Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Food Technology Research

June 2015, Volume 2, 2, pp 21-32

Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats

Abdellah A. Dafallah


Abdelmonem M. Abdellah


Emam A. Abdel-Rahim


Sherif H. Ahmed

Abdellah A. Dafallah 1
Abdelmonem M. Abdellah 2

Emam A. Abdel-Rahim 3 Sherif H. Ahmed 3 

  1. Supreme Council of Health, Doha, Qatar 1

  2. Allahawi for Research Consultation (ARC), Khartoum North, Sudan 2

  3. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt 3

Pages: 21-32

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2015.2.2/

Share :


Food colorants are widely added to food in order to attract the consumer. Recent researches have incriminated these additives for causing some problems to human health. This study was conducted to determinate the physiological effects of some natural (curcumin, carrotin and curcumin) and synthetic (tetrazine, sunset yellow and erythosine) food colorants on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats (rattus norvegicus, spraguedawlay strain). Results revealed that administration of synthetic food colorants decreased the percentage of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione secretion (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SoD), and plasma immune-system and significantly increased plasma lipid lipoprotein, total cholesterol (LDL-C), lipid peroxidase, blood glucose, plasma urea and creatinine and increased activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Hence, it is recommended to avoid adding synthetic colorants as additive to foodstuff, while natural colorants seemed to be the best choice as food colorants.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is emphasizing the adverse effects of the synthetic food colorants on human health as previously reported in the literature.




  1. Abou El-Zahab, H.S.H., Z.A. El-Khyat, R. Awadallah and K.A. Mahdy, 1997. Physiological effects of some synthetic food coloring additives on rats. Boll. Chim. Farm, 136(10): 615-627.
  2. Al-Shinnawy, M.S., 2009. Physiological effect of a food additive on some haematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci, 2(1): 143-151.
  3. Amin, K., I.H. Hameid and A. AbdElsttar, 2010. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(6): 2994-2999.
  4. Ashour, A.A. and I. Abdelaziz, 2009. Role of fast green on the blood of rats and the therapeutic action of vitamins C or E. Int. J. Integr. Biol, 6(1): 6–11.
  5. Barham, D. and P. Trinder, 1972. An improved colour reagent for the determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system. Analyst, 97(151): 142-145.
  6. Burgos-Moron, E., J.M. Calderon-Montano, J. Salvador, A. Robles and M. Lopez-Lazaro, 2010. The dark side of curcumin. International Journal of Cancer, 126(7): 1771-1775.
  7. Cemek, M., M.E. Büyükokuro?lu and F. Sertkaya, 2014. Effects of food color additiveson antioxidant functions and bioelement contents of liver, kidney and brain tissues in rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2(10): 686-691.
  8. Chengaiah, B., K. Mallikarjuna, K.K. Mahesh, M. Malagusundaram and C.M. Chetty, 2010. Medicinal importance of natural dyes- a review. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 2(1): 144-154.
  9. Clydesdale, F.M., 1993. Color as a factor in food choice. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 33(1): 83-101.
  10. El-Malky, W.A., G.M. Khiralla and S.A. Salem, 2014. Nutritional study of some food coloring agents on experimental rats. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3(6): 538-544.
  11. Fawcett, J.K. and J.E. Scott, 1960. A rapid and precize method for the determination of urea. J Clin Pathol, 13(2): 156-159.
  12. Fossati, P. and L. Prencipe, 1982. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem, 28(10): 2077-2080.
  13. Ganong, W.E., 1991. Review of medical physiology. 15th Edn., United States: Lange Medical Book.
  14. Gaunt, I.F., F.M.B. Carpanini, P. Grasso, S. Kis Idas and S.D. Gangolli, 1972. Long term feeding study on brilliant black PN in rats. Fd cosmet. Toxicol, 10(1): 17-27.
  15. Hallagan, J.B., D.C. Allen and J.F. Borzelleca, 1995. The safety and regulatory status of food, drug and cosmetics colour additives exempt from certification. Fd Chem. Toxic, 33(6): 515-528.
  16. Helal, G.E., A.M. Zaahkouk and A.H. Mekkawy, 2000. Effect of some food colorants (Synthetic and Natural Products) of young Albino rats. Egypt. J. Hosp. Med, 200(1): 103–113.
  17. Himri, I., H. Bellahcen, F. Souna and F. Belmakki, 2011. A 90-day oral toxicity study of tartazine, a synthetic food dye, in westsr rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13(3): 159-169.
  18. Jiao, Y., J. Wilkinson, X. Di, W. Wang, H. Hatcher, N. Kock, R.J. D’Agostino, M. Knovich, F. Torti and S. Torti, 2009. Curcumin, a cancer chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator. Blood, 113(4): 462–469.
  19. Lane-Part, W. and A. Pearson, 1971. Dietary requirements. In: Laboratory animal principles and practice. 142 Edn., London: Academic.
  20. Mackenzie, K.M., B.G. Boysea, W.E. Field, S.R. Petsel, C.I. Chappel, J.L. Emerson and J. Stanley, 1992. Toxicity of carcinogenicity studies of caramel colour IV in F344 rats and B6C3F-1 mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 30(5): 431-443.
  21. Mahmoud, N.H., 2006. Toxic effects of the synthetic food dye brilliant blue in liver, kidney and testes functions in rats. J. Egypt. Soc. Toxicol, 34(4): 77-84.
  22. Molnar, N. and Garai, 2005. Plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds affect MIF tautomerase activity. J. Immunopharmacol, 5(5): 849-865.
  23. Moriarty-Craige, S. and D. Jones, 2004. Extracellular thiols and thiol/disulfide redox in metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr, 24(3): 481-509.
  24. Newsome, R.L., 1986. Effect of some food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino Rats I-Liver and Kidney functions. Food colours. J. Fd. Technol, 40(2): 49-52.
  25. Nishikimi, M., N.A. Rao and Yagi, 1972. The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenzinemethosulfate and molecular oxygen. Biochem. Res. Commun, 46(2): 849-854.
  26. Reyes, F.G., M.F. Valim and A.E. Vercesi, 1996. Effect of organicsynthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration. Food Addit. Contam, 13(1): 5-11.
  27. Richmond, W., 1973. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from nocardia sp. And its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem, 19(12): 1350-1356.
  28. Salah, S.H., 1994. Biochemical studies on some synthetic food colorants. M.Sc. (Blochemistry). Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ.
  29. Sharma, S., R.P. Goyal, G. Chakravarty and A. Sharma, 2006. Tomato redtoxicity: Haematological and serological changes in the blood of swiss albino mice, mus musculus. Ind. J. Environ. Sci, 10(2): 145–148.
  30. Siva, R., 2007. Status of natural dyes and dye-yielding plants in India. Current Science, 92(3): 7-10.
  31. Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1967. Statistical methods. 6th Edn., Ames. USA: The lowa State University. Press.
  32. Soltan, S.A. and M.E. Shehata, 2012. The effects of using color foods of children on immunity properties and liver, kidney on rats. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3(7): 897-904.
  33. Valentovic, M.A., J.G. Ball, H. Sun and G.O. Rankin, 2002. Characterization of 2-amino-4,5-dichlorophenol (2A45CP) in vitro toxicity in renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol, 172(2): 113-123.
  34. Van Bever, H.P., M. Doxy and W.J. Stevens, 1989. Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis. Allergy (Copenhagen), 44(8): 588-594.
  35. Wieland, H. and D. Seidel, 1983. Methodology. J Lipid Res, 24(7): 904-909.
  36. Zraly, Z., B. Pisarikova, M. Trckova, I. Herzig, M. Juzl and J. Simeonovova, 2006. Effect of lupin and amaranth on growth efficiency, health and carcass characteristics and meat quality of market pigs. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 75(3): 363 – 372.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 2 ) Physiological Aspects of Yield Variation among Seven Groundnut Genotypes Cultivated under Rain-Fed Conditions
( 3 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 4 ) Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan
( 5 ) Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya
( 6 ) Effects of Ebola (EVD) Outbreak on Bush Meat Marketing and Consumption in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria
( 7 ) Effects of Degasified Extender on Quality Parameters of Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa
( 8 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 10 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 11 ) Analysis of Climate Change Effects among Rice Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria
( 12 ) The Effects of Magnetic Field on Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings of Stone Pine
( 13 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 14 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 15 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 16 ) Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria
( 17 ) Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit
( 18 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 19 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 20 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 21 ) Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder
( 22 ) Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk
( 23 ) Interactive Effects of Zinc-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on Cadmium Uptake, Rubisco, Osmolyte Synthesis and Yield in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
( 24 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 25 ) Nutritional Properties of Some Novel Selected Fish Species in Khuzestan Province, Iran
( 26 ) Quality Characteristics of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil Extracted from Some Hybrids Cultivated Under Egyptian Conditions
( 27 ) Maximizing the Productivity of Olives by Using Some Materials and Its Impacts on the Quality Indices of Picual Olive Oil
( 28 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 29 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 30 ) Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices
( 31 ) Screening of Some Coffee Arabica Genotypes Against Coffee Wilt Diseases (Gibberella Xylarioides Heim And Saccus) At Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
( 32 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 33 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 34 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 36 ) Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars
( 37 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 38 ) Nutrient Composition, Amylose Content and Pasting Characteristics of Some Elite Accessions of Nerica Rice
( 39 ) The Evaluation of Some Dietary Fiber Rich by-Products in Ice Creams Made from the Traditional Pudding - Kesme Muhallebi
( 40 ) Palm Kernel Separation Efficiency and Kernel Quality from Different Methods Used in Some Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 41 ) High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds
( 42 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 43 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 44 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 46 ) Production and Value Chain Analysis of Lentil in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 47 ) Socio Economic Determinant and Profitability of Bari Mungbean Variety in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
( 49 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 50 ) Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi
( 52 ) Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria
( 53 ) Estimation of Natural Variability in Different Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Sudanese Genotypes
( 55 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 56 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 58 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 59 ) Management of Food Shelf Life and Energy Efficiency with Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance
( 60 ) Traditional Technologies and Probiotic Properties of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Kawal -A Chad Traditional Fermented Food Condiment
( 61 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies