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Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan

Pages: 1-11
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Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.1.11

Md. Zamilur Rahman , Jannatul Ferdaus

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Md. Zamilur Rahman , Jannatul Ferdaus (2021). Impacts of Domestic Savings and Domestic Investment on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for Pakistan. Journal of Social Economics Research, 8(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.1.11
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the dynamic impacts of domestic savings and domestic investment on economic growth of Pakistan by using annual data spanning from 1973 to 2018. After being confirmed that all the variables are stationary at first difference and have long-run cointegrating association, this study employed Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) approach to estimate long-run elasticities. The empirical findings reveal that domestic savings are negatively and domestic investment is positively associated with economic growth in Pakistan. In a nutshell, the results convey that domestic savings are dampening the economic growth figures and domestic investment is contributing to economic growth figures of Pakistan. The results of causality analyses report bidirectional causal link between domestic savings and economic growth and a unidirectional causal association between economic growth and domestic investment. Based on these empirical findings some policies are recommended to accelerate economic growth and for the long term sustainability of economic growth in Pakistan.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated how the economic growth of Pakistan has been influenced by domestic savings and domestic investment between the period 1973-2018. The study found that domestic savings negatively and domestic investment positively affected economic growth of Pakistan during that period.

Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants

Pages: 12-23
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Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.12.23

Emiko Endo , Hikaru Onishi

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Emiko Endo , Hikaru Onishi (2021). Fertility, Education, Labor Force Outcomes, and Cultural Acculturation of Immigrants. Journal of Social Economics Research, 8(1): 12-23. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.12.23
Previous studies show that there are cultural factors associated with economic outcomes such as employment and labor force participation and non-economic outcomes such as education and fertility. Using immigration as a semi-natural experiment and using the Current Population Survey (1994-2020), we reexamine the link between labor force outcomes, fertility, and education of immigrants and their home country respective characteristics. We documented that an additional year of schooling in the home country is associated with a 0.45 and 0.24 years increase in education of first and second generation females, respectively. Moreover, a 1 percent higher female labor force participation in the home country is associated with a 0.26 and 0.16 percent increase in labor force participation of first and second generation females, respectively. Since the female labor force participation, education, and fertility are considered to contain cultural components, we interpret the results as intergenerational transmission of culture. However, the links are limited for second generations suggesting some cultural integration and acculturation to the new environment. We discuss the policy implications of the results.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by examining the link between labor force outcomes, fertility, and education of immigrants and their home country respective characteristics.

Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes

Pages: 24-38
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Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.24.38

Niraj Prasad Koirala

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Niraj Prasad Koirala (2021). Child Support Enforcement and Infants Health Outcomes. Journal of Social Economics Research, 8(1): 24-38. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.24.38
This paper explores the potential externality of enforcements in child support policies on infants’ health outcomes. Exploiting the variations in child support policies across states and over the year and using the universe of birth records in the US (1975-2004), I document that the policies were effective in improving birth outcomes. Infants born to single mothers in states that fully adopt child support policies have on average 38 grams higher birth weight and 99 basis points lower likelihood of being born with low birth weight. These effects hold for a wide range of health outcomes. The marginal impacts are larger for mothers in states above-median changes in child support policies and for mothers who reside in poorer states. The results suggest that a higher quantity of prenatal care and better timing of prenatal care could be possible mechanisms of impact. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing the first evidence of health externality of child support policies for infants’ health outcomes.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to existing literature by exploring the potential externality of enforcements in child support policies on infants’ health outcomes.

Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States

Pages: 39-49
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Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.39.49

Bahram Adrangi , Margaret Anderson , Kambiz Raffiee

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Bahram Adrangi , Margaret Anderson , Kambiz Raffiee (2021). Socioeconomic Determinants of Drug Abuse in the United States. Journal of Social Economics Research, 8(1): 39-49. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.39.49
We examine the association between drug abuse and several socioeconomic variables by estimating a multivariate regression model. The sample data includes seventy observations at the county-level from every state in the U.S., excluding Maryland and North Dakota, provided by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and the U.S. Census Bureau. The socioeconomic variables analyzed in the model are education, median household income, community poverty, insurance status, and employment status. The income, education, and community poverty variables are shown to have significant effect on the number of unintentional drug poisonings (drug abuse). Income is shown to have the largest effect followed by community poverty and then education. Neither insurance status nor employment status were found to be statistically significant. Empirical results suggest that encouraging higher levels of education for communities may be beneficial in reducing drug abuse and its consequences. In the short-run drug related information may can be made accessible through community centers, community clinics, and religious temples.
Contribution/ Originality
Research on drug abuse in the US is mainly focused on underlying medical and psychological aspects of the problem. There is a surprising gap in the literature regarding the socioeconomic conditions associated with this problem. Our paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the association between socioeconomic factors and drug abuse in the US.

Domestic Remittances and Household Food Diversity in Rural Ghana

Pages: 50-65
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Domestic Remittances and Household Food Diversity in Rural Ghana

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.50.65

Bernard Baah-Kumi , Yu-Feng Lee

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Bernard Baah-Kumi , Yu-Feng Lee (2021). Domestic Remittances and Household Food Diversity in Rural Ghana. Journal of Social Economics Research, 8(1): 50-65. DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2021.81.50.65
This work investigates the effect of domestic remittances on households’ food diversity in rural Ghana using three-stage least squares estimation technique and cross-sectional data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, round six (GLSS 6). The study finds that Northern Ghana rural households’ food diversity scores are lower than their Southern counterparts. Results show that domestic remittances positively affect rural household food diversity in Ghana, and the difference in food diversity index between Northern and Southern rural households narrows as remittances increase. The study also finds that rural households with at least primary educated householders have enhanced food consumption in variety while increasing household size tends to deteriorate food diversity. The study recommends that domestic remittances matter to food consumption diversity, especially in Northern Ghana. Therefore, policymakers should implement remittance tax credits to service providers and strengthen competition in the industry by supporting remittance technologies’ interoperability to minimize costs to increase flows. Increased domestic remittance flows to Northern Ghana could narrow the rural household food diversity gap between Northern and Southern Ghana. Farm and non-farm investment and rural sector-specific education investment are also recommended.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating domestic remittances impact in narrowing food diversity gap between rural households in Northern and Southern Ghana, controlling for other household characteristics. The study’s originality comes from incorporating locational differences in the remittances-food security relationship.