Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Halal Food in Tourism: Exploring the Factors that Influence Halal Food Selection among Travelers

Pages: 1-10
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.1.10

Nur Sakinah Fadzil , Siti Salwa Md Sawari

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Ambali, A. R., & Bakar, A. N. (2014). People’s awareness on halal foods and products: Potential issues for policy-makers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 121(19), 3-25.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1104.

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Waehama, W., Alam, M. M., & Hayeemad, M. (2018). Challenges and prospects of the halal hotel industry in muslim-majority and muslim-minority countries: The Case of Malaysia and Thailand. Journal of Halal Industry and Services, 1(1), 1-5.

Zakaria, Z., Majid, M. A., Ahmad, Z., Jusoh, Z., & Zakaria, N. Z. (2017). Influence of Halal certification on customers’ purchase intention. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(5S), 772-787.

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Nur Sakinah Fadzil , Siti Salwa Md Sawari (2021). Halal Food in Tourism: Exploring the Factors that Influence Halal Food Selection among Travelers. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.1.10
Halal industry has been commercialized by the Malaysian government for many years, and Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) is part of the Malaysian government initiatives to facilitate the growth of Halal industry whereby it has been successfully stimulating Malaysian halal products in locally and globally. Although there were lots of effort taken by the Malaysian government in commercializing the Halal food and brand, the consciousness of consuming the Halal food is still imprecise especially among the young Muslim consumers. Muslims’ consciousness in seeking for the availability of Halal food while travelling is not in satisfactory phase when there are some of the Muslims were found to avoid religious attributes such as having Halal food when travelling to a destination. Thus, this study aims to investigate the factors influence Halal food selection among Muslim youth while traveling. A total of 384 respondents of Malaysian Muslim youth consumers were participated in this research. The data was analyzed by using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 through several analyses such as descriptive analysis, frequency analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. Results of this study indicated that religious beliefs, health reasons, and Halal logo and certificate affect Halal food selection among Muslim youth. This study provide several implication for the Muslim consumers to be conscious of the Halal logo and certificate presence before making selection in buying food products.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by discovering the factors that influence Halal food selection among travelers and identifies the relationship between the three factors (Religious Belief, Health Reasons and Halal Logo Certificate) with Halal Food Selection among Malaysian Muslim youth while traveling.

The Influence of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreaks on Tourists Destination Choice

Pages: 11-22
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.11.22

Lamya Barazi , Fardaows Alshareef , Mona Saigh , Raghad Abdulaziz Alamri

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Lamya Barazi , Fardaows Alshareef , Mona Saigh , Raghad Abdulaziz Alamri (2021). The Influence of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreaks on Tourists Destination Choice. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 11-22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.11.22
Little information about the impact of pandemic/epidemic on tourist's choice of destination. The current study aims to investigate the impact of six factors following the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on a sample of 504 Saudis who had a domestic /international travel experience was utilized to collect the data throughout the online survey. While respondents of the research display a high self-efficacy on travel, they demonstrate a moderate perception of tourism services, perception of susceptibility, perception of travel risk, a panic of crisis in destination, and perception of tourism activities in the destination. The finding of the study shows some significant differences between genders on perception of these six dimensions. The results express that even after the ban is lifted, Saudi tourists perceive domestic travel as risky as international travel. Females appear to be more travel avoidance than males because of the outbreak of (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition, females appear to have a higher panic of dying because of having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during international and domestic travel.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies investigating the effect of coronavirus COVID-19 on a tourist's income as the main factor in choosing a destination, using conservation resource theory, and providing practical implications to tourism hospitality business for reopening the after the COVID-19.

A Conceptual Framework of Customized Services for Tourism Industry: Perspective of Emotion and Moderator of Gender

Pages: 23-29
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.23.29

Yoshimasa (Nancy) Kageyama , Liza Cobos

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Yoshimasa (Nancy) Kageyama , Liza Cobos (2021). A Conceptual Framework of Customized Services for Tourism Industry: Perspective of Emotion and Moderator of Gender. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 23-29. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.23.29
Customized services allow travelers to receive services that would meet their unique needs. This study establishes a theoretical framework of customized service for the tourism industry including the emotional and behavioral outcomes of customized service, integrating the moderator of gender. In tourism, the interactions between the traveler and the service provider can generate the feeling of gratitude. However, there is a gap in the literature developing a framework integrating customized service and gratitude in tourism contexts. In addition, there is a lack of research investigating the effect of gender on the differences between 'males' and 'females' emotional responses after receiving customized services. This study attempts to bridge this gap in the literature by constructing a theoretical framework of the relationship among customized service, customer gratitude, customer repurchase intentions, and gender. The framework proposed would provide explanations of the effect of the social interactions between travelers and the service provider in the tourism industry. Furthermore, the study would help explain the impact of customized services on 'customers' repurchase intentions from the perspective of emotions and how men and women differ in their emotional responses after receiving customized services. The framework proposed would assist the tourism industry to take advantage of customized services to retain customers in the company and make those customers loyal to the company.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s contribution is establishing a conceptual framework of customized service for the tourism industry. Specifically, the paper proposes the emotional and behavioral outcomes of customized service, integrating the moderator of gender.

Destination Image as Means of Branding and Marketing: Evidence from a Mountainous City Destination in Greece

Pages: 30-47
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Destination Image as Means of Branding and Marketing: Evidence from a Mountainous City Destination in Greece

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.30.47

Argyri Moustaka , Mary Constantoglou

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Argyri Moustaka , Mary Constantoglou (2021). Destination Image as Means of Branding and Marketing: Evidence from a Mountainous City Destination in Greece. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 30-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.30.47
The purpose of this paper is to offer insights on a mountainous city destination branding and image. The paper reviews existing literature by analyzing its factors, its formation and its measurement elements. The study aims to test a theoretical model of destination branding by examining the relationships of cognitive, affective and unique image components with the overall brand image and the tourist’s behavior in the city of Edessa on the mountainous area of Pella in Greece. This paper contributes to the analysis and exploration of tourists' views on the image of Edessa in such a way as to assist managers and tourism professionals in reviewing their marketing and promotional activities to meet the needs of tourists. The methodology used was twofold. First a quantitative research to the city’s tourists was conducted and secondly a qualitative research with the use of interviews was conducted to the city’s stakeholders. Focus was given on the general characteristics of the city of Edessa including the vision, goals, actions, set by the city authorities, in order to extract results through the research based on how the image of Edessa is perceived by the visitors and residents of the city and especially the stakeholders and those whose decisions shape the touristic image of the place. The results of the research conducted shows that the creation of images is related to the significance of the water element through the breathtaking waterfalls and city’s natural environment. In addition, the agricultural products of the area, contribute to the enhancement of the image of the city and particularly the integration of fruits in the local gastronomical culture.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature as it examines a theoretical model of destination branding and the relationships of cognitive, affective and unique image components with the overall brand image and the tourist’s behavior in the city of Edessa, Greece.

Preferred Social Networking App by Employees in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Kenya

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Preferred Social Networking App by Employees in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Kenya

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.48.56

Kabii Francis , Naghea Jilo

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Kabii Francis , Naghea Jilo (2021). Preferred Social Networking App by Employees in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Kenya. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 48-56. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.48.56
The purpose of this paper was to examine the preferred social media application network by employees in the tourism and hospitality industry. The specific aims were to examine the preferred social media amongst Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, email and YouTube, examine the relationship between respondent’s gender, a position at workplace and choice of social media and finally find out official the duties performed by the respondent’s using the smartphones. The finding indicated that the most popular social media platform was WhatsApp (93%) closely followed by Email (84%) and the least being LinkedIn used by only 25% of respondents. Employees’ gender (?2=5.880, df =1, p<0.05) and position at the workplace (?2=9.585, df =2, p<0.05) had minimal influence on the selection of social media preference. The majority (81 %) of the respondents perform up to 50% of their official duties with the help of their smartphones translating to improved and effective customer services, reduced operation cost, and healthier business performance. The study concluded that WhatsApp and Email were the most preferred social media network and were used to communicate and transact business with customers and other stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry. Smartphones are no longer luxury tools but are part of the technology that every employee in the industry must adapt to.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies that have investigated the preferred media network by employees in the tourism and hospitality industry in Kenya. The paper's primary contribution is the finding that WhatsApp and Email were the most preferred social media network and were used to communicate and transact business between employees and customers and stakeholders in the industry.

Developing Cluster for Mountains and Hills Tourism in Ekiti State, Southwest, Nigeria

Pages: 57-67
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Developing Cluster for Mountains and Hills Tourism in Ekiti State, Southwest, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.57.67

Agbebi, P.A. , Ogunjinmi, A.A. , Oyeleke, O.O. , Adetola, B.O.

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Agbebi, P.A. , Ogunjinmi, A.A. , Oyeleke, O.O. , Adetola, B.O. (2021). Developing Cluster for Mountains and Hills Tourism in Ekiti State, Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 57-67. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.57.67
The study described the development of cluster for mountains and hills tourism potentials in Ekiti State. Mapping and direct observation were used to collect both primary and secondary data. Mapping was done by the use of Geographic Information Sysytem (GIS), and Remote Sensing Tools (RST) which properly identified the GPS corodinates and photographs of mountains and hills locations in Ekiti State. These were later downloaded using Arc GIS software for further analysis and the production of multiple maps such as elevation, slope map, shaded relief map and contour map of Ekiti State. Findings clealy showed 57 elevations which were 600m and above, and 245 elevations that were less than 600m in different proportions and heights spread across 27 communities in the 3 zones of Ekiti State. Thus, communities that have two or more mountains and hills at different locations formed cluster as tourism destinations with proposed headquaters where all administrative works will be controlled. The study will ensure that the selected communities in Ekiti State would be given priority in massive infrastructural development to enable potential visitors and tourists to mountains and hills in Ekiti state have deserving comforts that could be compared to other existing mountains and hills destinations outside Nigeria. Conclusively, the government of Ekiti should provide adequate funds for infrastructure in all communities where mountains and hills are domociled.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on mountains and hills in Ekiti State, Nigeria. This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated mountains and hills tourism potentials in Ekiti State.

Visitors Preferences for Tourist Destinations: A Comparative Analysis of Two Contrasting Destination Themes in Lagos, Nigeria

Pages: 68-87
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Visitors Preferences for Tourist Destinations: A Comparative Analysis of Two Contrasting Destination Themes in Lagos, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.68.87

Olusola, A.O. , Babatola, O.

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Olusola, A.O. , Babatola, O. (2021). Visitors Preferences for Tourist Destinations: A Comparative Analysis of Two Contrasting Destination Themes in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 68-87. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.68.87
This research was conducted to investigate motivating factors that influences the preferences of visitors to either Culture-based or the Nature-based destination. The 'Push and Pull' theory of motivation was adopted to identify how Push (motivations) and Pull (destination attraction) influenced visitors’ preferences destinations under investigation, and to identify their relationship. Six (6) sampled destinations- a combination of both Nature-based and Culture-based destinations were randomly selected for this study. Appropriate statistical analyses were carried out and major findings indicated that both Push and Pull factors influences visitors preferences, however Pull factors had more significant effect on visitors preference, especially on the destination visited, indicating that destination attractions has more influence on visitors than their motivations to achieve their desires or needs. The chi-square was used to determine statistical significance among 'Push' and 'Pull' factors and analysis revealed a significant association between preferred Tourist destination and the actual destination visited. Mean measures unveiled that destination attributes/attraction (Pull factors) significantly influenced those that visited nature-based destinations than those that visited culture-based destinations, with attributes: 'Ease of access', ' Overall cleanliness of the destination' and 'Quality of service' with higher rankings. Destination Managers, marketers and all stakeholders in Tourism marketing should pay attention to the intrinsic and extrinsic reasons why people visit in other to grow tourism and because they are fundamental to why people visit or travel. Especially pull factors, as a lot more can be done in this regard, than what pushes visitors due to the unpredictability of human needs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have given an insight on what is obtainable in the types of tourist destinations and how they can be improved; it also characterized the relative preference of tourist between nature and culture based destinations and revealed major factors for these preferences.

Institutional Advancement as a Reaction to the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Tourism City of Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Pages: 88-100
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Institutional Advancement as a Reaction to the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Tourism City of Samarkand, Uzbekistan

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.88.100

Slawomir Wroblewski , Ian Patterson , Pavel Nartov

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Slawomir Wroblewski , Ian Patterson , Pavel Nartov (2021). Institutional Advancement as a Reaction to the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Tourism City of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(1): 88-100. DOI: 10.18488/journal.31.2021.81.88.100
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan and by adopting an institutional approach, to generate solutions that might contribute to the future development of the tourism and hospitality industries. A computer-based survey was developed and administered online using the Google Forms platform. The survey consisted of the following questions: (1) reactions to the pandemic’s influence on tourism (2) short-term recovery plans (3) long-term challenges, and (4) demographic characteristics of respondents. Surveys were distributed to email addresses of over 150 tourism managers and employees in Uzbekistan in June, 2020. A final total of 77 responses were found acceptable for analysis. Findings identified a number of institutions used as a response to the pandemic: additional state support for entrepreneurs, webinars, new investment projects, post-crisis measures, actions aimed at improving the product, and marketing campaigns to promote the tourism product. Several initiatives were instituted by Samarkand Regional Government including support for entrepreneurs and small business owners through start-up investment projects. However, overall, a lack of trust was shown between the tourism owners/providers and regional government with the majority of owners preferring to solve their own problems that were created as a result of the pandemic.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper uses an institutional framework for the analysis of the tourism industry in Samarkand, Uzbekistan which is unique and different from other current mainstream approaches. In addition it suggests solutions about how governments can use tourism as a major tool for the ‘start-up’ of the economy after COVID-19.