9 - 6.1), (5.2 - 6.8), (4.8 - 6.5); and (0.05 - 0.17 %); (0.04 – 0.15%); (0.05 – 0.17 %) for 0; 15 and 30 days respectively for pH and total titratable acidity. Total viable counts were (<1 to 5.9±1.8ax106 CFU/mL); enterobacteriaceae, (<1 to 5.4±0.7ax106 CFU/mL), Staphylococcal (3.3±1.0d x105 to 4.2±0.9bx106 CFU/mL) and fungal (<1 to 4.5±0.5ax106 CFU/mL). Moisture content (85.6 to 87.8 %), protein (3.7 - 4.3 %), ash (0.7– 1.8 %), crude fat (3.5 – 4.57 %). Sodium and potassium content ranged from (178.2 - 431.9 mg/kg) and (52.5– 416.2 mg/kg) respectively. The L* value ranged from (75.2–79.7). Conclusively, tiger nut non-dairy milk with natural preservative was as effective as manufactured citric acid in reducing the microbial content and maintaining the nutrients.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature to the versatility of underutilized Tigernut. This crop can be converted to several food products including non-dairy milk. Natural preservative extracts were effective in preserving this nutritious plant milk. Preserving plant milk with turmeric extract is a novel idea to our knowledge.


Tigernut non-dairy milk, Preservatives, Ginger, Tumeric.


Adejuyitan, J. A. (2011). Tiger-nut processing: Its food uses and health benefits. American Journal of Food Technology, 6(3), 197–201.Available at: .

Adgidzi, E., & Abu, J. (2010). Effect of processing methods on the yield and quality of aqueous extracts and yoghurt-like products from Tigernuts (Cyperus esculentus) (pp. 73). Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria: University of Agriculture.

Ajayi, O. A., & Adisa, T. (2019). Nutritional composition of fruit stirred yoghurts produced from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) non-dairy milk extract. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology, 6(1), 32-39.

American Public Health Association. (1992). Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. Washington DC.

Anderson, J. W., Johnstone, B. M., & Cook-Newell, M. E. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine, 333(5), 276-282.

AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis (19th ed.). Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Borode, O. F. (2017). The effect of water and ethanol extracts of ginger and garlic on the nutritional quality and physico-chemical properties of stored soymilk. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 2(2), 43-50.

Cantalejo, M. J. (1997). Analysis of volatile components derived from raw and roasted earth-almond (Cyperus esculentus L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(5), 1853-1860.Available at:

Chukwuma, E. R., Obioma, N., & Christopher, O. I. (2010). The phytochemical composition and some biochemical effects of Nigerian tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) tuber. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(7), 709-715.Available at:

Davoodi, H., Esmaeili, S., & Mortazavian, A. (2013). Effects of milk and milk products consumption on cancer: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(3), 249-264.Available at:

De Oliveira Otto, M. C., Lemaitre, R. N., Song, X., King, I. B., Siscovick, D. S., & Mozaffarian, D. (2018). Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 108(3), 476-484.Available at:

De Vries, F. T. (1991). Chufa (Cyperus esculentus, Cyperaceae): A weedy cultivar or a cultivated weed? Economic Botany, 45(1), 27-37.

Ezeonu, C. S., Tatah, V. S., Nwokwu, C. D., & Jackson, S. (2016). Quantification of physicochemical components in yoghurts from coconut, tiger nut and fresh cow milk. Advances in Biotechnology and Microbiology, 1(5), 1-8.

Hongbete, F., Mestres, C., Akissoe, N., & Nago, M. C. (2009). Effect of processing conditions on cyanide content and colour of cassava flours from West Africa. Africa Journal of Food Science, 3(1), 001–006.

Imeson, A. (2010). Food stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents. UK: Wiley- Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Martinez, V. (2003). Scientific analysis of effects of tiger nut on heart diseases and related aspects. Tiger Nut and Health, 1-2.

Meilgaard, M. C., Carr, T. B., & Civille, G. V. (1991). Sensory evaluation technique (2nd ed.). Florida: CRC Press. Boca Raton.

NAFDAC. (2002). Hand Book on common used additive. Lagos, Nigeria: African Publisher.

Nsofor, L. M., & Maduako, O. (1992). Stabilized soymilk for ambient tropical storage: A preliminary report. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 27(5), 573-576.

Nsofor., L. M., & Osuji, C. M. (1997). Stability, rheology and chemical properties of soymilk concentrates developed from sprouted soybeans. Journal of Food science and Technology Mysore, 34(1), 33-40.

Nwobosi, P., Isu, N., & Agarry, O. (2013). Influence of pasteurization and use of natural tropical preservatives on the quality attributes of tigernut drink during storage. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Science, 2(1), 27-31.

Oladele, A., & Aina, J. (2007). Chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(21), 2473- 2476.Available at: 2473- 2476.

Osagie, A. U., & Eka, O. U. (1998). Nutritional quality of plant foods. Post- harvest research unit (pp. 246-249). Nigeria: University of Benin.

Sánchez-Zapata, E., Viuda-Martos, M., Fernández-López, J., Sendra, E., Sayas, E., & Pérez-Alvarez, J. A. (2012). Reclaim of the by-products from “Horchata” elaboration process. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(3), 954-963.Available at:

Santo, A. S., Santo, A. M., Browne, R. W., Burton, H., Leddy, J. J., Horvath, S. M., & Horvath, P. J. (2010). Postprandial lipemia detects the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk compared with the fasting lipid profile. Lipids, 45(12), 1127-1138.Available at:

Surojanametakul, V., Satmalee, P., Saengprakai, J., Siliwan, D., & Wattanasiritham, L. (2010). Preparation of curcuminoid powder from turmeric root (Curcuma Longa Linn) for food ingredient Use. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci), 44(1), 123-130.

Sweis, I. E., & Cressey, B. C. (2018). Potential role of the common food additive manufactured citric acid in eliciting significant inflammatory reactions contributing to serious disease states: A series of four case reports. Toxicology Reports, 5, 808-812.Available at:

Taoheed, A. A., Tolulope, A. A., Saidu, A. B., Odewumi, O. G., Sunday, R. M., & Usman, M. (2017). Phytochemical properties, proximate and mineral composition of Curcuma longa Linn. and Zingiber officinale Rosc.: A comparative study. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 13(4), 1-7.

Tuormaa, T. E. (1994). The adverse effects of food additives on health: A review of the literature with a special emphasis on childhood hyperactivity. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 9(4), 225-225.

Wattiaux, M. A. (1994). Milking procedure, lactation and milking. Babcock Institute for International Dairy Research and Development, Dairy Essentials, 97-100.

WHO. (1987). Principles for the safety assessment of food additives and contaminants in food. Env Health Criteria.

WHO/FAO. (2002). Joint WHO/FAO Expert report on diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases: Executive summary. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, No 24, 285-286.

Yeboah, S. O., Mitei, Y. C., Ngila, J. C., Wessjohann, L., & Schmidt, J. (2011). Compositional and structural studies of the oils from two edible seeds: Tiger nut, Cyperus esculentum, and asiato, Pachira insignis, from Ghana. Food Research International, 47(2), 259-266.Available at: 10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.036.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Preservative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ginger in Wara - A West African Traditional Soft (Unripened) Cheese
( 2 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 3 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 4 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 5 ) Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan
( 6 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 7 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 8 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 9 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 10 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 11 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 12 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 13 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 14 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 15 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 16 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 17 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 18 ) Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit
( 19 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 20 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 21 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 22 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 24 ) Interactive Effects of Zinc-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on Cadmium Uptake, Rubisco, Osmolyte Synthesis and Yield in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
( 25 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 34 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 35 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 36 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 37 ) Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobialproperties of Extracts from Chrysophyllum Albidum (African Star Apple) Leaf
( 38 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 39 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 40 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 41 ) Comparative Larvicidal Efficacy of Carica Papaya Leaves and Seed Extract on Mosquito Larval Population in Rice Fields in Bida Metropolis, Niger State
( 43 ) Antifungal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts in In-Vitro Control of Anthracnose and Root Rot Diseases on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus B.)
( 44 ) Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts
( 45 ) Management of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Using Selected Plant Extracts
( 47 ) The Effect of Steaming Process on Fat Soluble Vitamins Content and Fatty Acid Profile in Bluefish and Rainbow Trout Fillets
( 48 ) Seleno-Cystine Affects the Fatty Acid Profile in In Vitro Incubated Ovine Ruminal Fluid Containing α-Linolenic Acid
( 49 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 50 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 51 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 52 ) Effect of Blended Fertilizer and Lime Application on Yield of Finger Millet, and Soil Properties of Acidic Soils in Western Ethiopia
( 55 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 56 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 57 ) Evaluation of Chemical-Nutritional Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Samples Affected by the
( 58 ) Molecular Characterization of Parental Lines of Rice Aiming to Address High Yield and Nutritional Quality Under Drought and Cold Stress Condition
( 59 ) Assessment of Government Feeding Programme on Improved Nutritional Health Status of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 60 ) Effect of Soaking on the Nutritional Values of Kordala (Maerua Pseudopetalosa) Seeds Grown in Kordofan Region, Sudan
( 61 ) Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus
( 63 ) Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil
( 64 ) Agricultural Dualism, Wage Inequality and Development Policies
( 66 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 67 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 68 ) Effect of Sowing Date on Maize Seed Yield and Quality: A Review
( 69 ) Influence of Dehydrated Medicago Sativa on Quality Characteristics of Marchigiana Beef
( 70 ) Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 71 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 74 ) Harvesting Date Influences Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Yield and Quality of Based-Products
( 75 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 76 ) The Quality of Fried Chips Varies with Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Varieties and Soaking Regime
( 77 ) Determination of Microbiological Quality of White Cheeses Marketed in Afyonkarahisar